Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal

Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal

Chapter 5 Socialism and Communism: More to Marx Wherever men have private property and money is the measure of everything, there it is hardly possible for the commonwealth to be governed justly or to flourish in prosperity. Thomas More, Utopia

Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism Objected to focus on self-interest and competition Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism

Objected to focus on self-interest and competition Socialists argue that the foundation of society is not competition, but cooperation Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism Objected to focus on self-interest and competition Socialists argue that the foundation of society is not competition, but cooperation

Society as a whole, rather than private individuals should control property Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism Objected to focus on self-interest and competition Socialists argue that the foundation of society is not competition, but cooperation Society as a whole, rather than private

individuals should control property All goods are social products and should be shared by all those who help produce it Introduction Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism Objected to focus on self-interest and competition Socialists argue that the foundation of society is not competition, but cooperation

Society as a whole, rather than private individuals should control property All goods are social products and should be shared by all those who help produce it Socialists object to capitalism and argue that all socially useful goods should be socially controlled for the benefit of all Human Nature and Freedom

Human Nature and Freedom Human nature: Human Nature and Freedom Human nature: Humans are naturally communal and social creatures

Human Nature and Freedom Human nature: Humans are naturally communal and social creatures People only appear to be selfish and competitive because of social circumstances Human Nature and

Freedom Human nature: Humans are naturally communal and social creatures People only appear to be selfish and competitive because of social circumstances Freedom: Human Nature and

Freedom Human nature: Humans are naturally communal and social creatures People only appear to be selfish and competitive because of social circumstances Freedom: Poor or working class is prevented from pursuing their true aims and aspirations because of

inequalities of wealth Human Nature and Freedom Human nature: Humans are naturally communal and social creatures People only appear to be selfish and competitive because of social circumstances

Freedom: Poor or working class is prevented from pursuing their true aims and aspirations because of inequalities of wealth Workers also suffer from false consciousness that prevents them from recognizing alternative political arrangements The Socialist View of Freedom

Agent: common/ working people The Socialist View of Freedom Obstacl e:

Agent: class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life chances, false

consciousnes s common/ working people The Socialist View of Freedom Obstacl

e: class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life chances, false consciousnes s

Agent: common/ working people Goal: fulfillment of human needs, e.g.,

satisfying work, fair share of product The Socialist View of Freedom Precursors: Utopian Socialists

Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished

Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Precursors: Utopian Socialists

1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Tried to set socialism on a scientific basis Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535)

Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Tried to set socialism on a scientific basis Expert planning can more justly address social needs Precursors: Utopian Socialists

1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Tried to set socialism on a scientific basis Expert planning can more justly address social needs 3. Charles Fourier (1772-1837)

Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) Novel Utopia (1516) depicts an ideal society in which money is abolished 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Tried to set socialism on a scientific basis Expert planning can more justly address social

needs 3. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Harmonism = highest stage of humanity where all cooperate freely for the public good Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825)

3. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) 4. Robert Owen (1771-1858) Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) 3. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) 4. Robert Owen (1771-1858) Crime is not the result of original sin, but of a

deformed social system in which greed and selfishness are rewarded Precursors: Utopian Socialists 1. Sir Thomas Moore (1478-1535) 2. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) 3. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) 4. Robert Owen (1771-1858) Crime is not the result of original sin, but of a

deformed social system in which greed and selfishness are rewarded Established a socialist community of New Harmony in southwest Indiana Karl Marx Karl Marx As a journalist, Marx became convinced of the

central importance of economics in political matters Karl Marx As a journalist, Marx became convinced of the central importance of economics in political matters

He also became increasingly radical, thinking that the economic and political system in Germany was beyond reform Karl Marx As a journalist, Marx became convinced of the

central importance of economics in political matters He also became increasingly radical, thinking that the economic and political system in Germany was beyond reform Marx fled Germany for fear

of imprisonment and never returned The Influence of Hegel The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom

The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom Alienation estrangement or separation The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom

Alienation estrangement or separation The spirit goes through a series of alienations as it evolves into higher and more exclusive forms The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom Alienation estrangement or separation The spirit goes through a series of alienations as it

evolves into higher and more exclusive forms Master-slave dialectic example of a dialectical process that promotes human freedom The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom Alienation estrangement or separation

The spirit goes through a series of alienations as it evolves into higher and more exclusive forms Master-slave dialectic example of a dialectical process that promotes human freedom Master becomes master by physically overpowering slave The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the

struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom Alienation estrangement or separation The spirit goes through a series of alienations as it evolves into higher and more exclusive forms Master-slave dialectic example of a dialectical process that promotes human freedom Master becomes master by physically overpowering slave

Master sees himself as superior; slave sees himself as inferior The Influence of Hegel G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) saw history as the struggle of the human spirit to overcome obstacles in the search for freedom Alienation estrangement or separation The spirit goes through a series of alienations as it evolves into higher and more exclusive forms

