Unit 1 Politics and Government Think Pair Share What is government? Government.. Government creates rules and manages
services that require community or shared commitment, for shared benefit. These are often services that cant be effectively delivered by private business but essential for all people. In Canada. In Canada we have three levels of government.
1. Federal 2. Provincial 3. Municipal At each level we vote to choose our representatives People pay taxes to the three levels of government so that they can provide services and regulations.
Services= Defence, welfare, health care, roads. Regulations= Criminal Code, land zoning, car licensing Government also represents us internationally. Foreign Affairs UN Ambassadors
The style of government in Canada is known as Westminster Government which draws its name from the seat of the British Parliament ad Westminster in London. It is both representative and responsible. -Members of Parliament represent citizens and are responsible to Parliament and electors for their actions Both the Federal and Provincial governments follow
this model Canadas government is also A representative democracy. -we elect leaders who make decisions on our behalf. A constitutional monarchy. -we have a monarch, whose power is limited by a constitution. A federation. -A collection of regional
governments (provinces) that are governed by a central government as a nation (country) Who governs us? In Canada, at the national (Federal) level: The Queen is our Head of State. And is represented in Canada by the Governor General. Our Prime Minister is our Head of
Government. The QueenElizabeth II Governor GeneralDavid Johnston Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau Provincial Level
At the provincial level: the Queen is represented by the Lieutenant Governor A Premier is the leader of the provincial government. The Lieutenant Governor of B.C. Judith Guichon
Premier of British ColumbiaChristy Clark Ideologies and Spectrums PLO: Demonstrate understanding of the political spectrum Think Pair Share What is an ideology?
Ideology An ideology is a belief system, a philosophical perspective, or a set of opinions about HOW and WHY a government should operate. Tools of Comparison
Attitudes/beliefs about the nature of human beings. Desirability of progress Economic System Relationship between people and the government -voting
-ownership of land -level of control Major Ideologies Democratic: 1. Liberalism 2.Conservatism 3. Socialism Totalitarianism:
1. Fascism 2. Communism Think Pair Share What is a democracy? Democracy A democracy is a form of government in which
the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. Canada is based on a system of democracy. Common features of Democracy Equality and Human Rights Economic Freedom
Bill of Rights The Rule of Law Control of the Abuse of Power Free and Fair Elections Multi- Party System Accountability and Transparency Independent Judiciary Political Tolerance Accepting the Results of Elections
Ideologies Definitions Democratic ideologies Liberalism Strong belief in economic and intellectual freedom.
Classical Liberalism-government should not be involved more than necessary Reform Liberalism-stronger commitment to limited government intervention Conservatism Strong belief in economic freedom and intellectual equality; supports social traditions in society; small role for government in
society and economy. Socialism Belief that government should control means of production; support government intervention in the economy. Totalitarian Ideologies
Absolute control by the state or governing branch of a highly centralized institution Communism Belief in the economic equality of all people; want to abolish all private property. Fascism
No intellectual freedom, limited economic freedom, strong government regulations. A word about Capitalism Capitalism is a system, not a political ideology, but is opposed to communism. It is a belief that business, not government, produces goods.
Political Spectrum The political spectrum is the designation of political beliefs on a continuum from radical to reactionary. This is where the terms left, right and centre politics comes from. At the very BASIC level.
if you are left leaning, you usually supportEconomic Equality and Intellectual Freedom If you are right leaning you usually support Economic Freedom and Intellectual Equality Political Spectrum Let me make it as easy as possible for you The Political Spectrum
Left Centre I----------------------------------------------------------------I-------------------------------------------------------------I Right Economic Spectrum Left Redistribution of wealth and
income higher taxes Govt should play a sizeable role in the economy Big govt Right Acceptance of inequalities as a
result of the free market lower taxes Laissez-faire govt should leave the economy to itself Small govt The Social Spectrum Left______________________________________Centre_____________________________________Right
Left Secularism Support for widened lifestyle choices (eg. gay marriage, abortion) Rehabilitation of offenders
Right Religious morality Support for traditional values Punishment of offenders Most Significant Ideologies Communism
extreme left wing Socialism left wing Liberalism centre Conservatism right wing Fascism extreme right wing
Communism Seeks elimination of class, esp land & business owners, in society. Strong commitment to economic equality, opposed to capitalism. Government owns all modes of production, no private enterprise Very authoritarian, often led by dictatorial
leader Examples: Originated in Russia (became the USSR) in 1917, under Lenin. Current communist countries- Cuba, China, North Korea, Laos & Vietnam Communism has had almost no appeal in Canada.
