Postwar Detroit 1945-1974

Postwar Detroit 1945-1974

POSTWAR DETROIT 1945-1974 THE FALL OF AUTOMOTIVE ICONS 1957 Hudson Hornet Auto production reached 1929 peak in 1949. Hudson automobiles merged with Nash in 1954, but ended production in 1957 Packard merged with Studebaker in 1954, but ended production in 1958. Big Three had better factories and more dealerships 1950 Ford surpasses Chrysler as #2 auto maker 2011/03/29/hemmings-find-of-the-day-1957hudson-hornet-custom/ 1958 Packard 1957_and_1958_Packards WALTER REUTHER "There is no greater calling than to serve your fellow men. There is no greater contribution than to help the weak. There is no greater satisfaction than to have done it well." 1945 GM strike 113 days Walter Reuther asked for 30% pay increase, but gets 15%

1946 - Elected president of the UAW, and purged union of communists Wounded in arm in assassination attempt in 1948 Led the UAW (and CIO in 1952) until 1970. In the 1940s, UAW started siding with New Deal Democrats wanting reforms. 1955 AFL merges with CIO. 1970 Died in plane crash in Pellston, MI when his plane was likely sabotaged. ANOTHER RED SCARE 1948 - House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) formed headed by Richard Nixon. HUAC considered Detroit with all its foreigners as a prime target. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) started accusing state department officials and others of being communist in Feb. 1950 (eventually

disgraced in 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings) 1950 McCarran Act all Communists must register with the Attorney General. Detroit voted to allow investigations into private lives of city employees, and created a Loyalty Commission. 1952 Michigan passes the Communist Control Act created the state police Red Squad. Ended in 1977, it investigated thousands of Socialists, civil rights activists, antiwar demonstrators, and liberal politicians. Detroit created its own squad. Police Commissioner Harry Toy: un-American citizens ought either to be shot, thrown out of the country, or put in jail. Labor leaders like Walter Reuther were investigated as well. Harry Toy served as a Michigan Supreme Court Justice before coming police commissioner. wiki/McCarthyism McCarthy ubbthreads.php? ROSA PARKS Refused to move from her seat on a Montgomery, AL bus, starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955-56, led by Martin L. King (Start of Civil Rights Era) Moved to Detroit in 1957 where her brother and sister-in-law lived after losing her department store job in Montgomery. Disagreed with MLK, who believed in human rights for all races. MLK was too political, opposed the Vietnam War. 1965-1988 worked as secretary and receptionist for Rep. John Conyers (D-MI) Husband died of throat cancer in 1977 Attacked in her home in 1994, and moved to the Riverfront Towers, who tried to evict her in 2004 Parks is

called the Mother of the Civil Rights movement 2013/01/22/rosa-parks-statue-to-go-up-on- MICHIGAN IN THE 1950S Prosperous time in which population grew 23% (7th largest state), but UP and northern Michigan lost residents Soapy Williams was governor 1956 Interstate Highway Act paid for 90% of 41,000 new highways across the U.S. (Mackinac Bridge completed in 1957 after 3 years and $100 million in bonds) 1959 St. Lawrence Seaway opens, so

freighters can travel from Michigan to Europe NORTHLAND CENTER Opened in 1954 as nations modern shopping center built by Hudsons (worlds second largest department store chain at one time) Built for $20 million with 70 stores and anchored by Hudsons with hotel, restaurant, and office complex. Land in suburbs (farmland) was cheaper than in central cities Designed by Victor Gruen. Two years later, Gruen designed the first enclosed shopping mall in Minnesota. In 1959, he also designed the Kalamazoo Mall in 1959, the first outdoor pedestrian mall.

