PowerPoint-Präsentation

PowerPoint-Präsentation

The mitochondrial genome Nucleoid, 75kb, 10 proteins, tRNA, rRNA, optional introns

Relaxed codon usage Variation in the code, trp, met, thr Mitochondrial genes Mitochondrial function required to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources, lactate,

glycerol, ethanol Mutations in nuclear genes that affect mito function: PET+ -> pet-

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA Wild-type, + Large deletions, Loss of mito genome, Single site mutations, , mit- (normal translation) Single site mutations, , syn- (deficient in translation)

Mito mutations give 4:0 segregation Segregation of mitochondrial genes

Mitochondrial fusion and fission Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Motion JPEG B bentigt.

Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Sorenson Video bentigt. Non-mendelian determinants 2 m plasmid, mitochondrial genes, RNA viruses,

+ prions, cytoplasmatic inheritance , , Sup35p [URE3], [ure3], Ure2p, deficiency in ureidosuccinate utilization Advantages of meiosis (sexual reproduction)

Chromosome mixing, 216=65536 possibilities Crossing over -> indefinite number of new combinations (45x2) Gene conversion Gene repair Generation of new alleles 2 different isolates of yeast differ every 100bp

meiosis MATa x MATMATa/MAT(2n)synthesis (4n) -> meiotic div. I -> meiotic div. II -> spores: MATa; MATMATa; MAT Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Video

bentigt. Classical genetics Monofactorial cross, ie. A (wt) x a (mut) 2:2 pattern of segregation if 4:0 -> mito

Complementation / non-compl. (in Dipl.) Nonallelic noncomplementation Allelic noncomplementation Supression Bifactorial cross, ie. AB x ab

If A and B are linked PD > NPD The distance of the markers A B determines the number of PD:NPD:T cM = (100/2)[(T+6NPD)/(PD+NPD+T)]

For map distances of up to 4 crossovers (45cM this is ok, >45cM Snow eq.) The number of T is proportional to the map distance If A is linked to the centromere

Centromer linkage of A and B Recombination

General recombination = Homologous recombination Order of events (I meiotic div):

1) Double strand break 2) Two chromatids from different chromosomes (maternal/paternal) cross over 3) Base pairing and strand invasion 4) Synthesis and gap repair

5) Resolution of Holiday junction Resolution of Holiday junction Gene

conversion Gene conversion

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