Master-slave dialectic example of a dialectical process that promotes human freedom Master becomes master by physically overpowering slave Master sees himself as superior; slave sees himself as inferior Both require recognition from the other, but soon Marxs Theory of History

Marxs Theory of History Marx saw history as the story of human labor and struggle Marxs Theory of History Marx saw history as the story of human labor and struggle Materialist conception of history history is the story of class struggles over resources

Marxs Theory of History Marx saw history as the story of human labor and struggle Materialist conception of history history is the story of class struggles over resources The primary necessity for humans is to procure the material means of subsistence Marxs Theory of History

Marx saw history as the story of human labor and struggle Materialist conception of history history is the story of class struggles over resources Material forces of production forces that transform raw materials into finished products Marxs Theory of History Marx saw history as the story of human labor and struggle

Materialist conception of history history is the story of class struggles over resources Material forces of production forces that transform raw materials into finished products Social relations of production organization and arrangement of humans for economic production Marxs Theory of History Marx saw history as the story of human labor and

struggle Materialist conception of history history is the story of class struggles over resources Material forces of production forces that transform raw materials into finished products Social relations of production organization and arrangement of humans for economic production Ideological superstructure set of ideas and beliefs that justify and legitimize the arrangements of society

Marxs Critique of Capitalism Marxs Critique of Capitalism Marxs Critique of Capitalism Marx argued that capitalism was a progressive

force at one time; still he argued that capitalism should be replaced Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms: Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms:

1. Capitalism is outmoded; it has outlived its usefulness Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms: 1. Capitalism is outmoded; it has outlived its usefulness 2. Capitalism creates alienation between workers and their work

Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms: 1. Capitalism is outmoded; it has outlived its usefulness 2. Capitalism creates alienation between workers and their work 3. Capitalism is prone to internal contradictions

Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms: 1. Capitalism is outmoded; it has outlived its usefulness 2. Capitalism creates alienation between workers and their work 3. Capitalism is prone to internal contradictions Logic of capitalism constrains the actions of everyone including the capitalists

Marxs Critique of Capitalism Three main criticisms: 1. Capitalism is outmoded; it has outlived its usefulness 2. Capitalism creates alienation between workers and their work 3. Capitalism is prone to internal contradictions Logic of capitalism constrains the actions of

everyone including the capitalists Capitalism produces its own gravediggers working class with nothing to lose and everything to gain by overthrowing the capitalist system The Dialectic of Change 2011 Pearson Longman 59

The Dialectic of Change Capitalism produces two classes: 2011 Pearson Longman 60 The Dialectic of Change Capitalism produces two classes:

Bourgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (workers) are similar to the master and slave in Hegels dialectic 2011 Pearson Longman 61 The Dialectic of Change Capitalism produces two classes:

Bourgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (workers) are similar to the master and slave in Hegels dialectic Capitalists exploit laborers by extracting surplus value from the products of labor 2011 Pearson Longman 62

The Dialectic of Change Capitalism produces two classes: Bourgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (workers) are similar to the master and slave in Hegels dialectic Capitalists exploit laborers by extracting surplus value from the products of labor As proletariat becomes increasingly poor, they come to realize that the capitalists depend upon the proletariat for profit

2011 Pearson Longman 63 The Dialectic of Change Capitalism produces two classes: Bourgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (workers) are similar to the master and slave in Hegels dialectic

Capitalists exploit laborers by extracting surplus value from the products of labor As proletariat becomes increasingly poor, they come to realize that the capitalists depend upon the proletariat for profit The capitalists attempt to maintain this economic system; whereas, proletariat seeks to abolish all class distinctions 2011 Pearson Longman

64 Marxs Revolutionary Sequence 2011 Pearson Longman 65 1. Economic crises crises become more common in advanced

capitalist economies 2. Immiseration of the proletariat economic crises affect the proletariat most severely 3. Revolutionary class consciousness workers begin to fault the economic system rather than themselves 4. Seizure of state power the proletariat takes state power from the bourgeoisie 5. Dictatorship of the proletariat proletariat must use the apparatuses of the state to prevent counterrevolution 6. Withering away of the state need for coercive state authority

will disappear once class distinctions are abolished 7. Communism rule is from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Free society in which alienation, exploitation, and ideological illusions will disappear 2011 Pearson Longman 66 Conclusion

Socialism began as a reaction to liberalism with its focus on self-interest and competition Early utopian socialists devised schemes for future cooperative societies Karl Marx articulated a comprehensive critique of capitalism as well as a dialectical process by which capitalism would be overthrown Marx never drew detailed plans for a future communist society, but his general theory became very influential for future socialists

who called themselves Marxists 2011 Pearson Longman 67 Readings: Part V: Socialism and Communism: More to Marx Thomas MoreUtopia Robert OwenAddress to the Inhabitants of New

Lanark Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsThe Communist Manifesto Karl MarxOn the Materialist Conception of History 2011 Pearson Longman 68

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