Welcome to Basic Safeguarding and Child Protection Training Trainer: Annette Blewett School: Spring Meadow Infant and Nursery School Developed by the Education Child Protection Service, Cambridgeshire County Council Aims To develop confidence in managing child protection and safeguarding issues in schools through increased knowledge of:
Duties and responsibilities Systems and procedures Indicators of abuse and neglect Managing disclosures Logging concerns Safer Working Practice
The Role of Schools All staff have a responsibility to provide a safe environment in which children can learn. School and college staff are particularly important as they are in a position to identify concerns early, provide help for children and prevent concerns from escalating. When concerned about the welfare of a child, staff members should always act in the best interests of the child Keeping Children Safe in Education DfE 2018
What all school and college staff need to know Systems which support safeguarding Appropriate training which is regularly updated Their role in the early help process The process of making referrals Be aware of signs of abuse and neglect What to do if a child tells them he/she is being abused or neglected How to maintain confidentiality
(Keeping Children Safe in Education, 2018) Systems which support safeguarding All staff should be aware of the following from the point of induction: The child protection policy The behaviour policy The staff behaviour policy (code of conduct)
The safeguarding response to Children Missing from Education (CME) The identity and role of the Designated Safeguarding Lead and deputies Annex A Further information on: Children and the court system Children Missing Education Children with family members in prison Child Sexual Exploitation Criminal exploitation: county lines Domestic abuse
Annex A Homelessness So-called honour-based violence Preventing radicalisation Peer on peer abuse Sexual violence and sexual harassment
between children in schools and colleges Role of the Local Safeguarding Children Board Responsible for Cambridgeshire and Peterborough inter-agency child protection procedures Ensure agencies work together to safeguard children Delivers training courses for all staff and volunteers working with children and families Serious case reviews are held when a child has died or been seriously injured and abuse or neglect is suspected the review decides - what lessons can be learnt
- what will be changed as a result - how to improve inter-agency working Key Documents Working Together to Safeguard Children (2018) Cambridgeshire LSCB Safeguarding Inter-Agency Procedures DfE statutory guidance - Keeping Children Safe in Education, Sep 2018 What to do if youre worried a child is being abused, 2015 Guidance for Safer Working Practice Oct 15
All staff should read the following: Keeping children safe in education: information for all staff, Part 1 and Annex A, 2018; What to do if youre worried a child is being abused, 2015; Guidance for safer working practice for those working with children and young people in education settings, 2015; Safeguarding and Child Protection Policy; Child Protection Whistle Blowing Policy Acceptable Use Policy
Early Help All staff should be prepared to identify children who may benefit from early help. Early help means providing support as soon as a problem emerges at any point in a childs life, from the foundation years through to the teenage years (Keeping Children Safe in Education, 2018) The Local Picture In Cambridgeshire, there can be around 470 500 children subject
to a child protection plan at any one time. Physical abuse Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Neglect Abuse and Neglect Children may be vulnerable to neglect and abuse or exploitation from within their family and from individuals they come across in their day-to-day lives.
Wider Safeguarding These threats can take a variety of different forms, including: sexual, physical and emotional abuse; neglect; exploitation by criminal gangs and organised crime groups; trafficking; online abuse; sexual exploitation influences of extremism leading to radicalisation
Child Maltreatment Child protection covers all children from ages 0 - 18 Children can be abused regardless of their age, gender, culture, disability, racial origin, sexual identity or social class Children with special needs are especially vulnerable and more likely to be abused There were 98 child homicides in the UK in 2016/17 - 7.7 per million children <18 - There has been a downward trend in five-year annual death rate averages 54,846 sexual offences recorded against children under 18 in England in 2016/17 (NSPCC 2018)
Sexual abuse Significant increase in the number of recorded sexual offences in the last two years from 17.4 per 10,000 children in 2012-13 to 41.3 per 10,000 children in 2016-17 However, the number of children made subject to a Child Protection plan in Cambs remains low - just 14 currently. Neglect Continues to be the most common reason
for children being subject to a CP Plan (46%) In Cambridgeshire 309 children are subject to a CP Plan for Neglect There has been a 134.6% increase in recorded crimes for neglect in the last 5 years Emotional abuse 1 in 14 children has experienced emotional abuse by a parent or guardian The second most common reason for a child being subject to a child protection
plan and has increased 142 children subject to a CP plan for Emotional Abuse in Cambridgeshire Emotional Abuse Two thirds of 18 to 24 year olds said that they had experienced emotional abuse, which includes bullying, during their childhood. Almost of a third of 11 to 17 year olds said that they had experienced emotional abuse in the past year. NSPCC 2018
NSPCC Research 60% of referrals made to NSPCC involved concerns where domestic abuse, parental substance misuse or serious mental ill health were factors Domestic Abuse (DA) A total of 13,237 DA incidents were reported to Cambridgeshire
Police during 2017-18. ( a slight decrease on previous year of 1% however still a 10% increase when compared with 2015-16.) Cambridgeshire Police therefore respond to on average 36 incidents every day. It is estimated that children are present in up to 80% of incidents. Childrens Social Care received 958 referrals where domestic abuse was a factor, an increase of over 50% on the previous year. Refuges across the County housed 113 women and 145 children. Principles of the Children Act Services for Children (in Need) (S 17)
Services necessary to safeguard and promote the welfare of children (in need) should be provided to support families who may be in need of such services. Protection (S 47) Children must be protected from serious harm. The local authority has a duty to investigate any report that a child is suffering, or likely to suffer, significant harm. Significant Harm (1989 Children Act) The Local Authority is under a duty
to make enquiries where it has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm. (Section 47) Safeguarding Young Adults aged 18 and over Care Act, 2014 (implemented April 2015) Any person who is aged 18 or over and at risk of abuse or neglect because of their needs for care and support; Should be investigated by the adult safeguarding team.