Socialism Believes in a more egalitarian society, more personal freedoms Believes in govt ownership or regulation of some sectors of the economy; supports strong govt role in delivering social welfare. Uses taxes to reduce difference between rich & poor.
Socialist influences in Canada: Political Parties: CCF, Social Credit, NDP Significant Example: Universal Health Care, welfare. Liberalism Believes govt should provide social welfare programs.
Believes in economic freedom Believes in equal rights Supports using taxes to redistribute wealth, but without discouraging the accumulation of wealth. (we need wealth for investment and employment.) Liberal influences in Canada: Political Parties: Liberal Party of Canada
Significant Example: Trudeaus Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Conservatism Supports social traditions in society. Believes in a small role for govt in society & economy (Laissez-Faire) Believes in economic freedom for all people Believes in law and order, with less emphasis
on personal freedoms. Believes in lower taxes, and fewer govt services. Conservative influences in Canada: Political Parties: Conservative Party, Reform, BC Liberals. Significant example: Mulroneys Free Trade Agreement
Fascism Relies on strong, central govt; often using violence & intimidation. No tolerance of any political opposition. Appeals to strong sense of nationalism & advocates a strong military. Engages in social reconstructing, strong beliefs about race.
Committed to a strong economy & individual wealth. Examples: Originated in Italy, (Mussolini), copied by Germanys Nazi Party. (Hitler) Fascists were responsible for the Holocaust. Were defeated in WWII. Neo-Fascism is associated with hate groups
and white supremacists. Major Canadian Political Parties From Ideology to Party In a democracy, candidates often identify themselves as belonging to a larger group with common policies and goals. Parties can change over time, and they are not
bound to stick to a certain ideology all of the time. Often parties take names of ideologies to solidify their identity. But. DO NOT confuse parties with ideologies. Ideologies do not change, Parties can. (Ideology=way of thinking vs. party=group of
people) Liberalism= ideology Liberals= party Canadian Political Spectrum Ultra Left Centre
Ultra-Right I-------------------------I------------------------I Green NDP Liberal Conservative Bloc Quebecois
The further to the end of the spectrum, the more radical the ideology in terms of government control. For example, a dictatorship where one person controls all is at the either end of the political spectrum. House of Commons-MPs Conservatives 97
Liberals 182 New Democrats 44 Bloc Quebecois Green
10 1 Rona Ambrose Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Thomas
Mulcair Rheal Fortin Elizabeth May Traditionally a party of business
Recent Liberal PMs include Jean Chretien and Paul Martin Traditionally the party of
labour. There has never been an NDP Prime Minister Only runs candidates in Quebec. Is a Quebec
Sovereigntist party. This party currently only has one member of parliament.
There is also one Independent- Hunter Tootoo Local Ridings Our Members of Parliament Kelowna-Lake Country: Stephen Fuhr (Liberal) Central Okanagan-Similkameen-Nicola: Dan Albas (Conservative)
MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES OF BC Liberal N.D.P Other Christy Clark
John Horgan 48 MLAs 35 MLAs Andrew Weaver (Green)
Vicki Huntingdon (Indep.) 1 (Green) MLA 1 (Independent) MLA Legislative Assembly of British Columbia MLA for Kelowna-Mission: Steve Thompson
Lets review: 1. Which of these parties is the furthest to the left wing? a. Liberal b. Conservative c. NDP d. Bloc Qubcois and the answer is.......
c. The NDP 2. Which of these ideologies is furthers to the right wing? a. Socialism b. Conservatism
c. Communism d. Fascism and the answer is..... D. Fascism
Mechanisms for Changing Public Policy PLO: Explain how Canadians can effect change at the federal and provincial levels So If we as individuals do not like a law or
regulation, what can we do? There are many way a we can influence government. Vote! Contact your representative (MP, MLA, Councilor) Join a political party Pressure groups or lobbyist Civil disobedience Court action
Media Campaigns Mechanisms for Changing Public Policy Vote: Most effective way to influence government. A right and a responsibility. By voting you ensure your voice is heard and that others dont have undue influence. When fewer people vote, special interest groups have more influence. Any Canadian citizen, age 18 or older, can vote in a federal election for the party of his choice.
