BIOL 101 Lecture 3 History of the Life

BIOL 101 Lecture 3 History of the Life

BIOL 101 Lecture 3 History of the Life Sciences Early Evidence for Human Reliance

Upon a Natural Perspective Prehistoric Period Learning by trial and error Rich natural history knowledge Information not written down

(paper & writing developed ~5K years ago) Crops Domesticated When did the study of science begin?

Paleolithic paintings on cave walls and recordings on bones- observations 32,000 years ago When did the study of science begin? Mesopotamian

7,000 B.C. to 6th century B.C. Medical text Astronomy Bronze surgical knives

Ancient Greece Hippocrates (460 370? B.C.) Greek physician Diseases have natural causes Rejected view that disease caused by evil spirits Believed that the brain was area of higher

thought and emotion, not heart Program for good health: rest, good nutrition, and exercise. Started Western Medicine Hippocrates Four Humors Blood: considered to be made by the liver.

Phlegm: associated with the lungs. Yellow bile: associated with the gall bladder. Black bile: associated with the spleen. Imbalances of the Humors Cause Disease Sanguine: Disease, excess blood

Phlegmatic: Disease, excess phlegm Choleric: Disease, excess yellow bile Melancholic: Disease, excess black bile Ancient Greece Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Scientific method (observation,

inductive reasoning) Described hundreds of marine species Dolphin is a mammal The earth is round Biology (spontaneous generation)- disproved by

Francesco Redi (1668), an Italian doctor who proved maggots came from flies. Roman Times Galen (130 - 200 A.D.) Anatomy & Physiology

disease resulted from an internal imbalance of the four humors Mistakes in understanding circulation Research based on ape dissection Textbook used for 1000 years Dark Ages- 200 to 1200 A.D.

Sad time Little new knowledge Taboo against dissecting human cadavers continued Avoided actual involvement Authority prevails

Renaissance da Vinci(1452-1515) Anatomy & Physiology Renaissance Vesalius (1514-1564) Anatomy & Physiology

Followed Galens writings, but later found he was wrong Vesalius dissects a female cadaver in his anatomy lab

Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius A late thirteenth-century illustration of the venous system within the body. Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius

This early representation (c. 1300) of a dissection shows a surgeon and a monk. Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius

Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius Vesalius Images Vesalius Images

The female pelvic anatomy. From Vesalius's De Corporis Humani Fabrica, 1543. William Harvey 1578-1657

Discoveries Disproved Galen that blood not made from the liver Heart is a pump not a suction device Showed closed circuit circulation Showed existence of valves in

veins Circulation Ptolemy Ptolemy (170 A.D.)- geocentric universe

Nicholaus Copernicus Heliocentric universe; not accepted until 100 years after his death 1473 - 1543 C.E. Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642 physicist, astronomer, scientific method Galileo Telescope

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632 - 1723 Invented a simple microscope Discovered bacteria, protists, sperm cells, blood cells

Leeuwenhoeks Microscope Leeuwenhoeks Animalcules Robert Hooke

1635 - 1703 Cells in Cork Impact of Leeuwenhoek and Hooke on the Development of Biological Science

Developed the microscope. Their observations led to the development of the Cell Theory. However, their observations were of little practical significance to their peers. Nothing immediately developed from

their work. Botany Medicinal plants 1600: 6,000 species known Classification added Travel to find new plants

Age of Systematics 1700s Carl Linnaeus Incurable classifier Flair for creative simplicity

Linnaeus Born in Sweden Medical school in Holland 14 books in 3 years Fish book: 3,000 pages Back to Sweden as a doctor

Linnaeus Cure for _________ Goal: academic position Professor of Medicine & Natural History Held the position for 30 years

Linnaeus 1753: published book describing Worlds plants Start of naming process ID: flowers - number & structure of the parts

Linnaeus Descriptions: poetic precision Result: easily applied system 2 word names: binomial nomenclature Binomial Nomenclature

2 word name (genus + species) 1st level classification Elephas Elephas maximus maximus

Loxodonta Loxodonta africanas africanas Tiger = Panthera tigris Leopard = Panthera pardus Lion = Panthera leo

Panda Bear = Ailuropoda melanoleuca Black Bear = Ursus americanus Polar Bear = Ursus maritimus Linnaeus Classification system

Implies relationships between species Linnaeus ideas were not useful National hero But retarded botany for a century Epic Voyages 18th & 19th centuries

Discover new species Sponsored by governments and wealthy individuals Epic Voyages Navigation (longitude): Chronometer with

temperature compensation Prevent scurvy: Fresh fruits & vegetables Sauerkraut Epic Voyages Lt. James Cook

Southern Hemisphere 1769: transit of Venus HMS Endeavor King funds the Royal Society

Cook (1700s)- sailed twice around the world 1st European to visit Hawaii Cook Cooks First Voyage Passengers: Joseph Banks + 9 Stopped in Tahiti

Named the Society Islands NZ & Australia Botany Bay Banksia Banksia

Other Epic Voyages Capt. Fitzroy 1831: HMS Beagle Chas. Darwin Darwin- HMS Beagle (1831); Subsidence theory

Origin of Species (1859) Galapagos Islands, Ecuador Modern Science Wegener (1880-1930)plate tectonics

Crick & Watson 1953- DNA Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1900s)- DNA Human Genome Project Science Disciplines

Physical Sciences Biological or Life Sciences Physics Astronomy Chemistry

Geology Aerospace Engineering Agronomy Botany Zoology

Biochemistry Biophysics Biomath Bioengineering TECHNOLOGY

Oceanography Marine biology Embryology Anatomy Ecology Genetics Microbiology

Questions: Linnaeus developed a classification scheme that uses ________ nomenclature. The invention of the microscope contributed to the ______ theory. Cooks primary mission in 1769 was to

______. Vitamin C prevented __________. Two theories proposed by Darwin are: Galens anatomy text book was based on the anatomy of ______.

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