Safeguarding Young Adults Policy documents: Cambridgeshire Adult Safeguarding Policy Guidance and Procedures Any safeguarding concern about a young adult aged 18 or over should be reported to the Designated Person in the same way as for under-18s. Mental Capacity Act The Mental Capacity Act 2005 sets out a statutory framework for acting and making
decisions on behalf of adults aged 16 years and over who lack the mental capacity to act or make such decisions for themselves. Categories of child abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse
Sexual abuse Neglect (Keeping Children Safe in Education, 2018) Activity: Recognising child abuse For each category of abuse: list the possible signs, both physical and behavioural, that could be displayed by a child who may be experiencing, or has experienced, this form of abuse.
General Indicators of Abuse
Significant changes in behaviour without explanation Deterioration in work Poor attendance at school Low self esteem Withdrawn Aggressiveness, anger, anxiety, tearfulness Extremes of passivity or aggression Fear of parents being contacted Running away Self Harm Physical Abuse
Physical indicators may include: Bruises/marks on soft parts of the body e.g. cheeks, forearm (in defence), hips, stomach, upper arms, shoulders and neck Bruises/marks that carry the imprint of an implement or hand Bite marks, burns/scalds, wheals Unexplained recurrent injuries, burns or bruises Untreated injuries Physical Abuse Behavioural indicators may include:
Refusal to discuss injuries or improbable explanations Flinching from physical contact Acceptance of excessive punishment Pattern of absences which may serve to hide bruises or
other physical injuries Wearing clothes that may cover bruises, particularly in hot weather Fear of undressing for PE, for example Aggression towards others Over compliant behaviour or a watchful attitude Possible signs of sexual abuse Behavioural Indicators may include: Change in behaviour and school performance Provocative sexual behaviour, overly affectionate Sexual awareness inappropriate to the childs age
shown, for example, in drawings, language, games etc Attempts to teach other children about sexual activity Sexualises non-sexualised objects or events Regression to younger behaviour, e.g. bed wetting, thumb sucking Refusing to stay with certain people or go to certain places Possible signs of sexual abuse Physical Indicators may include:
Anal or vaginal soreness Unusual discharge Persistent urinary tract infection Tiredness, lethargy, listlessness Possible signs of neglect Parental behaviour Neglect is often characterised by parents omitting to care appropriately for their children: Leaving them at home when they are too young to
care for themselves Exposing children to dangerous situations Putting their own needs before those of their children Leaving them with inappropriate carers Failing to provide adequate shelter, food or clothing Possible signs of neglect Physical indicators may include:
Constant hunger and tiredness Underweight or obesity Poor personal hygiene Inappropriate or poor state of clothing Poor skin or hair tone Untreated medical problems Behavioural indicators may include:
Social isolation Frequent lateness or non-attendance at school Destructive tendencies Poor relationships with peers Scavenging and scrounging Possible signs of emotional abuse Physical Indicators may include: Delays in physical development
Self harm Sudden speech disorders Physical complaints with no medical basis Possible signs of emotional abuse Behavioural Indicators may include: Delays in intellectual development Continual self-deprecation Negative statements about self Over-reaction to mistakes Fearfulness
Neurotic behaviour obsessive rocking, thumb-sucking, and so on Air of detachment dont care attitude Social isolation does not join in and has few friends Desperate attention seeking behaviour Possible signs of emotional abuse Family or Parental behaviour
Mental ill-health suicide attempts, depression, threats Domestic Violence Alcohol and drug abuse Blames or puts down child Cold and rejecting Indifferent to child's problems or welfare Withholds affection Shows preferential treatment when there is more than
one child in the family Female Genital Mutilation A collective term for all procedures involving the partial or total removal of external female genitalia for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons There were 5,391 newly recorded cases of FGM reported during 2016-17. In 57 cases, the FGM was known to have been undertaken in the UK Where known, the 5 to 9 year old age group was the most common age range at which FGM was undertaken in any country
Female Genital Mutilation Indicators a girl may be at risk of FGM Parent from a practising community Low community integration Mother/sisters have experienced FGM Withdrawn from PSHE A female elder has arrived The girl talks about it to other children The girl refers to a special procedure, special occasion or becoming a woman
Child Sexual Exploitation Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a)in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/ or (b)for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology.