Enclosed in the 1970s Hudsons later built Eastland Mall (1957), Westland Mall (1965), Victor_Gruen GERHARD MENNEN (SOAPY) WILLIAMS (D) 2nd longest-serving governor in state history (19481960)

Legislature remained Republican, and were more powerful nationally thanks to Eisenhower. Charles E. Wilson (Engine Charlie) president of GM, served as Eisenhowers Sec. of Defense. Education was chief priority. Reduced school districts from 5,200 to 2,100, built 30,000 classrooms, and hired 20,000 teachers. Built 7 new community colleges. Prison reform Model Corrections Act put administration under a state director and a five-man commission to improve efficiency and treatment Civil Rights Fair Employment Act of 1955 established commission to hear complaints of job discrimination Increased Tourism Advertised water wonderland and built Mackinac Bridge in 1957. Succeeded by John Swainson in 1960 (Williams lieutenant governor) Wilson http:// wiki/index.php/ Wilson,_Charles_E. scripts/p3_v2/P3V30200.cfm?

P3_newspaperID=Newspape rID&P3_ArticleID=1246 1959 FISCAL CRISIS IN ONE INDUSTRY STATE 1946 Voters agree that 77% of revenue from the sales tax should go to local schools and local governments causing years of financial trouble for the state Created new taxes over next several years on cigarettes, diesel fuel, watercraft, liquor, and business activities Recession of 1958 - Deficit was $21 million in 1958, and grew to $95 million in 1959. Relied on prosperity of auto industry, and defense contracts went to other states as did auto plants (employment in MI plants dropped to 293,000 in 1958 vs. 503,000 in 1953). Sales tax revenue declined significantly. Payless payday on May 5, 1959 was bad publicity. Automation claimed 100,000 auto jobs from 1958-62.

In 1959, MI creates a 1% use tax but state supreme court strikes down, so enacts nuisance taxes on beer, telephone bills, cigarettes, liquor, and the corporation franchise tax. Fiscal crisis hurt Gov. Williams and the Democrats ELECTION OF 1960 Democrat Lieutenant Gov. John Swainson, 35, elected governor despite fiscal crisis Swainson only lasted one term until defeated in 1962 by Republican George Romney MICHIGAN IN THE 1960S

Detroit lost 159,000 residents (10%), and most central cities (except Ann Arbor and East Lansing) lost population. White population in central cities fell 17%, while nonwhite population went up 41% (20% unemployed in Detroit) Recession of 1958 ended in 1962, and prosperity continued until 1973 Agriculture did well (19th in nation in 1967) Attendance at 28 community colleges boomed, and MI ranked third in conferring masters degrees GOV. GEORGE W. ROMNEY (19621969) Born in 1907 in Mexico in a Mormon settlement, and 2012/01/how-mitt-romneys-mexicanborn-father-was-eligible-to-bepresident/

Romneys son, Mitt, ran for president in 2012 moved to Utah at age 5 1940 moved to Detroit to head the new office of the Automobile Manufacturers Association 1954 helped Nash merge with Hudson Autos creating the new American Motors Corporation (AMC) Credited with coining the term compact and sold many small Nash Ramblers by criticizing gasguzzling dinosaurs Won respect for the smallest auto maker 1959 Founded Citizens for Michigan, a nonpartisan group trying to wrest control from special interest groups. CFM was key civic group involved in Constitution of 1963, but Romney had to declare himself a Republican to be elected to convention 1962 Defeated incumbent Swainson for governor on campaign of Lets Get Michigan on the Move.

Won election, but most other Republicans lost. GOV. GEORGE W. ROMNEY (1962-1969) 1968 Ran for President of the United States, but lost nomination to Richard Nixon, from whom he campaigned for in Michigan. Nixon later appointed Romney as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Romney lost favor by saying in Sept. 1967 that he had received the greatest brainwashing that anybody can get after a visit to Vietnam in Oct. 1965. Tet Offensive in Jan. 1968 soon turned many Americans against the war. Romney resigned in Jan. 1969, and lieutenant governor William Milliken took over Romney, and his successor William Milliken, were able to cooperate with the majority Democrats, so much of his agenda was enacted. CONSTITUTION OF 1963

