MiFID II/MiFIR Transparency & Best Execution requirements in

MiFID II/MiFIR  Transparency & Best Execution requirements in

MiFID II/MiFIR Transparency & Best Execution requirements in respect of bonds 27 April 2016 Vienna Elizabeth Callaghan Overview Key objectives of MiFID II/R & transparency requirements for bonds Timeline The new market structure paradigm Market structure today & tomorrow Draft transparency requirements: Pre-trade Post-trade (including who reports) Best execution Market concerns Conclusion

Annex: Draft liquidity assessment Draft waivers and deferrals Systematic internalisers Key objectives of MiFID II/R and the transparency requirements Move OTC trading onto trading venues through a trading obligation for non-equites. E.g. Organized Trading Facility (OTF). Systematic Internalisers will also become more relevant for bond trading. Increase transparency and create a price discovery mechanism, by expanding pre- and post-trade transparency requirements to non-equity instruments. Preserve liquidity in already challenged markets: 1) pre-trade waivers and post-trade deferrals 2) tailored approach to calibration of transparency requirements for different types of trading systems Increase available data (so that market participants are informed as to the true level of potential transactions) MiFID II/R timeline

201516 Q3: ESMA final technical standards Q3 2015/ Q1 2016: implementing measures finalized 2017? Q1: MiFID II/R originally scheduled to take effect 2018? Q1: Expected date for

MiFID II/R to take effect The new market structure paradigm Bilateral Trading Venue / Multilateral Trading Regulated Market Exchange Multilateral Trading Facility MTF Organised Trading Facility* Systematic Internaliser*

OvertheCounter SI OTF OTC non-equities only e.g. Euronext, EuroMOT, BondVision, Stock Exchanges e.g. BTEC, iSwap, Tradeweb, MarketAxess Bloomberg (soon), e.g. IDBs like GFI

Broker crossing networks with discretionary order matching. e.g. active market makers, maybe active Funds Trade own capital Test per instrument: Systematic, Frequent & Substantial; Can opt in The rest *New Goal: encourage more venue trading Market Structure forms basis for transparency obligations

Level of transparency applied depends on 3 characteristics: Liquid Size Specific To the Instrument (SSTI) / small size Large in Scale (LIS) / block size MiFID II Level 1 Liquid continuous buying & selling interest SSTI no undue risk to liquidity providers LIS large in scale vs normal market size Market Structure Where we are now and where we may be in the future: Liquidity test as we understand it today: Products Eligible for

Liquidity Tests (volumes all euros) Bonds Sovereigns 1bn+ Corporates Covereds Convertibles 0.5bn+ Liquidity Test (Floors) Liquidity Test Level Calculation Frequency:

Liquidity Test & Thresholds 2 trades & 100k on 80% of days By ISIN (IBIA) & By Class (COFIA) for new issues Quarter (no Liq test for new issues) Liquidity test tomorrow*: Liquidity Test: Year 1 (2018) Year 2 (2019)

Year 3 (2020) Year 4 (2021) 15 trades per/day 10 trades per/day 7 trades per/day 2 trades per/day *(subject to EU approval) SI test tomorrow*: SI in 1 bond, requirement is to be an SI for that issuer for all new issues, regardless of currency. *(subject to EU approval)

Pre trade - draft transparency requirements: Applies to RMs, MTFs, OTFs and SIs Operators must make publicly available, on a continuous basis during trading hours, actionable indications of interest (IOIs); i.e. current bid and offer prices, and depth of trading interest . Including: Request For Quote (RFQ) systems and voice trading systems SIs, where they make quotes public, will trade at quote w/all clients of SI, subject to commercial policy (E.g. transparency limits and size thresholds.) Waivers: Pre-trade transparency requirements can be waived for: Financial instruments for which there is not a liquid market Orders that are large in scale (LIS) compared to normal market size Orders on RFQ or voice trading systems that are equal to or larger that the relevant size specific to the instrument (SSTI) Orders held in an order management system

Liquidity Trade size Yes Yes RM, MTF, OTF? Yes Liquid? Yes < SSTI (for RFQ) or LIS (on

O.B.)? OTC (SI)? Yes Liquid? Yes < SSTI? No pre-trade transparency No No OTC (non-SI)?

No Trade Trading venue Transparent Pre-trade - transparency Post-trade Draft transparency requirements Applies to RMs, MTFs, OTFs, and investment firms trading OTC. Investment firms trading outside a trading venue and market operators and investment firms operating a trading venue, must make publicly available trade details, including price and quantity. Post-trade information must be available as close to real time as possible (15 minutes from execution, up until Jan 2020 and within 5 minutes thereafter). There are no permanent waivers for post-trade reporting, but reporting can be deferred for up to 48 hours in the case where:

The transaction is in a security for which there is not a liquid market The size of the transaction is equal to or exceeds the relevant large is scale size (LIS) Under certain circumstances, a supplementary deferral regime grants relevant NCAs the authority to aggregate the trade details of several transactions, or omit publishing the size of an individual transaction, for an extended deferral period of up to 4 weeks. Where a class of instrument suffers a significant reduction in liquidity, the relevant NCA can temporarily suspend transparency requirements for that class (for up to 3 months). E.g. Greece. Who reports post-trade publically? If executing on a venue Venue reports E.g. Bloomberg If executing with an SI SI reports E.g. Goldman Sachs If executing via OTC OTC Seller reports Seller investment firm E.g. Axa, Citi

Post trade - Draft transparency requirements Yes Trade RM, MTF, OTF? Liquidity Liquid? Trade size Yes No Investment Firm, incl.

