Urban Sanitation Strategies and City Sanitation Planning Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries IWA AIT 1st Specialist Conference on Municipal Water Management and Sanitation in Developing Countries Bangkok 2.-4. December 2014 Dr. Regina Dube, Project Director, SNUSP GIZ India Dec. .2014, Delhi Seite 1 Who are we? GIZ is a federally owned organisation of the Government of Germany. Our mandate is to support the German Government in

achieving its development objectives. We provide viable, forward-looking solutions for political, economic, ecological and social development in a globalised world. GIZ has operations in 128 countries. Seite 2 Implemented by Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy Program India Phase 1: Three Years (2011- 2014); Finished Phase 2: Three Years (2014-2017); Running

Three-tiered approach Elevator Effect for better coordination, vertical communication and knowledge exchange. National Level (NUSP) Support cell at MoUD/CPHEEO NAGUS/Techn. Advisory Committee (TAC) Strengthening of policy making & implementation tools (e.g. NUSP, SLB, DPR, etc.)

State Level (State Sanitation Strategy) State cell at UD department SSS preparation/implementation Capacity Development City Level (City Sanitation Plan) City cell at the Municipal Corporation CSP preparation/implementation Capacity development Data management Seite 3 Sanitation & Health : Lack of proper sanitation kills !! More than 1000 children under the age of five die every day due to

diarrhea in India (Source: Unicef/WHO report - 2009) Seite 4 Sanitation & Environment Ground and surface water pollution Seite 5 Sanitation & Gender Equality Women suffer most Women & girls face drudgery & serious health disorders due to lack and dirtiness of toilets, lack of private places, long waiting time etc. Girls lose school days, discontinue school High rate of crimes and violence against women when they are out for

defecation Seite 6 Sanitation & economic impacts: India Inadequate sanitation costs India INR 2.4 Trillion (US$ 53.8 Billion) per year Losses incurred due to inadequate sanitation Tourism impact; 0.5% Access time spent; 20.0% Doemstic water related impact; 7.8% Loss related to US$ in Billion Access time spent Doemstic water related impact

10.73 Health related impact 38.49 Tourism impact 0.26 Health related impact; 71.7% Source: WSP Report on The Economic Impacts of inadequate sanitation in India, Dec 2010 M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Slide 7 Seite 4.21

Challenges or why is sanitation still an issue in the 21st century? Roads, airports, flyovers, Mars missions . everything works but sanitation? Source: http://breakoutwear.co.uk/blog/?p=3449 Source: http://www.apagemedia.com/gallery/category/92 Seite 8 Challenge No.1 Speed Cities are not able to cope with the pace of urbanization with regard to Reforms Institutions Skill development Asset creation and

maintenance Seite 9 Challenge No. 2 Sanitation requires not only sound technical solutions but highly depends on good governance social and local political contexts wide ranging awareness in all stakeholders inclusiveness Seite 10 Challenge No. 3 Solutions of the west can not be replicated due to Lack of money Lack of water Lack of energy

Lack of reuse orientation Simple copy / pasting from the west will not lead to smart solutions Seite 11 Challenge No. 4 The big question : What then???? Few good examples The famous leap frogging requires vision, political will courage as well as capable institutions Success factors are often missing Seite 12 Challenge No 5 : Global warming

Impacts on Sanitation Infrastructure Floods Drought Extreme events Increased (heavy Precipitation storms) Sea level rise Heat waves Urban sanitation and climate change

What to plan for? Seite 13 Planning framework for improving city wide sanitation services (as per IWA/Eawag/GIZ strategy paper Sanitation 21) 5 stage approach (to be customized to local needs) Contains key principles and process support Looks at locally appropriate and affordable solutions for Technologies and sector governance such as data management, awareness, institutional development, financing, O&M, monitoring and evaluation, capacity building, gender and participation Selected examples from each stage of the process in India Seite 14 Stage 1 : Build institutional commitment and partnership for planning Identify leadership of and ensure accountability for the planning

process (everybody has to understand his role) Establish meaningful consultation beyond lobbyists Define vision, timelines and incentives for the planning process itself Issues faced in India : lack of role clarity, lobbyism, institutional weakness and lack of ownership for meaningful city wide planning as such Seite 15 Extent of participation Passive spectator no own initiative Only for incentives

Consultation s participate only if there is some kind of gain engagement only on particular topic not proactive answering questions Functional participati on

proactive functional engagement supportive efforts Interactive participati on ability to influence decisions suggest / demand for alternate options Self Mobilizatio n

willingness to contribute resources highly empowered to take up activities decision making Seite 16 Major obstacle : Investment centric approaches alone do not work but form often the only incentives Do I always have to eat this rubbish??? Process oriented approaches with focus on institutional development, efficiency, O&M, monitoring and accountability needed 02.12.2013

XXX Seite 17 Stage 2 : Understand the existing context and define priorities Undertake data collection Identify the status of service provision Undertake a sanitation market assessment Identify priorities Source: www.dilbert.com Issues faced in India : Insufficient spatial and non spatial data, no coordination, no clarity on need for primary data, PPP modelling not understood, monitoring weak, septage management and reuse oriented solutions unpracticed Seite 18