1908 Constitution, largely a rewrite of the 1850 Constitution, had 70 amendments Delegates assembled in Lansing with Stephen Nisber, a member of the State Board of Education, as convention president George Romney, president of American Motors, was leader of liberal Republicans, and D. Hale Brake led the conservative Republicans. Democrats were only 1/3 of convention, and largely cooperated with Romney, who gave in to conservatives in bid for governorship. Critics called the Constitution Romneys Charter CONSTITUTION OF 1963

Agreed to a flat tax rate rather than a graduated income tax. Ban on deficit spending. Governor became stronger to make govt more efficient (starting in 1966, 4 year term, so never fell on presidential election year). Senators also had 4 year term rather than 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a team, not independently Consolidate govt into 20 department with a single head appointed by governor and approved by Senate (eliminated 130 agencies and boards) Governor did not oversee the Board of Education or the Highway Department New elected offices created, making ballot longer Supreme Court and Circuit Court judges elected State Board of Education members elected Civil Rights Commission created (one of the 20 departments)

Overall improvement on the 1908 Constitution PUBLICLY-FUNDED EDUCATION 1964 State mandates all school districts to have K-12 education and consolidate school districts (7,333 in 1910 reduced to 740 in 1967) One-room schoolhouses become extinct, and need for school buses increases 1947 State aid to community colleges begins (many built in the 1960s, because 70-80% of all students public college or university). LABOR DISPUTES Michigan Public Employment Relations Act (1965) allows state employees to collectively bargain and strike. Wisconsin was the first state in

1959, and in 2011, overturned it. 30 states have this right. 1967 Detroits 10,000 teachers strike, delaying school opening for 13 days MICHIGAN TAXES Dems won both houses of state legislature in 1964 due to popularity of LBJ, and dislike of very conservative Barry Goldwater 1967 State agrees to 2.6% flat tax on personal income, 5.6% on corporate income, and 7% for financial institutions. Replaced by Single Business Tax in 1976. Now the state income tax rate is 4.35%. 1967 Detroit, Flint, Hamtramck, and Saginaw agree to 1% city tax on residents and .5% on nonresidents Today, 22 cities impose a 1% tax, but Detroit charges

2.5% for residents and 1.25% for nonresidents. TOM HAYDEN AND THE NEW LEFT http:// people/ 153/000024081/ Hayden later married fellow anti-war protester Jane Fonda 1966 Hayden forms the SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) at the Univ. of Michigan, and issues the Port Huron statement (agenda for the New Left: environmentalism, opposition to the Vietnam War (400,000 Michiganders served), conscription,

ROTC on campuses (Reserve Officer Training Corps) 1969 MI passes law that any student convicted of participating in campus violence would not be eligible for state scholarships and tuition grants New Left lost major issue with end of Vietnam War in 1975 womens-life/10318821/Celebrity-bodieswe-coveted-from-Jane-Fonda-to-Jennifer- DETROITS DECLINING POPULATION Population peak in 1950 at 1.85 million (5th largest city, just behind Los Angeles) Now is 714,000 (18th largest city) while LA has 3.8 million (2nd largest),4668,7-277-60279-295631--,00.html

THE DECLINE OF DETROIT bio.htm 1956 Last streetcar in Detroit, downtown parking became scarce 1959 Kerns Department Store closes 1972 S.S. Kresges HQ moves to Troy 1977 - Crowleys Department store closes 1983 Hudsons closes 1992 River Place Inn closes after three years

pin/118782508895784196/ Hudsons was once the worlds largest department store hudsons-department-store/ THE RISE OF THE SUBURBS 1954 Northland Shopping Center opens, encouraging further movement to the suburbs 1954 - $840 million, 105 mile, LodgeFord freeway completed.

