Optional for Explorer Pathfinders ADVANCED WEATHER HONOR Cyclonic
Optional for Explorer Pathfinders ADVANCED WEATHER HONOR Cyclonic and Anticyclonic weather Cyclones follow predictable paths and bring rain.
How much rain depends on the strength of the storm. Video 6:30 min. Cold Fronts and Warm Fronts Cold front: leading edge of a cooler and drier mass of air; are faster; rain Warm front: leading edge of a mass of warm air; moves slower; rains longer
Weather Symbols 1. cold front 2. warm front 1. surface trough
3. stationary front 2. squalls/ shear line
4. occluded front 3. dry line 4. tropical wave
1. trowal Reading Weather Symbols Relative humidity vs. dew The amount of water that air can hold depends on the temperature. point
The hotter it gets, the more water the air can hold. The dew point is the temperature for which the relative humidity will be 100% assuming the amount of water in the air remains unchanged. Chinook Winds
Chinook wind SW of mountains in Pacific NW: warm, very wet, southwesterly wind, likely to bring rain or snow Chinook winds NE of mountains in Pacific NW warm and dry; stripped of moisture in mountains Trade Winds
Trade Winds: pattern of wind that are found in bands around the Earth's equatorial region; prevailing winds in the tropics; blow from high pressured area to low-pressure area around the equater Belt of Calms = ITCZ ITCZ = Intertropical Convergence Zone = Intertropical Front, Monsoon
trough, Doldrums, or Equatorial Convergence Zone = a belt of low pressure girdling Earth at the equator is formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator. Tornadoes A tornado is a
violently rotating column of air which is in contact with both a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, a cumulus cloud base and the surface of
the earth. Squall Line A squall line is a line of severe thunderstorms that can form along or ahead of a cold front. The best indication of the presence of severe weather along a squall line is its morphing into a line echo wave pattern, or
LEWP. A LEWP is a special configuration in a line of convective storms that indicates the presence of a low pressure area and the possibility of damaging winds, large hail, and tornadoes. At each kink along the LEWP is a mesoscale low pressure area. In response to very strong outflow southwest of the mesoscale low, an equatorward portion of the line bulges outward forming a bow echo. Behind this bulge lies the mesoscale high pressure
area. Typical evolution of thunderstorms (a) into a bow echo (b, c) and into a comma echo (d). Dashed line indicates axis of greatest potential for downbursts. Arrows indicate wind flow relative to the storm.
Area C is most prone to supporting Squall line The front line of a storm Typhoon A typhoon is a tropical cyclone that originates in the Western Pacific
Ocean, and having winds in excess of 118 km/h. It characterized by a low pressure system center and thunderstorms that produces strong wind and flooding rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on the heat released when moist air rises and the water vapor it contains condenses. Often produce high winds and waves and heavy rain. Hurricane
A hurricane is a tropical cyclone originating in the Atlantic Ocean and having winds in excess of 118km/h. Blizzard Blizzards: winter storms with frequent winds of 35 mph or higher with falling or blowing snow that reduces visibility to
mile or less for 3+ hours. Ice storm An ice storm is a type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain. Ice on roads is dangerous! Heavy ice can break roofs, trees, electric wires, etc.
Registering thermometer A registering thermometer is a thermometer which can measure the maximum and minimum temperature during a given time. It is also known as a Maximum minimum thermometer. It is still in common use wherever a simple way is needed to measure the extremes of temperature at a location. registering barograph A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer, which measures
barometric pressure. It produces a paper or foil chart called a barogram that records the barometric pressure over time. Hygrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is specifically known as a "psychrometer" and consists of two thermometers, one of which includes a dry bulb and the other of which includes a
bulb that is kept wet to measure wetbulb temperature Anemometer An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed measurement instrument used in meteorology.
5 layers of atmosphere Exosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere
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