Powered Industrial Trucks (29 DFR 1910.178)

Powered Industrial Trucks (29 DFR 1910.178)

Walking - Working Surfaces 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart D Presented by: ETTA Bureau, (919) 807-2875 This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Objectives 29 CFR 1910, Subpart D In this course, we will discuss: - Hazards - Definitions - General requirements - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes

- Ladders - Scaffolds - Other working surfaces This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Definitions 1910.21(a)(1) Floor hole - An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than 1 inch in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard,

through which materials but not persons may fall Such as a belt hole, pipe opening, or slot opening This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Definitions 1910.21(a)(2) Floor opening - An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or

yard through which persons may fall Such as a hatchway, stair or ladder opening, pit, or large manhole Floor openings occupied by elevators, dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, or containers are excluded from this subpart. Top View This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Definitions

1910.21(a)(10) Wall hole - An opening less than 30 inches but more than 1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition Such as a ventilation hole or drainage scupper NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Definitions 1910.21(a)(11) Wall opening - An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall Such as an opening for a window, yard-arm doorway or chute opening

NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. General Requirements 1910.22(a) Housekeeping - Workplaces shall be kept clean, orderly, and sanitary - Workroom floors shall be maintained as clean and dry as possible - Every floor, working place and passageway shall be kept free from

protruding nails, splinters, holes, or loose boards This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. General Requirements 1910.22(b) Aisles and passageways - Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear and in good repair - Permanent aisles and passageways shall be marked - Where mechanical handling equipment is used, aisles,

loading docks, and doorways shall maintain sufficient safe clearances NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. General Requirements 1910.22(c) Covers and guardrails - Shall be provided to protect workers from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.

NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. General Requirements 1910.22(d) Floor loading protection - Load ratings shall be marked on plates of approved design and be conspicuously posted - Unlawful to place a load rating limit greater than approved by

building official This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Floor Openings 1910.23(a)(1) Stairway floor opening - Shall be guarded by a standard railing - Railing shall be provided on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway) NCDOL Photo Library

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Floor Openings 1910.23(a)(2)-(3) Ladderway floor opening or platform - Guarded by a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening) - Passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening Hatchway and chute floor opening - Guarded by hinged floor opening cover equipped

with standard railings or permanently attached This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Floor Openings 1910.23(a)(4)-(5) Skylight floor opening and hole - Shall be guarded by a standard skylight screen or a fixed standard railing on all exposed sides Pit and trapdoor floor opening - Infrequently used openings shall be guarded by a floor opening cover of standard strength and construction - While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap opening

shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Floor Openings 1910.23(a)(6) Manhole floor opening - Shall be guarded by a standard manhole cover which need not be hinged in place - While the cover is not in place, the manhole opening shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be

protected by removable standard railings This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Floor Openings 1910.23(a)(7), 1910.23(a)(8) Temporary floor opening - Shall have standard railings, or shall be constantly attended by someone Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally walk shall be guarded by either: - A standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides,

or - A floor hole cover of standard strength and construction While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by a removable standard railing This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Wall Openings and Holes 1910.23(b) Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by: - Rail, roller, picket fence, half door, or equivalent barrier

Where exposure below to falling materials, a removable toe board or the equivalent shall also be provided This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms 1910.23(c) Open-sided floors or platforms - 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing (or

equivalent) on all open sides, except where there is an entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms 1910.23(c)(1) Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing Railing shall be provided with

NCDOL Photo Library a toe board wherever, beneath the open sides: - Persons can pass - There is moving machinery - There is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms 1910.23(c)(2) Runways - Shall be guarded by a standard railing on all open sides 4 feet or more above floor or ground level

- Wherever tools, machine parts, or materials are likely to be used on the runway, a toeboard shall also be provided on each exposed side This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms 1910.23(c)(3) Regardless of height, a standard railing and toeboard must be used to guard: - Open-sided floors, Walkways, Platforms, or Runways

NCDOL Photo Library located above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, and similar hazards This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms Is this correct? NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Open-Sided Floors and Platforms

Is this correct? No Stair Rails and Standard Railing Needed NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Stairway, Railings and Guards 1910.23(d)(1) Every flight of stairs with four or more risers shall have standard stair railings or handrails NCDOL Photo Library