SI? Yes Liquid? < SSTI or LIS? Yes REAL-TIME Trading venue No Yes

No < SSTI or LIS? No DEFERRED (2 days or up to 4 weeks with NCA approval) Yes Best Execution RTS 27 Draft transparency requirements: best execution reporting criteria Provide the public with relevant data on execution quality to help them determine the best way to execute client orders. Execution venues including regulated markets, MTFs, SIs, OTFs, market maker or other liquidity providers must publish. In order to provide a proper context for the quality of execution obtained, the amount and nature of reported data will be segregated according to trading systems, trading

modes and trading platforms. Execution venues shall publish required information in a machine-readable electronic format on a quarterly basis, available for downloading by the public. (see Annex for details) Best Execution RTS 28 Draft transparency requirements: best execution quality of execution Top 5 venues Investment firms will evaluate the quality of their execution practices by identifying and publishing the top 5 execution venues, in terms of trading volumes where those firms executed client orders in the preceding year. This will be for each class of financial instrument and will be expressed in percentages (% of investment firms total execution volumes and number of executed orders in that class of financial instrument, rather than absolute values). Information published will be split between retail client flow and professional client flow. In a separate report, investment firms will summarise and make public the top 5 execution venues where they executed securities financing transactions (including repos). Investment firms will clearly indicate the classes of financial instruments for which they execute a very small number of orders. Investment firms shall publish for each class of financial instruments, a summary of the

analysis & conclusions based on the quality of execution on the execution venues. MiFID II Wrap-up thoughts Opportunities Key Market Concerns Still waiting on ? Improved information - On real liquidity through post-trade info Reduces time on price discovery

Increased automation through: - Increased venue trading Best execution requirements OMS/EMS functionality Helping to facilitate sourcing liquidity APAs, Automating voice, OMS upgrades, Best X requirements and TCA 48 Hr deferral: - Not considered enough time to hedge or trade out of an illiquid or large trade. Market-makers are exposed to unwarranted market risk. A disincentive to marketmakers.

Higher Costs: - Technology builds Inconsistency - Data Application of deferrals across jurisdictions, depending on counterpartys location, could impact liquidity and pricing

- Quality/reliability reporting & challenges with the costs of consolidating data Package Transactions - Pre-trade treatment (same as post) Final RTS - Could be as late as autumn, no extra time to build!

Next steps for MiFID II: ESMA & Commission working hard to address implementation challenges IOSCO creates Symbology Working group: to determine Unique Identifiers Industry wide ICMA initiatives helping with strategy, planning and implementation: MiFID II Working Group Electronic Trading Working Group (ETWG): Buy-side & Sell-side consensus led working group tackling the challenges of MiFID II Platform Working Group (PWG): Platform only based working group interacting with each other to discuss MiFID II, the challenges and again through consensus come up with solutions for best practice Contact details: ICMA Secondary Markets contacts Elizabeth Callaghan [email protected] Andy Hill [email protected]

+44(0)20 7213 0313 +44(0)20 7213 0335 Alexander Westphal [email protected] +44(0)20 7213 0333 This presentation is provided for information purposes only and should not be relied upon as legal, financial, or other professional advice. While the information contained herein is taken from sources believed to be reliable, ICMA does not represent or warrant that it is accurate or complete and neither ICMA nor its employees shall have any liability arising from or relating to the use of this publication or its contents. International Capital Market Association (ICMA), Zurich, 2016. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission from ICMA. ANNEX Annex I - MiFID II/R sets out a definition for liquid securities, including bonds: Draft liquidity assessment

Underlying pre- and post-trade reporting obligations is whether or not a security is deemed liquid. Level 1 defines a liquid market as a market for financial instruments or class of instruments for which there are ready and willing buyers and sellers, taking into consideration the average frequency and size of transactions, the number and type of market participants, and the market spread. This implies an instrument-by-instrument approach (IBIA) to calibrate liquidity based on a number of factors. For bonds, Level 2 proposes an initial static determination based on a class of financial instrument approach (COFIA), which is defined purely by issuance size relative to a variety of sub-classes of bonds. Once a full quarter of trading data is available for a bond, the liquidity determination will be based on a dynamic instrument IBIA methodology, applying a quarterly assessment of quantitative liquidity criteria. MiFID II/R sets out a definition for liquid securities, including bonds: Initial static liquidity assessment (COFIA) new bonds The initial static COFIA approach for new bonds is based purely on issuance size relative to the class of instrument. This COFIA approach will be applied for up to 5.5 months following issuance.