1963 I-75 completed through Troy 1965 - Westland Mall is first enclosed mall in Michigan 1967 Fisher Freeway and Chrysler Freeway (I-75) completed, destroying Black Bottom and Paradise Valley WHITE FLIGHT STARTED BEFORE 1967 RIOT http:// AroundDetroit/ DetExpwyBusHistory.html CAUSES OF URBAN RIOTS IN LATE 60S Raised black expectations created by Great

Society legislation Lingering de facto segregation, discrimination and prejudice Massive black migration to northern cities (>1 million per year) Shortage of jobs created competition between whites and blacks, so high black unemployment White police hassling black residents Crowded living conditions, high temperatures PARADISE VALLEY AND BLACK BOTTOM WATTS RIOT Watts (black section of LA) (Aug. 1965) arrest of black for drunk driving escalated into a fight that led to 36 hour riot (34 dead, 900+ injured, $45 million in property damage). Worst riot since 1943 Detroit riot. 33006819751/august-11-1965-the-wattsriots-break-out-in-los process.htm DETROIT AS A MODEL CITY Biracial committee on human relations established after 1943 riot, and Gov. Williams appointed advisory committee on civil rights in 1949. 1955 Fair Employment Practices Act to prevent job discrimination 1962 First constitutionally created civil rights commission in the U.S. 1960 Blacks comprise 30% of Detroits population, and many become middle class 1962 - Mayor Jerome Cavanaugh enacts antipoverty program, and by 1967, Detroit had received $42

million in federal antipoverty funds DETROIT AS A POWDER KEG Housing segregated Police force predominantly white, and blacks alleged harassment Unemployment in Detroit was 11%, and higher among black youths Gradualism of MLK increasingly rejected in favor of Malcolm Xs radical approach. Black Muslims started in Detroit in 1930. Malcolm X was

assassinated in 1965. MLK spoke at Cobo Hall in June 1963 two months before his famous I have a dream speech in Washington: We want all of our rights. We want them here and we want them now. 125,000 people marched in Detroit. H. Rap Brown, Black Panther, spoke in Detroit in June 1967: Motown, if you dont come around, were going to burn you down. Summer of 1967 was hot and humid http:// www.lansing labornews.or g/ index.cfm? zone=/ unionactive/ view_article. cfm&homeI D=294216 feed=rss2&cat=19 THE RIOT OF 1967 Detroit (Sunday, July 23, 1967) police raid a blind pig (illegal afterhours drinking establishment) and try to arrest patrons, but riot breaks out (lasted 5 days) Mayor Jerome Cavanaugh ordered police to the scene, but told them to not forcibly disperse the rioters, who made no demands and who shouted down calls from black leaders like John Conyers to stop. Gov. Romney calls out state police and national guard, then soon asks for federal troops, which dont arrive until 48 hours after start of riot. Rioting continued for several more days (43 dead, 1,000+ injured, 2,509 stores burned, 7,331 arrests, 5,000 homeless, and $40-$80 million in damage). President LBJ, a Democrat, went on TV to criticize potential 1968 opponent Romney for not controlling riot.

Racial disturbances in Flint, Saginaw, and Grand Rapids at same time. RESPONSE TO RIOTS Kerner Commission (1968) said riots caused by white racism, discrimination, and segregation (recommended more govt programs) Some said it was not a race riot, but a criminal attack on property. White flight to suburbs to escape mad dogs and lawbreakers Detroit integrated police and fire dept., made housing ordinances forbidding discrimination, Citizen committee called New Detroit was formed, headed by J.L. Hudson Jr.

