PowerPoint - Orbital Shape & Orientation - spdf, Periodic Table
Shapes and Orientations of Orbitals Periodic table arrangement s (n)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
d (n - 1) p (n) f (n -2)
the quantum theory helps to explain the structure of the periodic table. n - 1 indicates that the d subshell in period 4 actually starts at 3 (4 - 1 = 3). The location of electrons is described by: n, l, ml
n = size, l = shape, ml = orientation Electron clouds The probability of finding an electron around a nucleus can be calculated. Relative probability is indicated by a series of dots, indicating the electron cloud.
90% electron probability/cloud for 1s orbital (notice higher probability toward the centre) p orbitals and d orbitals p orbitals look like a dumbell with 3
orientations: px, py, pz (p sub z). Four of the d orbitals resemble two dumbells in a clover shape. The last d orbital resembles a p orbital with a donut wrapped around the middle. n
1 l 0(s) ml 0
2 0(s) 1(p) 3
0(s) 1(p) 2(d) 0 -1, 0, 1 0
-1, 0, 1 -2,-1, 0, 1 2 0 , 4 0(s)
ms E N E R G
Y 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p
2s 1s Movie: periodic table of the elements: t10-20
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