5 Strategic dimensions of good City Sanitation Plan (CSPs) Governance & Institutional Strengthening Finances Capacity Enhancement Solid Waste Water Supply Storm WaterXXX Inclusiveness Technology Access to Sanitation Waste water Management

Seite 19 Private sector involvement A relieve for overburdened ULBs? PPPs without proper designing, steering and contract management are not going to work: Economy of scale contra smaller concessions Who is really willing and able to monitor Conflict of interest? Who has which role and responsibility? (eg. EIA) Role of SPCBs? Seite 20 Stage 3 : Develop systems for sanitation improvement City wide planning approach Zones for system improvements Strategy for collection and transportation of

wastewater and fecal sludge Strategy for treatment, disposal and reuse Cost benefit and/ or life cycle analysis Issues in India : Septage management as city wide responsibility unpracticed, O&M mainly ignored, finding location specific options involving conventional and unconventional solutions as part of city development planning unknown Seite 21 Sanitation scheme in future ecological sanitation: from linear to closed loop Source: Water and Wastewater in Asia - The Imperative for New Approaches to Urban Water and Wastewater Management, ADB & Partners Conference, Manila, 12 October, 2010, Paul Reiter, Executive Director, International Water Association Seite 22 Decision criteria for appropriate sanitation system Centralised

Decentralised CONVENTIONAL CATCHMENT SIMPLIFIED / SHALLOW SMALL BORE/ SOLID FREE ON SITE Conventional fully centralised sewer system with the minimum of STPs. Sewage is pumped from each catchment

to 1 or 2 large STPs Traditional sewer system but with multiple systems and STPs to suit drainage catchments eg. the 7 Zones proposed for Kochi Catchment based sewerage system but with less conservative design on such things as minimum sewer depths and sizes.

Pipes not in roads Small bore system using septic tanks to remove solids before wastewater enters the sewerage system. Can be black water only or black & grey. On site sanitation systems such as septic tanks, composting toilets, pit latrines that do not

require any sewerage system Whole city Zones Ward Sub-ward / Plot Ward Pre-treatment & site conditions determine sewage transport Seite 23

Proper septage management ensures safe resource recovery and reuse of nutrients and energy incl. Waste to Energy concepts Seite 24 Stage 4 : Develop models for service delivery Develop appropriate management arrangements : technical pilots and asset creation require institutional development Develop robust cost recovery mechanisms Strengthen monitoring Strengthen regulatory mechanism Issues in India : Incomplete devolution of power, weak urban finance, lack of suitable utilities, ULBs as polluters hardly monitored and controlled Seite 25 Transition from on-site systems to centralized sewerage systems

Individual System Pit Latrines Septage Management System Septic Tank Upgrade Managed by Households Mason Centralized Sewerage system Upgrade Managed by Households Mason Plumber Managed by City / ULB Vacuum truck operators Treatment plant

operators Institutional & human resource required Managed by Household Plumbers for Household connectivity Managed by City / ULB Requires a dedicated institution for water supply & sanitation with various departments viz. Management Engineering & Technical Accounts & Finance Administration Data management Customer service Seite 26 Etc.

Water & sanitation utilities elements of good governance Seite 27 Stage 5 : Prepare for implementation Ensure proposals meet expectations for improvement Capacity building Sanitation promotion, advocacy and awareness raising Issue in India : Debate rarely reaches the urban poor and the elected representatives, awareness yet very low but Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, the Clean India Mission has started to trigger a mass movement for sanitation and cleanliness Seite 28 Sanitation and public health: awareness needed 1 gram of excreta can contain 1,00,00,000 viruses 10,00,000 bacteria

1,000 parasite cysts 100 parasite eggs Food sanitation and improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal morbidity Hand washing with soap: 30% Point of use Water treatment : 39% Sanitation (toilet): 32% Each time an adult human defecates about 250 gram of excreta P Common diseases are: Diarrhoea, Cholera, Malaria, Intestinal worms, Hepatitis, Typhoid, Polio, Ascariasis

Fluid P S Fields S Food Faece s New host Flies Finger s

P M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Slide 29 Seite No challenges without opportunities. Sanitation is gaining momentum (India : Clean India Mission) Septage management is getting recognized as the need of the hour Strong international players are pushing for sustainable business models and innovative technologies (BMGF) Some developing countries are adopting innovative solutions for septage management First pilots for innovative onside sanitation solutions closing material loops and adopting waste to energy strategies are under construction (Hamburg / Jenfelder Au) Seite 30

No challenges without opportunities. Innovative approaches for communication and awareness raising are being explored: Estimated fecal waste flows Seite 31 No challenges without opportunities. Developing countries are currently the drivers for innovation Europe for many more years to come will use existing assets Developing countries may take the lead in sustainable sanitation solutions of the future Seite 32 Thank You! www.urbansanitation.com www.susana.org

Seite 33

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