# Porosity, Permeability and Aquifers

Porosity, Permeability and Aquifers vocabulary word!

porosity the amount of empty space in a rock or other earth substance; this empty space is known as pore space. Porosity is how much water a substance can hold. vocabulary

word! permeability is how well water flows through rock or other earth substance. Factors that affect permeability are how large the pores in the substance are and how well the particles fit together.

Water flows between the spaces in the material. If the spaces are close together such as in clay based soils, the water will tend to cling to the material and not pass through it easily or quickly. If the spaces are

large, such as in the gravel, the water passes through quickly. Color the blue areas on your diagram and glue into your notes vocabulary

word! percolation the downward movement of water from the land surface into soil or porous rock. vocabulary

word! infiltration when the water enters the soil surface after falling from the atmosphere. Lab

In this lab, we will test the permeability and porosity of sand, gravel, and soil. Procedure for measuring porosity 1. Measure out 100 mL of water in the graduated cylinder. 2. Pour the 100 mL of water in one of the

cups and use the marker to mark the level. 3. Pour the water back into the graduated cylinder. 4. Line up two more cups and draw lines on them at the same level.

5. Fill the first cup with sand up to the mark you drew. Fill the second with soil and the third with gravel. 6. Pour the 100 mL of water slowly into the sand. Stop when the water level just reaches the top of the sand.

7. Record the amount of water left in the graduated cylinder in the right column. 8. Calculate the pore space by subtracting the amount left in the graduated cylinder from the original 100mL. 9. Repeat steps 6-8 with the pea gravel

and yard soil. 10. Calculate the %porosity and record in the table. Use this formula: Procedure for measuring permeability 1. Carefully poke holes in the bottom of

the cup of sand. 2. Fill the graduated cylinder with 70 mL of water. 3. Get a timer ready. Hold the cup over a beaker to catch the water. 4. Pour some of the water quickly into

the cup of sand. Start recording as soon as the water hits the sand. 5. Stop timing as soon as the first drop of water comes out of the hole in the bottom. 6. Record how many seconds it takes for the water to reach the bottom.

7. Repeat steps 1-5 with the pea gravel and soil. Aquifers vocabulary word!

aquifer - is a natural underground area where large quantities of ground water fill the spaces between rocks and sediments and creates and underwater pool of water.

This water is frequently pumped up using water wells and used for humans and livestock. The state of Texas has 23 aquifers that cover approximately 75% of the state. The Ogallala Aquifer accounts for about

90% of the water in all of Texas Aquifers. Groundwater from Texas aquifers is used for irrigation, city use, manufacturing, and livestock production. Pumping water from many aquifers in Texas has resulted in a significant lowering of the water table.

The water table is the upper surface of ground water below which the soil or rocks are permanently saturated with water and where the pressure of water in the soil equals the pressure of the atmosphere.

The water table fluctuates with the seasons and from one year to another based on how much precipitation has fallen, how much has been pumped out for human use and how much is used by plants and animals.

Using a blue marker, trace the solid and dotted line labeled water table in the diagram below. Less permeable rock below an aquifer that keeps groundwater from draining away is called a confining layer (color

the confining layer with a yellow pencil). The water held within the pores of the sand, soil, and clay above the confining layer is called an aquifer (color the upper aquifer with a light blue pencil) .

Sometimes, deeper in the ground is an impermeable layer (color the impermeable layer with a dark brown pencil). When water is trapped between the confining layer and the impermeable

layer, it forms an artesian aquifer (color the lower aquifer with a dark blue pencil). Glue this in your notes.

Water in an artesian aquifer is under a large amount of pressure and can bubble up out of the ground in some places. Rainwater cannot penetrate the confining layer to get to an artesian aquifer. Artesian aquifers are refilled in a recharge zone

where there is no confining layer. Procedure 1. Take the styrofoam cup with the gravel in it and add a layer of the wet sand. 2. Above the sand, add a layer of the soil.

3. Pour 100 mL of water into the graduated cylinder and add 5 drops of blue food coloring. Procedure 4. Hold the cup over an empty beaker and pour the blue water into your

aquifer. 5. Write a description of what happened in your notes.

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