POSC 2200 - Introduction

POSC 2200 - Introduction

POSC 2200 Theoretical Approaches Russell Alan Williams Department of Political Science Unit Two: Theoretical Approaches Liberalism: Idealism Institutionalism Required Reading: Globalization of World Politics, Chapters 5, 6 and 7. Liberalism: Michael Doyle, Liberalism and World Politics, American Political Science Review, 80 (4), pp. 1151-69. (Excerpt available from the instructor). Outline:

Introduction to Liberalism Key Assumptions Conclusions For Next Time 1) Introduction to Liberalism: Most popular modern approach? International Political Economy vs. Security???? Supported by:

Leading states, IOs and MNCs Most scholars Key Thinkers: Kant & Locke Enlightenment thought Wilson Keohane Liberalism is messy . . . less continuity than in realist tradition Modern Liberalism arose out of dissatisfaction with idealism, but continuing hostility to realism . . . =Approach often defined in opposition to realism starting point is where realists have gone wrong: 1) Anarchy is not descriptively accurate

Institutions/norms/laws exist in IR - More cooperation than expected 2) States are not actors in the way realists understand Domestic politics - internal bargaining impact what states do 3) Military power is not as fungible as assumed: Realist notion of power flawed a) Emphasis on military capabilities overdone b) Power is not material = ability to influence and achieve objectives is what matters 4) Most liberals suspicious of realisms militarism and lack of normative goals

Liberals believe war is abnormal and should be avoided at all costs 2) Key Assumptions A) Humans are basically good . . . Societal progress comes from cooperation = Need for institutions and conditions that reduce conflict Common theme = Conflict comes from bad institutions and lack of rules Harmony of Interests: E.g. Liberal support for free trade individual choice, and the free market reduce potential for conflict.

Support individualism Liberals see a world of Absolute Gains cooperation can make everyone better off 2) Key Assumptions B) Identity of a state matters! Internal political structures, societal values etc. impact both how a state behaves and how others see it. E.g. the Democratic Peace? 2) Key Assumptions B) Identity of a state matters!

Internal political structures, societal values etc. impact both how a state behaves and how others see it. E.g. the Democratic Peace? No two democracies have gone to war with one another Democracies are more likely to fight wars with nondemocracies(?) Hotly debated, but factually true . . . A real problem for neorealism since it should not matter.

Michael Doyle & the Democratic Peace How do we explain the odd mix of aggression and non aggression by democratic states? Republican Liberalism: Democratic institutions and values mean democracies act differently than other states Voters dont vote for imperialist adventure, but they will fight for democracy . . . . Commercial Liberalism: Democratic states support interdependence and globalization this ties them together and makes it costly for them to not cooperate with one another Bottom line domestic institutions matter . . . . 2) Key Assumptions C) International institutions/organizations can provide order, peace and prosperity

Two liberal approaches: 1) Traditional Idealism: Based on Enlightenment ideas about harmony of interests and horrors of WWI, early liberals sought to establish rules for international politics, to reduce the role of power and the security dilemma Cooperation would come from shared beliefs about how states SHOULD act . . . Idealism is most closely associated with Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points: Support for Self Determination/end to

empires. End secret diplomacy Establishment of the League of Nations = Collective Security instead of the balance of power What happened to Wilsonian Idealism? Collective Security of the League of Nations failed within 20 years . . . . Many powers were either unhappy with the status quo, or never took principles seriously.

The U.S. refused to play leadership role, and pursued its own interests. > > > Lost support after start of WWII states would not simply do what was politically right though many think idealism is back(!) 2) Key Assumptions C) International institutions, organizations, regimes can provide order, peace and prosperity Two liberal approaches: 2) Neoliberal Institutionalism: Contemporary approach to liberalism

Neoliberalism = Normative economic policy support for capitalism and free markets Institutionalism = Analytical belief institutions can help overcome relative gains Robert Keohane (1980s) attempted to merge realism with evidence of cooperation Pakistan Cooperate (No Nukes) Cooperate Defect

(No nukes) (Get Nukes) C,C C,D D,C D,D India Defect (Get Nukes) India preference = DC>CC>DD>CD Pakistan preference = CD>CC>DD>DC Realism: If both states are rational, fear of cheating and relative gains leads to equilibrium at (D,D)

Key Point: Rational self interest makes cooperation difficult = But, both states worse off then they could be . . . Pakistan Cooperate (No Nukes) Cooperate Defect (No nukes) (Get Nukes) C,C C,D D,C

D,D India Defect (Get Nukes) Neoliberal Institutionalists argue that (C,C) is often equilibrium - Why? 1) Iteration - repeated interaction increase likelihood of cooperation (you cant afford a bad reputation) 2) Institutions reduce fear of cheating (E.g. Surveillance & dispute resolution) Neoliberal Institutionalism key insights: Same assumptions of realism leads to different conclusion

Cooperation less difficult than expected States can seek absolute gains instead of relative gains States can accept situations where others may gain more then them, as long as they gain as well!!! Most cited example is free trade . . . . Institutions and international organizations matter! Trade Regime - World Trade Organization (WTO) encourages states to support globalization UN and collective security? States increasingly support ideal because it is in their interest, not because they they should E.g. Iraq invasion of Kuwait (1990)

3) Conclusions - Liberalism: Liberalism sees a world of more than just states . . . . A) States Neoliberal institutionalism almost as statist as realism Other liberals pay significant attention to substate actors E.g. Republican Liberals C) International Organizations major distinction between realism and liberalism D) Non-Governmental Organizations E) Multinational Corporations 3) Conclusions - Liberalism: View of individual: Humans are highly cooperative need correct institutional environment to advance society = Democracy and free markets

View of state: Not unitary, and not necessarily rational However, major differences within liberalism . . . . Neo-liberalism vs. Democratic Peace Liberals View of international system: Governed by anarchy, but: Globalisation changes things! Self interest = potential for international laws, rules, values and norms E.g. It is possible to reduce importance of anarchy 5) Conclusions: Strengths:

Increasing relevance to current world Fukuyamas End of History Liberal democracy increasingly the norm = basis of sovereignty(?) Interstate war morally unacceptable, increasingly uncommon Focus on economic cooperation = globalisation Focus on domestic politics = seems more realistic Weaknesses: Confusion! Many variables, units of analysis . . . Major differences within theory . . . The shadow of the past . . .

Liberalism has been dominant before, only to fail miserably Perhaps the world will change again? Are interdependence and globalisation a permanent trend? Is interstate war a thing of the past? 6) For Next Time . . . Unit Two: Theoretical Approaches September 24 & 26: Alternative Approaches Required Reading: Globalization of World Politics, Chapters 8, 9, 10 and 16.

Vladimir Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, Chapter VII, Imperialism as a Special stage of Capitalism (Available from the instructor) Alexander Wendt, Anarchy is what states make of it: The social construction of power politics, International Organization, Vol. 46(2), (Spring 1992), Pp. 391-425. (Excerpt available from the instructor.)

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