Contact your Representative: At every level of govt, elected representatives participate in the government on our behalf. In Canada, our representatives are obliged to listen to our concerns and try to help us in matters regarding their level of government. Visit their office or call. Your representatives are: Join a Political Party:
Most require a small fee, but students can join for free. Members select a local candidate. Members can go to meetings, be on the local riding council or volunteer during elections. Represent the local riding at national conventions or even become the local candidate. Pressure groups and Lobbyists: Organizations or companies can exert pressure. Their positions reflect the opinions of many people so politicians take them
seriously. Often hire lobbyist ex: Greenpeace or the National Council of Women Mechanismscontinued Join a Political Party: Those who choose to join can nominate and vote for the candidates who will run in their riding. Petitions: Letter writing campaigns, petitions
generally submitted through/to the local representative. Peaceful Protests and Civil Disobedience: You have the right to protest any government policy or plan you feel is inappropriate Often, to make a point, protesters might peacefully break laws. If a group is large enough, the cause reasonable, politicians take notice and are sometimes under pressure to address the issue.
There is a difference between peaceful protest and civil disobedience. Civil disobedience is the action of intentionally breaking the law that one considers unjust: Ex. 1993 Clayoquot Sound, BC. Protestors blocked the logging road into the area and were arrested for breaking the law. 1.Should not involve violence 2.Should be directed at laws/policies that are seriously harmful. 3. Requires taking responsibility for ones
actions. Willingness to face punishment shows strength of beliefs. Court Action: Sometimes laws will not respect the rules set out by the constitution, or violate individual rights. Citizens can challenge laws in the courts system, as long as they have reasonable cause.
If courts agree, laws can be overturned. And finally Media Campaigns: if individuals organize around a specific issue, they can sometimes generate public interest This is done through public events, fundraising, press conferences, etc. If successful, they generate enough media
coverage to motivate public interest. The Electoral System PLO1.c- Explain how Federal and Provincial governments are formed in Canada. Voting in elections is the most common and widespread method of influencing
government. Any Canadian citizen 18 years of age and older can vote in federal and provincial elections. Federal and Provincial Governments hold elections every five years. The Prime Minister can chose a time that is convenient for his party (Guess when that might be?), or may be forced into it if a major
bill is defeated in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister then asks the Governor General to dissolve Parliament. Canadians do not vote directly for the Prime Minister. Canadians vote for a candidate to represent their riding or constituency. The party that has the most elected Members of
Parliament gets to form the next government. The leader of the party become the Prime Minister. Between elections, if an MP dies or retires, an election will be held in that riding only. This is called a By-election. 6 Stages of an Election
1. Dissolution: the session of the House of Commons comes to an end, and MPs effectively lose their jobs. 2. Enumeration: Chief Electoral Officer is in charge of this stage, preparing the voters list. 3. Nomination: Candidates are selected for each party in each riding (geographic areas representing about 100 000 people)
4. Campaigning: Candidates are given media coverage, make speeches, promote their party platform and hold meetings. Campaign contributions are a major political issue. Prior to and during an election, candidates actively raise money to help them run a campaign. Many people think that corporations, organizations and individuals give money to ensure that they have influence or can earn favours after the election.
