Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) Graphic Communication Knowledge & Interpretation
Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) Graphic Communication Knowledge & Interpretation CAD Drawing Classifications The following terms describe the common types of computer-aided drawings: 2-D - orthographic projection in which each view shows only two dimension 2 1/2-D - isometric, planometric, oblique and perspective views which show all three
dimensions (length, breadth and height) on a pictorial drawing 3-D - a 3-D computer model is a virtual object which can be rotated on screen to be viewed from any angle. General Features of 2-D CAD package (e.g. AutoCAD) Computer-aided drawing (CAD) was developed so that architects and design engineers, who previously produced drawings on paper, could produce the same types of drawing on computers. There are enormous benefits in using a CAD system instead of a drawing system.
Uses xy co-ordination system can create 2-D orthographic projections and 2 1/2-D (isometric, planometric, oblique and perspective) drawings incorporates layer system of constructing drawings General Features of 3-D CAD/Modelling Package (e.g. AutoCAD Inventor) Uses xyz co-ordinate system automatically generates orthographic views from 3-D model rendering features can create tonal effects and surface textures
models can be rotated and viewed from any angle. 3-D CAD Modelling The development of 3-D modelling software enables architects and designers to create 3-D models of their designs. Previously, 3-D models had to be built from materials such as card, clay and polystyrene blocks.
Advantages of 3-D computer modelling over traditional built models: can be produced much more quickly can be modified very quickly enable the designer to try colours and surface textures can be used to test structural designs before they are built, e.g. bridges and buildings can be realistically rendered take up less storage space than built models can be used to create realistic simulations and games. 3-D Modelling There are three types of 3-D models: wireframe model - is built up using a series of connected lines.
This image can be simplified by removing lines that are hidden. surface model - is built up by drawing the surfaces of an object. Colours, shading and textures can be added to produce realisticlooking images. solid model - is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cuboids. These can be added or subtracted to produce complex 3D models
CAG Animation & Simulation Knowledge & Interpretation Graphic Communication Animation & Simulation The development of computers has significantly changed the ways in which graphics are produced. Recent advances in computer technology enable designers to create complex and realistic graphic images quickly and easily. Two examples of advanced computer graphics are animation and simulation. Computer Animation
Animation (moving images) was traditionally created by drawing thousands of still graphics by hand. Each one progressed the movement a little bit further. It was a very slow and labour intensive process. Modern animation software creates on-screen movement by moving graphic images along plotted paths. It is quick, smooth and realistic.
Computer Animation Computer animation is used to increase the visual impact of graphics on the viewer. A product with moving parts can be animated to demonstrate how it works, e.g. an elevator in a design for a new office building. Animation can also assist in education and training, e.g. to show how blood flows around the body. Computer Simulation
Computer simulation uses computer models to imitate or predict behaviour in real life situations. A realistic experience is provided within a simulated environment. Training, testing and predicting outcomes are the areas in which simulation is most useful.
Computer Simulation 3-D simulators are commonly used to train pilots or drivers how to cope in dangerous situations such as landing an aeroplane or driving a tank in battle. The user can Interact with the simulation and control his/her vehicle with a joystick. In civil engineering, simulation can test the design of a structure that
would be too big to make a prototype of e.g. testing the stability of ships or the strength of a bridge. In car design, the body shape is tested for wind resistance even before a prototype is built. Computer Simulation In medicine, surgeons often make use of simulated operations to predict the difficulties
of a medical procedure before the patient is put at risk. In weather forecasting, simulations of weather systems are used to predict the weather. Computer models can be modified in real time to improve performance.
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