Joseph L. Hudson Jr., Mayor Jerome Cavanagh, and Gov. George Romney 1965 IMMIGRATION REFORM Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Fair Housing Act of 1968 Immigration Act of 1965 No quotas from countries anymore, but can come if family is already here The number of American residents born outside the country rose from 9.6 million in 1970 to more than 40 million in 2010 (81% came from Asia and Latin America, mainly Mexico). Whites (or those that self-identify as whites) will be the

minority in 2050. MICHIGAN IN THE 1970S South continued to steal MI industry and auto factories with non-unionized labor and lower taxes Detroit plagued with drug-related crime dubbed the Murder City in 1973 by Time magazine 1973 Arab Oil Embargo shifted auto production to smaller cars and Japanese cars start taking some of the Big 3s market share Urban renewal efforts in Detroit, Flint, and other cities Kmart

S.S. KRESGE (KMART) http:// www.findagrave. com/cgi-bin/ fg.cgi? page=gr&GRid= 1280 Founded in 1897 in Detroit by Sebastian S. Kresge (1867-1966) as a five and dime store. Incorporated in 1912, the S.S. Kresge Corporation was headquartered in Detroit until 1972, when it moved to Troy. The building housed 5,000 employees. First K-mart built in Garden City in 1962 Kresge and Hudsons anchored Oakland Mall in 1965. S.S. Kresge Corporation renamed Kmart Corporation in 1977

Kmart went bankrupt in 2002, but was purchased by Sears in 2005 Now third leading retailer behind Walmart and Target Hendrik G. Meijer and son Frederik opened grocery store in Greenville, MI in 1934. In 1962, he put grocery and merchandise under one roof, called Meijer Thrifty Acres Fred Meijer died in 2011 as the 60th wealthiest person in the U.S. 2010/09/southwest_michigan_links_fred.html industry-intelligence/id35638/meijer-celebrates-50-years-of- J.L. HUDSON COMPANY BECOMES MACYS

Started in 1881 by Joseph L. Hudson 1969 Bought by Dayton, a Minneapolis department store company to become Dayton-Hudson 1990 Dayton-Hudson bought Marshall Fields 2006 Bought by May Department Stores to become Macys The Hudsons building in's Detroit was the worlds tallest department store in 1961. It was demolished in 1998. http:// Joseph_Lowthian_Hudson cparticle=4&siarticle=3 WILLIAM G. MILLIKEN (R) 1969-1983 Lt. Gov. under Romney led the moderate Republicans Reelected twice, so longest-serving Governor from 1969 to 1983, but Democrats dominated during tenure. Called the ghetto governor for increasing state aid to Detroit. Worked well with Coleman Young. Major failure was the handling of the 1973 contaminated feed disaster (Cattlegate) that killed thousands of livestock. Someone mixed up PBB (cancer causing fire retardant) with Nutrimaster (a food supplement for dairy cattle). Michigan ultimately got 75% reimbursement for damages Millikens son, Bill Jr., is a commercial real estate broker from the president federal govt pay state farmers

and former of the to Michigan Association of for livestock losses and medical expenses. REALTORS http:// ann_arbor_business _review/2008/01/ greg_migliore_real_ MILLIKEN VS. BRADLEY (1974) NAACP (Bradley) filed lawsuit against Gov. Milliken to desegregate schools because there was a direct relationship between unfair housing practices (such as redlining) and educational segregation 1971 - U.S. District Judge Stephen Roth orders

busing from Detroit to suburbs to integrate schools, but U.S. Supreme Court overturned in 1974. S.C. said blacks choose to self-segregate by living in Detroit, so suburbs should not be blamed if school district lines are not drawn with racist intent. ENDED BUSING, so blacks stuck in inner city schools. PHILIP A. HART (D) Lieutenant Gov. under G. Mennen Williams in 1954 and 1956 18 year Senator from 1958-1976 Favored civil rights, consumer protection, and regulation of big business Backed busing for school integration

Backed safety and anti-pollution legislation that angered Big 3. Favored gun control Called the Conscience of the Senate Sleep Bear Dune Visitor Center named after him, as was Hart Plaza in Detroit MICHIGAN STATE LOTTERY 1964 New Hampshire is first state with lottery 1972 Michigan voters approve lottery (6th state to follow New Hampshire) Money was supposed to go only to schools, but has been used for general fund

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