5. Balloting: Voters go to polling stations in their communities to vote, mark and X by this name of the candidate they want to represent their riding. 6. Tabulation: Votes are counted. Elections and Money Candidates and parties raise money to run
campaigns. Contributions are important but often problematic. Many feel that big business or the rich have more influence politically. Elections Expenses Act 1974 regulates contributions. All donation over $200 a year must be made public. Electoral Systems 1. First-Past-the-Post:
This is the system used in federal and provincial elections. A candidate only needs one more vote than the closest competitor. That means you can win with less than 50% of the vote if there are more than 2 candidates. 2. Proportional Representation: If a party earns 43% of the popular vote, that
party gets to have 43% of the seats in the legislature. This system is NOT used in Canada, but is more representative. Opponents suggest that MPs would not have direct connection to the people in each riding. 3. Single Transferable Vote: This is a system suggested by a group of BC citizens, but
was defeated in 2 successive provincial referendums. In this system, voters can chose candidates based on ordered preference. Once one candidate gets 50% of the vote, the voters second choice is recorded. It is possible for a riding to elect more then one MLA. This system is more complicated, but very well balanced. Election Outcomes.
Majority Government: In a federal election, if a party wins more than 50% of the available seats, they have a majority government. In a majority government as long as all the MPs vote with the party, the government can not be defeated. This means that the government is almost guaranteed the ability to pass any law it proposes. Every party has a Whip, a senior MP who tries to keep all the MPs voting with party policy.
Minority Government: In a federal election, if a party has won the most seats, but still has less than 50% of the total, they have a minority government. That government must make alliances with other parties to stay in power. Some people argue that a minority government is more responsible than a majority, because they
must work with other parties and co-operate. The Canadian Government PLO1.c- Explain how Federal and Provincial governments are formed in Canada. Branches of Government The Canadian government is composed of three
branches: The Legislative Branch The Executive Branch The Judicial Branch 1. The Legislative Branch Queen o Governor General
Senate House of Commons o Speaker o Cabinet o Government Party Opposition o Shadow cabinet
Third/Fourth/Fifth party, Independents The Queen The Queen appoints the Governor General (on the advice of the Prime Minister) to carry out her duties in Canada Governor General Gives the Speech from the Throne
-a speech prepared by the Prime Ministers office outlining the goals of the government in the next session of Parliament (begins a new session of Parliament) Governor General Royal Assent - approves a bill to make it law Prorogue
- on the advice of the Prime Minister, the Governor General can end a session of parliament without dissolving the legislature Dissolution: Ending a session of parliament, (on the advice of the PM) It also ends the term of government and requires an election to determine a new legislature.
This is also a power we attribute to the PM. It is actually done by the G.G. but only on the advice of the PM Senate (Upper House) Purpose to provide: regional representation provide a sober second thought to bills from the House of Commons.
The Senate cannot introduce bills requiring the spending of money, and since most legislation does, bills almost never originate in the Senate. 105 seats appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the PM: serve until the age of 75 (or resignation or death) When the PM appoints a friend or supporter, it is called Patonage
Senate Reform: Many think the Senate is ineffective, not democratic and a rubber stamp that always approves bills from the House of Commons. Triple E Senate=Elected, Effective and Equal. (each province getting elects the same number of senators. Would involve changes to the constitution.
There has been a suggestion that each province elect a panel of candidates, allowing the PM to choose one. (no constitutional change.) House of Commons (Lower House) 338 elected representatives called Members of Parliament, or MPs.(from all parties) It provides representation by population.
Most bills originate in the House of Commons. Speaker of the House: Geoff Regan (Liberal) The Government sits to the right of the Speaker. The PM and his cabinet sit in the front row, other members are called backbenchers. The Opposition sits opposite the Government and has a Shadow Cabinet to offer specialized scrutiny of cabinet policy and actions
Third/fourth parties and Independents sit at the end to the left. Committees Cant change the purpose of legislation, but refine and polish the language of the bill MPs from all parties make up the members of the committees Types of Committees:
Committees of the Whole: When the H of C examines a bill. Standing Committees are committees that meet separately. They consist of MPs from all parties. The Lawmaking Process-Passage of Legislation A bill is proposed legislation usually introduced by a cabinet member in the H of C.
The bill is put on the Order Paper and then goes through First Reading In the first reading, it is simply introduced. In the Second Reading it is debated and voted on. If it is approved, the bill goes to committee and there it is refined and polished. At Third Reading, the House votes on it.
