PowerPoint - Ideal Gas Law - Pressure, Volume, Temperature
The Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT Ideal Gases An ideal gas exhibits certain theoretical properties. Specifically, an ideal gas Obeys all of the gas laws under all conditions. Does not condense into a liquid when cooled. Shows perfectly straight lines when its V and T & P and T relationships are plotted on a graph. In reality, there are no gases that fit this definition perfectly. We assume that gases are ideal to
simplify our calculations. We have done calculations using several gas laws (Boyles Law, Charless Law, Combined Gas Law). There is one more to know Recall, From Boyles Law: P1V1 = P2V2 or PV = constant From combined gas law:
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 or PV/T = constant P is pressure measured in kPa. V is volume measured in Liters n is moles of gas present. R is a constant that converts the units. It's value is 8.314 kPaL/molK T is temperature measured in Kelvin. Simple algebra can be used to solve for any of these values. P = nRT V = nRT n = PV
T = PV R = PV V P RT nR nT Developing the ideal gas law equation PV/T = constant. What is the constant? At STP: T= 273K, P= 101.3 kPa, V= 22.4 L/mol Because V depends on mol, PV = constant we can change equation to: T mol
Mol is represented by n, PV = R constant by R: Tn Rearranging, we get: PV = nRT At STP: (101.3 kPa)(22.4 L) = (1 mol)(R)(273K) R = 8.31 kPa L K mol Note: always use kPa, L, K, and mol in ideal gas law
questions (so units cancel) The Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT P = Pressure (in kPa) V = Volume (in L) T = Temperature (in K) n = moles R = 8.31 kPa L K mol R is constant. If we are given three of P, V, n, or T, we can solve for the unknown value. 1 mol of gas at STP = 22.4 L
1 mol of gas at SATP = 24.8 L STP : 0oC, 101.3 kPa SATP : 25oC, 100kPa Sample problems How many moles of H2 is in a 3.1 L sample of H2 measured at 300 kPa and 20C? PV = nRT P = 300 kPa, V = 3.1 L, T = 293 K n = PV/RT (300 kPa)(3.1 L) = n = 0.38 mol (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(293 K)
How many grams of O2 are in a 315 mL container that has a pressure of 12 atm at 25C? PV = nRT P= 1215.9 kPa, V= 0.315 L, T= 298 K (1215.9 kPa)(0.315 L) = n = 0.1547 mol (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(298 K) 0.1547 mol x 32 g/mol = 4.95 g Ideal Gas Law Questions 1. How many moles of CO2(g) is in a 5.6 L sample of CO2 measured at STP? 2. a) Calculate the volume of 4.50 mol of SO2(g) measured at STP. b) What volume would this
occupy at 25C and 150 kPa? (solve this 2 ways) 3. How many grams of Cl2(g) can be stored in a 10.0 L container at 1000 kPa and 30C? 4. At 150C and 100 kPa, 1.00 L of a compound has a mass of 2.506 g. Calculate its molar mass. 5. 98 mL of an unknown gas weighs 0.087 g at SATP. Calculate the molar mass of the gas. Can you determine the identity of this unknown gas? 1. Moles of CO2 is in a 5.6 L at STP? P=101.325 kPa, V=5.6 L, T=273 K PV = nRT (101.3 kPa)(5.6 L) = n (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(273 K) (101.325 kPa)(5.6 L)
(8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(273 K) = n = 0.25 mol 2. a) Volume of 4.50 mol of SO2 at STP. P= 101.3 kPa, n= 4.50 mol, T= 273 K PV=nRT (101.3 kPa)(V)=(4.5 mol)(8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(273 K) (4.50 mol)(8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(273 K) V= = 100.8 L (101.3 kPa) 2. b) Volume at 25C and 150 kPa (two ways)?
Given: P = 150 kPa, n = 4.50 mol, T = 298 K (4.50 mol)(8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(298 K) V= = 74.3 L (150 kPa) From a): P = 101.3 kPa, V = 100.8 L, T = 273 K Now P = 150 kPa, V = ?, T = 298 K P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2 (101.3 kPa)(100 L)
(150 kPa)(V2) = (273 K) (298 K) (101.3 kPa)(100.8 L)(298 K) = 74.3 L (V2) = (273 K)(150 kPa) 3. How many grams of Cl2(g) can be stored in a 10.0 L container at 1000 kPa and 30C? PV = nRT P= 1000 kPa, V= 10.0 L, T= 303 K (1000 kPa)(10.0 L) = n = 3.97 mol
(8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(303 K) 3.97 mol x 70.9 g/mol = 282 g 4. At 150C and 100 kPa, 1.00 L of a compound has a mass of 2.506 g. Calculate molar mass. PV = nRT P= 100 kPa, V= 1.00 L, T= 423 K (100 kPa)(1.00 L) = n = 0.02845 mol (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(423 K) g/mol = 2.506 g / 0.02845 mol = 88.1 g/mol 5. 98 mL of an unknown gas weighs 0.081 g at SATP. Calculate the molar mass.
PV = nRT P= 100 kPa, V= 0.098 L, T= 298 K (100 kPa)(0.098 L) = n = 0.00396 mol (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(298 K) g/mol = 0.081 g / 0.00396 mol = 20.47 g/mol Its probably neon (neon has a molar mass of 20.18 g/mol) Determining the molar mass of butane Using a butane lighter, balance, and graduated cylinder determine the molar mass of butane. Determine the mass of butane used by
weighing the lighter before and after use. The biggest source of error is the mass of H2O remaining on the lighter. As a precaution, dunk the lighter & dry well before measuring initial mass. After use, dry well before taking final mass. (Be careful not to lose mass when drying). When you collect the gas, ensure no gas escapes & that the volume is 90 100 mL. Place used butane directly into fume hood. Submit values for mass, volume, & g/mol. Molar Mass of Butane: Data & Calculations Atmospheric pressure:
Temperature: For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com
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