What are the signs? Going missing or regularly returning late Regularly missing school or opting out of education Appearing with unexplained gifts/possessions Associating with others involved in exploitation Older boyfriends/girlfriends Suffering sexually transmitted infections Changes in emotional well-being Drug/alcohol misuse Inappropriate sexualised behaviour
Protection from Radicalisation Counter-Terrorism and Security Act, 2015 Staff in schools have a duty to be aware of the threat of radicalisation and act upon concerns; Concerns should be seen in the context of safeguarding children and young people from harm. Gangs and County Lines Children and young people involved with, or on the edges of, gangs might be victims of violence or they might be
pressured into doing things like stealing or carrying drugs or weapons. They might be abused, exploited or put into dangerous situations. County Lines: County Lines is a national issue involving the use of mobile phone and train lines by groups to extend their drug dealing business into new locations outside of their home areas. This issue affects the majority of forces. A county lines enterprise almost always involves exploitation of vulnerable persons; this can involve both children and adults who require safeguarding(National Crime Agency, 2015). Warning Signs
Persistently going missing from home/school and/or being found away from their local area. Unexplained acquisition of money, clothes or mobile phones. Multiple mobile phones and/or excessive receipt of texts/calls. Relationships with controlling, usually older, individuals or groups. Leaving home/care without explanation. Unexplained injuries. Carrying weapons. Significant decline in school attendance and achievement. Gang association or isolation from peers or social networks. Significant changes in emotional well-being. Online safety pupils,
parents and staff Three areas of risk 3 Cs Content being exposed to illegal, inappropriate or harmful material Contact being subjected to harmful online interaction with other users Conduct personal online behaviour that increases the likelihood of, or causes harm Safeguarding Children online Children and young people need to be empowered to keep themselves
safe..Children will be children pushing boundaries and taking risks. At a public swimming pool, we have gates, put up signs, have lifeguards and shallow ends, but we also teach children how to swim Dr Tanya Byron: Safer Children in a Digital World What are the potential risks of children being online? Children and young people may see illegal or unsuitable content online, such as:Bullying and blackmail Grooming Sexual content and pornography
Dangerous advice encouraging eating disorders, self-harm or suicide Excessive violence or race hate materials. Some websites show illegal content. Others that are legal might have unregulated advice or are meant for adults only. Risk of exploitation (not exclusive to sexual) Sexting - The Law It is an offence to send by means of a public electronic communications network a message or other matter that is grossly offensive, indecent, obscene or menacing By having in their possession, or distributing,
indecent images of a person under 18 on to someone else - young people are not aware that they could be breaking the law as these offences under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. What can be done? Empowering children and young people to keep themselves safe when online ... Encouraging them to be responsible users of the technology ... Engaging children and young people to recognise the risks and benefits of online communication ...
Enabling the adults around children and young people; whether parents, carers, professionals or volunteers, to understand and support them in their online world ... Activity: Receiving a Disclosure If a child tells you that they have been hurt or abused, how should you respond? Discuss this with the person next to you If a Child tells
Listen Explain Pass on Record Tell Explain Describe
Never promise confidentiality Logging a Concern Use the same form for all concerns Use the body map to record visible marks or injuries Record any conversations in as much detail as you can Use the childs own words (put in speech marks) Always make your account factual Distinguish between fact and opinion, if expressed Pass it on to your DP If its not written down it didnt happen
Remember Records should be made as soon as possible In cases of sexual abuse/physical abuse, ensure your Designated Person (DP) has your log immediately Your DP will feed back on a need-toknow basis All staff need to know: The Designated Safeguarding Lead in my establishment is . If they are unavailable, other Designated Personnel are .
The Prevent Lead is Logging Concern forms are kept . The child protection procedures are found . The Safeguarding and Child Protection policy is found . The whistle-blowing policy is found . The process for raising concerns about a colleague or practice .. The contents of the Guidance for Safer Working Practice Safer Working Practice The safeguarding culture of a school is, in part, exercised through the
development of respectful, caring and professional relationships between adults and pupils and behaviour by the adult that demonstrates integrity, maturity and good judgement. Guidance for Safer Working Practice All staff have a responsibility to maintain public confidence in their ability to safeguard the welfare and best interests of children. They should adopt high standards of personal conduct in order to maintain
confidence and respect of the general public and those with whom they work. Good practice principles Safer Working Practice Staff are responsible for own actions Avoid any actions that could be misconstrued Work in an open and transparent way Be aware of the schools whistle blowing policy and allegations procedures Demonstrate good models of behaviour in order to create a protective ethos
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