If approved, it is sent to Senate, where it goes through first reading, second reading, committee and third reading. If BOTH the House and the Senate pass the bill, it is sent to the Governor General who then must sign it (Royal Assent) for it to become law. Private Members Bill A private member may also initiate a bill. It is
introduced in the House of Commons by an MP who is not a cabinet minister. A private members bill follows the same legislative process as a government bill, but the allocated time for its consideration is restricted. 2. The Executive Branch This branch carries out the business and laws of
Canada. 1. Queen Governor General 2. The Prime Minister Prime Ministers Office 1. Cabinet 2. The Public Service
The Queen and the Governor General Ceremonial Role They serve as a source or power and authority, giving legitimacy to the Executive Branch. Prime Minister Power of Party Leadership: Leader of the party
that wins the most seats. Power of Appointment: Selects cabinet ministers and appoints senate members. Power of Government Organization: sets election dates, can change size and structure of cabinet, gives direction to government. Power of Dissolution: Advises the Governor General when to dissolve parliament.
To help the Prime Minister carry out these duties is the PMO (Prime Ministers Office) The PMO carries out routine duties such as correspondence and scheduling but also contains the PMs top advisors. The Principal Secretary is the most important post in the PMOs office. The PM is often criticized for appointing friends or family or supporters to important posts. This is called Patronage. or Patronage Appointment.
Although questionable in practice, it is within his power. Cabinet Usually Members of Parliament, (but can be Senators) chosen by the PM. The PM considers ability, regional representation, ethnic diversity, gender balance, etc. Members appointed to Cabinet are called
Ministers. Three types of Ministers: Ministers, Ministers of State, and Ministers without Portfolio. Cabinet Ministers meet with the PM in closed door sessions to debate policy. These meetings are held with an understanding of two traditional conditions- Cabinet Secrecy and Cabinet Solidarity.
Cabinet Secrecy= essentially what happens in the meeting stays in the meeting Though debate about issues can be heated, once policy is decided, all are expected to support it. This is Cabinet Solidarity. Orders in Council Some policy can become law in these meetings.
Policies that do not go beyond existing law, or work within existing laws, can automatically become law. These are called Orders in Council Below each minister is a Deputy Ministers. These positions are not elected, but are public servants, the top public servant in their department.
Bureaucracy This component does the work of the government, the public service. There are 4 types: 1. Government Departments: Department of Justice Department of Defence 2. Crown Corporations: companies owned by the government.
Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC) VIA Rail. 3. Regulatory Agencies: set and enforce rules and regulation. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency Environment Canada 4. Advisory Bodies: established to study issues and give advice.
The National Recreational Advisory Council The National Advisory Board on Forest Research 3. The Judicial Branch. Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Courts, the Federal Courts, and provincial courts. It is charged with interpreting and enforcing the legal system.
Lets review Parliament consists of A) The Governor General, Senate and the House of Commons B) The House of Commons and the Senate C) The Prime Minister, Cabinet, Senate and House of Commons. D) The Supreme Court, Senate, and House of
Commons. If you said . B. Parliament consists of the House of Commons and the Senate. You would be correct. In total, how many readings does a bill usually go through in the Senate and the House of
Commons? A)Three B)Four C)Six D)Eight And the answer is. C. 6 times- Three in the House of Commons, and three times in the Senate.
Canadian Constitution PLO1.d Describe major provisions of the Canadian constitution, including the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and assess its impact on Canadian society. History of the Constitution The Royal Proclamation of 1763- established British ownership, Br.
