Relaxed codon usage Variation in the code, trp, met, thr Mitochondrial genes Mitochondrial function required to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources, lactate,
glycerol, ethanol Mutations in nuclear genes that affect mito function: PET+ -> pet-
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA Wild-type, + Large deletions, Loss of mito genome, Single site mutations, , mit- (normal translation) Single site mutations, , syn- (deficient in translation)
Mito mutations give 4:0 segregation Segregation of mitochondrial genes
Mitochondrial fusion and fission Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Motion JPEG B bentigt.
Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Sorenson Video bentigt. Non-mendelian determinants 2 m plasmid, mitochondrial genes, RNA viruses,
+ prions, cytoplasmatic inheritance , , Sup35p [URE3], [ure3], Ure2p, deficiency in ureidosuccinate utilization Advantages of meiosis (sexual reproduction)
Chromosome mixing, 216=65536 possibilities Crossing over -> indefinite number of new combinations (45x2) Gene conversion Gene repair Generation of new alleles 2 different isolates of yeast differ every 100bp
meiosis MATa x MATMATa/MAT(2n)synthesis (4n) -> meiotic div. I -> meiotic div. II -> spores: MATa; MATMATa; MAT Zur Anzeige wird der QuickTime Dekompressor Video
bentigt. Classical genetics Monofactorial cross, ie. A (wt) x a (mut) 2:2 pattern of segregation if 4:0 -> mito
Complementation / non-compl. (in Dipl.) Nonallelic noncomplementation Allelic noncomplementation Supression Bifactorial cross, ie. AB x ab
If A and B are linked PD > NPD The distance of the markers A B determines the number of PD:NPD:T cM = (100/2)[(T+6NPD)/(PD+NPD+T)]
For map distances of up to 4 crossovers (45cM this is ok, >45cM Snow eq.) The number of T is proportional to the map distance If A is linked to the centromere
Centromer linkage of A and B Recombination
General recombination = Homologous recombination Order of events (I meiotic div):
1) Double strand break 2) Two chromatids from different chromosomes (maternal/paternal) cross over 3) Base pairing and strand invasion 4) Synthesis and gap repair
5) Resolution of Holiday junction Resolution of Holiday junction Gene
This is a method proposed by song and peter in ECCV, 2010. A novelty here is that we label nodes using qualitative shapes from a collection of shapes, we use circle, square, triangle, trapezium, polygon and a random shape class....
Pastured Meatbird Processing. Funding for this presentation was provided by USDA's Outreach and Assistance to Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers (OASDFR) program (Project number 2009-00705), part of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Risk Management Agency (Award #...
(GBM) Terminology. Glomerulonephritis= inflammation of the glomeruli 'Glomerulopathy' is a more accurate term . ... SLE and Goodpasture's disease (anti-GBM) are also causes of glomerulopathy. These are potential causes of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Thank you . Any questions ...
Lewis Arnsten, Felix Gottlieb, Spenser Egnatz & Mr. Waldman. Van Cortlandt Lake is filled with numerous types of snails that could either be lunged or gilled. Lunged snails tend to live in more polluted areas with low oxygen concentrations, while...
5.4 GEOGRAPHY IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE: ... Students will create a political map of the Western Hemisphere noting which countries are in which region and a political map of the United States showing the location of the states. Political Map.
STEPS TO PREPARE TAMPER-PROOF PRINTERS Steps for setup and paper ordering CWS team will create a network change request to have print pass through mainframe and notify Steve Laming or Jarvis Jackson when a Tamper-Proof printer is installed on any...
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