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Stairway, Railings and Guards 1910.23(d)(1) On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides enclosed, at least one handrail, preferably on the right side descending On stairways > 44 inches wide < 88 inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side On stairways 88 or more inches wide, one handrail on

each enclosed side, one stair railing on each open side, and one intermediate stair railing located approximately midway of the width This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Railings, Toeboards and Covers 1910.23(e) Standard railings - Consist of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and have a vertical height of 42 inches from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level

- Intermediate rail shall be approximately halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Railings, Toeboards and Covers 1910.23(e) Handrails - Height shall be not more than 34 inches nor less

than 30 inches from upper surface of handrail to surface of tread in line with face of riser or to surface of ramp - A strength to withstand at least the minimum NCDOL Photo Library requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Railings, Toeboards and Covers 1910.23(e) Toeboards

- Shall be 4 inches nominal in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp NCDOL Photo Library Toeboards This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Railings, Toeboards and Covers 1910.23(e) Skylight screens - Shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds

Wall opening barriers - Shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Industrial Stairs 1910.24(c)-(d) Stair strength - Shall be able to carry 5 times expected load; minimum of 1,000 pounds Stair width - Minimum width of 22 inches

NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Industrial Stairs 1910.24(e) Angle of stairway rise - Fixed stairs shall be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30 degrees and 50 degrees - Table D-1 gives rise/tread dimensions which will produce a stairway within the permissible range

NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Industrial Stairs 1910.24(f) Treads - Shall be slip resistant with uniform rise height and tread width NCDOL Photo Library

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Industrial Stairs Vertical clearance - A minimum clearance of 7 feet above any stair tread to an overhead obstruction 1910.24(i) NCDOL Photo Library > 7 Feet This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

Portable Ladders 1910.25,1910.26 Stepladders - three types - Type I - Industrial stepladder NCDOL Photo Library 3 to 20 feet for heavy duty use, such as utilities, contractors, and industrial use stepladders - Type II - Commercial stepladder 3 to 12 feet for medium duty use, such as painters, offices, and light industrial

use stepladders - Type III - Household stepladder This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. 3 to 6 feet for light duty, such as light Portable Ladders 1910.25,1910.26 Straight and extension ladders - Length of single ladders or individual sections of ladders shall not exceed 30 feet - Two-section ladders shall not exceed 60 feet in

length Trestle ladders/platform ladders - Shall be not more than 20 feet in length This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Portable Ladders 1910.25,1910.26 Use and care - Be maintained in good condition at all times - Not be used for anything other than intended use

NCDOL Photo Library - Shall be inspected frequently If defects are found, mark and take out of service - Designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Portable Ladders 1910.25,1910.26

- Base placed a distance from the vertical wall equal to one-fourth the working length of the ladder - Must be placed with secure footing - Shall be placed as to prevent slipping, or it shall be lashed, or held in position This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Portable Ladders 1910.25,1910.26 When used to gain access to a roof or other area, shall extend at least 3 feet above the point of support

Tops of stepladders shall not be used as steps Ladders shall not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases Must be placed with the two rails supported This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Portable ladders shall have non-conductive side rails if they are used where

the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized parts 1910.26(c)(3)(viii) NCDOL Photo Library Ladders for Electrical Work Fiberglass Ladder Example This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fiberglass Ladders OSHA does not address fiberglass ladders. ANSI has guidelines for choosing fiberglass ladders.

- According to ANSI 14.5-2000, fiberglass ladders should be made of good, commercial-grade, thermosetting polyester resin reinforced with glass fibers The following needs to be considered and followed: - Electrical issues - Corrosion resistance - Outdoor weathering - Thermal conditions - Structural integrity NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Ladders

1910.27 Cages or wells required if longer than 20 feet to a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet - Platform with standard railings and toeboard required every 30 feet (if no safety device provided, every 20 feet) NCDOL Photo Library Cages shall extend down the ladder to a point not less than 7 feet nor more than 8 feet from base Cages shall extend a minimum of 42 inches above the top of landing

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Ladders 1910.27 Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length instead of cage protection - No landing platform required Preferred pitch of fixed ladders shall be considered to come in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal

Permanently attached to a structure, building or equipment This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Fixed Ladders 1910.27 Shall be inspected regularly, with the intervals between inspections being determined by use and exposure Metal ladders and appurtenances shall be painted or otherwise treated

to resist corrosion and rusting Wood ladders, when used under conditions where decay may occur, shall be treated with a nonirritating preservative NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 General requirements for all scaffolds

- Shall not be altered or moved horizontally while in use or occupied - Overhead protection shall be provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards NCDOL Photo Library This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28

- Footing shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load - Shall be capable of supporting at least four times the maximum intended load NCDOL Photo Library Incorrect Unstable footing No base plate Improper mudsill This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 - Planking shall be scaffold grade

- Shall be secured to permanent structures - Screen mesh shall be provided between the toeboard and the guardrail where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffolds - Must be plumb, level, and squared This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 - All planking or platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or secured from movement - An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided

- Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches - Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 General requirements for wood pole scaffolds - Cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer sets of poles

- Where planking is lapped, each plank shall lap its end supports at least 12 inches - Guardrails with a mid-rail, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 - 1910.28(c) - Tube and coupler - 1910.28(d) - Tubular welded frame - 1910.28(e) - Outrigger - 1910.28(f) - Masons adjustable multiple-point suspension

- 1910.28(g) - Two-point suspension (swinging) - 1910.28(h) - Stone setters adjustable multiple-point suspension - 1910.28(i) - Single-point adjustable suspension - 1910.28(j) - Boatswains chair - 1910.28(k) - Carpenters bracket This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Scaffolding 1910.28 - 1910.28(l) - Bricklayers square - 1910.28(m) - Horse - 1910.28(n) - Needle beam - 1910.28(o) - Plasterers, decorators, and large area - 1910.28(p) - Interior hung

- 1910.28(q) - Ladder-jack - 1910.28(r) - Window-jack - 1910.28(s) - Roofing brackets - 1910.28(t) - Crawling board or chicken ladders - 1910.28(u) - Float or ship This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 Work platforms and scaffolds shall be capable of carrying the design load Design working load of ladder stands shall be

calculated on the basis of one or more 200-pound persons together with 50 pounds of equipment each All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be capable of supporting at least four times the design working load This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 Design load of all scaffolds - Light - Designed and constructed to carry a working

load of 25 pounds per square foot - Medium - Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 50 pounds per square foot - Heavy - Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 75 pounds per square foot This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 Work levels - Maximum work level height shall not exceed four times the minimum or least base dimensions of

any mobile ladder stand or scaffold - Minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolds (towers) - Ladder stands shall have a minimum step width of 16 inches This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 - Scaffold work levels 10 feet or higher above the ground or floor shall have a standard guardrail, midrail, and toeboard - A climbing ladder or stairway shall be

provided for proper access and egress This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 Wheels or casters - Shall be properly designed for strength and dimensions to support four times the design working load - Scaffolds casters shall be provided with a positive wheel and/or swivel lock to prevent movement - Ladder stands shall have at least two of the four

casters and shall be of the swivel type This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds 1910.29 1910.29(b) - Mobile tubular welded frame scaffolds 1910.29(c) - Mobile tubular welded sectional folding scaffolds 1910.29(d) - Mobile tube and coupler scaffolds 1910.29(e) - Mobile work platforms 1910.29(f) - Mobile ladder stands

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Other Working Surfaces 1910.30 Dockboards (bridge plates) - Portable and powered dockboards shall be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them - Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by being anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their slipping - Handholds, or other effective means, shall be

provided on portable dockboards to permit safe handling This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Other Working Surfaces 1910.30 Forging machine area - Enough clearance between machines to allow unobstructed operator movement - Aisles shall be sufficient width to permit free movement of employees bringing and removing material

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Other Working Surfaces 1910.30 Veneer machinery - Sides of steam vats shall extend to a height of not less than 36 inches above the floor, working platform, or ground - Large steam vats shall be provided walkways between sections Walkway shall be provided with a standard handrail on each exposed side

- Workmen shall not ride or step on logs in steam vats This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Summary In this course, we discussed: - Hazards - Definitions - General requirements - Guarding floor and wall openings and holes - Ladders - Scaffolds - Other working surfaces

This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training. Thank You For Attending! Final Questions? This presentation was created by the N.C. Department of Labor for safety and health training.

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