Laws & Church of England Quebec Act of 1774- Established primacy of English Criminal Law, but allowed for French Civil Law Constitution Act of 1791- Divided Quebec into Upper & Lower Canada Act of Union 1840- Reunited the 2 colonies, established Responsible govt British North America Act 1867- Established the Dominion of Canada
Canada Act 1982-Ended the power of the British Parliament to legislate for Canada!!! (April 17, 1982) The Canada Act of 1982 PM Pierre Trudeau (Current Prime Minister's Father) wanted to bring home (patriate) the constitution. He also wanted to include a Charter of Rights (entrenched rights). This caused conflict between the provinces and federal
govt. Many debates and public conferences strained federalprovincial relations and put the initiative at risk. During one conference, a late night meeting between Minister of Justice Jean Chrtien and Saskatchewan Attorney General Roy Romanow in an unused kitchen unit, resulted in a compromise that would be acceptable to a majority of provinces
This compromise is known as the Kitchen Accord Rene Levesque refused to sign the agreement. April 17, 1982 Constitutional Changes To change the constitution, there needs to be agreement of:
2/3 of the provinces representing at least 50% of the population a simple majority in both the House and Senate. Canadian Constitution The Canadian Constitution defines the political structure and relationship between Canadas government and its people. The central principles are peace, order good government, and rule of
law. Sections 91 and 92 divide power between Federal and Provincial governments. Section 91 outlines federal jurisdictions (defence, postal, fisheries, criminal, law, census, currency.) Section 92 outlines provincial jurisdictions (hospitals, forests, municipal (or local) governments, highways, property and civil rights) The Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the longest portion of the Constitution. Guarantees basic rights and freedoms for all Canadians. Before the Charter, man rights were already law (the 1960 Bill of Rights) Now the Charter is hard to change and considered entrenched
The Charter is unique to Canada, and a strong statement about how we value individual rights and freedoms. It has become a model for many other nations. Limits to the Charter Provinces argued that a Charter would make the Courts more powerful than the elected
representatives of the people. They negotiated an escape clause Section 33, the Notwithstanding Clause, can be used by any legislative body to override the Charter in some areas. It has been rarely used. And has only been invoked by provincial governments. The Federal government has never made a declaration.
It has been used 15 times in Quebec, once in Alta. & once in Sask. The most controversial usage was to protect Bill 101 in Quebec, outlawing signs in English. The rights in the Charter are also subject to reasonable limits. Ex: laws against pornography & hate propaganda are reasonable limits because they prevent harm to individuals and groups.
Important Sections of the Charter Section 2: Fundamental Freedoms Freedom of conscience and religion Freedom of thought, belief & expression, & freedom of the press. Freedom of peaceful assembly (ex: protest groups) Freedom of association (ex: trade unions)
Sections 3,4 & 5: Democratic Rights Rules that guarantee Canadians a democratic government. Section 6: Mobility Rights protects the right of Canadians to move from place to place. Sections 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14: Legal Rights
Everyone has the right to life, liberty, & security of the person, & the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with fundamental justice. Rights that protect us in our dealings with the justice system Section 15: Equality Rights every individual in Canada regardless of race,
religion, national or ethnic origin, colour, sex, age or physical or mental disability is to be considered equal. Governments must not discriminate on any of these grounds in its laws or programs. The courts have interpreted Sec 15 to include sexual orientation. Affirmative action programs, however, are allowed. Sections 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 & 22: Official
Language Rights Section 16 establishes English and French as Canadas official languages, as well as the official languages of New Brunswick. Sections 17, 18, 19 and 20 all deal with the equality of the French and English languages in particular situations (parliament & government services).
Section 23: Minority Language Educational Rights requires provincial governments to provide education to Canadians in the official language of their choice (under certain conditions). This is only when there are a sufficient number of eligible children to justify providing schooling in that language.
Section 25: General (Aboriginal Rights) rights in the Charter must not interfere with the rights of Aboriginal peoples. This section recognizes the rights granted by the 1763 Royal Proclamation. Section 27: General (Multiculturalism) This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural
heritage of Canadians Section 28: General (Gender Rights) both women and men are equally protected under the Charter History and Impact of the Charter 1982-1985: All Quebec legislation included Notwithstanding language, as a protest against the Canada Act of 1982.
1988: overturned restrictions on abortion (R. v. Morgentaler). 1988: ruled Quebecs Bill 101 unconstitutional, Quebec responded by enacting the Notwithstanding clause. 1996: Quebec changed Bill 101 to comply with the Charter. 1998: Albertas exclusion of Homosexuals from equal rights protection was found unconstitutional (Vriend vs Alberta) The Charter has led to more Activist courts,
(the court is more active in interpreting the law in a way that limits past legislation or shapes new legislation). The Charter has become a much loved document that Canadians feel identifies them, even though many dont know the contents of it.