MiFID II/R sets out a definition for liquid securities, including bonds: Subsequent dynamic liquidity assessment (IBIA) seasoned bonds Following a full quarter of trading data for an individual bond, the liquidity determination will be based on a periodic (quarterly) quantitative assessment The key quantitative determinants for each individual bond are: (i) average daily notional amount traded; (ii) average daily number of trades; (iii) and the percentage of days traded over the assessment period. (Subject to change) MiFID II/R sets out a definition for Transparency: Draft waivers and deferrals Large in scale (LIS) RTS 2: Articles 9 & 13 Pre-trade: for RMs, MTFs, OTFs, and SIs An order is considered large in scale compared with standard market size if its equal to or

larger than a determination of standard market size for the class of instrument. The threshold is calculated based on a percentile threshold of the distribution of trade sizes for the class of instrument. Post-trade: for RMs, MTFs, OTFs, SIs, and other investment firms A transaction is considered large in scale compared with standard market size if its equal to or larger than a determination of standard market size for the class of instrument. The threshold is calculated based on a percentile threshold of the distribution of trade sizes for the class of instrument. MiFID II/R sets out a definition for Transparency: Waivers and deferrals Size specific to the instrument (SSTI) Pre-trade: RMs, MTFs, OTFs, and SIs (for RFQ and voice trading systems) An actionable IOI is considered above the size specific to the financial instrument if its equal to or larger than a determination of the minimum size of an actionable IOI for the class of instrument. The threshold is calculated based on a percentile threshold of the distribution of trade sizes for the class of instrument. Post-trade: RMs, MTFs, OTFs, SIs, and other investment firms

A transaction is considered above the size specific to the financial instrument if its equal to or larger than a determination of the minimum size of transaction for the class of instrument. The threshold is calculated based on a percentile threshold of the distribution of trade sizes for the class of instrument. MiFID II/R sets out a definition for Transparency: Systematic Internalisers - Frequent, Systematic & substantial tests: MiFID II/R extends the SI regime (traditionally found in equities) to a broader range of financial instruments, including bonds. It applies to an investment firm which, on an organised, frequent and systematic, and substantial basis, deals on its own account by executing client orders outside a RM, MTF, or OTF. Frequent and systematic test For liquid bonds, this is where the number of trades during the last six months is equal to or larger than 2.5% of the total number of transactions in the relevant financial instruments in the EU executed on any venue or OTC during the same period. At a minimum, the firm should deal on its own account in the instrument once a week. For illiquid bonds, this is where the firm has dealt on its own account OTC in the financial instrument on average once a week during the last six months.

Substantial test The firm internalises on a substantial basis if the size of OTC trading on own account during the last six months is equal to or larger than: 25% of the total nominal amount traded in that financial instrument executed by the investment firm on its own account or on behalf of clients, and carried out on any trading venue or OTC; or 1% of the total nominal amount traded in that financial instrument executed in the EU and carried out on any EU trading venue or OTC. (subject to change) MiFID II/R sets out a definition for Transparency: Systematic Internalisers Determination, Requirements & Discretion: Determination: For new instruments, the assessments shall only be considered once the data covers a minimum period of six weeks. MiFID II/R allows firms to choose to opt-in to be a systematic internaliser for a financial instrument, even where it does not meet all or any of the quantitative criteria, provided it complies with the requirements for SIs. Requirements: The investment firm will be identified in the case of an SI quote, whereas on a venue

quotes will be averaged across all quoting firms and anonymized. In the case of liquid bonds, SIs must make public firm quotes to all their clients when (a) they are requested for a quote by a client, or (b) they agree to provide a quote. In the case of illiquid bonds, SIs must disclose firm quotes to their clients on request only where they agree to provide a quote. Discretion: SIs may update their quotes at any time, and may also withdraw quotes under exceptional circumstances. Notwithstanding, SIs are allowed to decide which clients have access to, and can execute on, their quotes, on the basis of their commercial policy and in an objective, nondiscriminatory way (thus SIs retain control over their trading activity). Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria

Annex I - Best Execution reporting criteria Annex II - Draft transparency requirements: best execution quality of execution Top 5 venues Evidencing best execution and top 5 venues Description of any close links, conflicts of interests, and common ownerships with respect to any execution venues used to execute orders. Description of any specific arrangements with any execution venues regarding payments made or received, discounts, rebates or non-monitory benefits received. Explanation of how investment firms have used output from a consolidated tape provider to develop enhanced measures of execution quality or optimise and assess execution performances. Explanation of the factors that led to a change in the list of execution venues listed in the firms execution policy, if such a change occurred. Explanation of a change of client categorisation and how that affected execution arrangements. Explanation of other criteria taking precedence over immediate price and cost when executing retail client orders and how best possible result to client was achieved. Explanation of how investment firms make use of data and tools, on execution quality available from execution venues.

Explanation of the relative importance of the following execution factors: Price, costs, speed, likelihood of execution or any other consideration - including qualitative factors. Annex II - Draft transparency requirements: best execution quality of execution Top 5 venues Annex II - Draft transparency requirements: best execution quality of execution Top 5 venues Annex II - Draft transparency requirements: best execution quality of execution Top 5 venues

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