# Electricity The importance of electrical power seems obvious Electricity The importance of electrical power seems obvious in a modern industrial society. What is not so obvious is the role of electricity in magnetism, light, chemical change, and as the very basis for the structure of matter. All matter, in fact, is electrical in nature, as you will see. Electric Charge

Electron Theory of Charge. Electric Charge and Electrical Forces. Electrons have a negative electrical charge. Joseph J. Thomson Protons have a positive electrical charge These charges interact to create an electrical force. Like charges produce repulsive forces. Unlike charges produce attractive forces. A very highly simplified model of an atom has most of the

mass in a small, dense center called the nucleus. The nucleus has positively charged protons and neutral neurons. Negatively charged electrons move around the nucleus a much greater distance than is suggested by this simplified model. Ordinary atoms are neutral because there is a balance between the number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons Electrostatic Charge. Electrons move from atom to atom to create ions.

positively charges ions result from the loss of electrons and are called cations Negatively charge ions result from the gain of electrons and are called anions (A) A neutral atom has no net charge because the numbers of electrons and protons are balanced. (B) Removing

an electron produces a net positive charge; the charged atom is called a positive ion. (C) The addition of an electron produces a net negative charge and a negative ion. Arbitrary numbers

of protons (+) and electrons (-) on a comb and in hair (A) before and (B) after combing. Combing transfers electrons from the hair to the comb by friction, resulting in a negative

charge on the comb and a positive charge on the hair The charge on an ion is called an electrostatic charge. An object becomes electrostatically charged by Friction ,which transfers electrons between two objects in contact Contact with a charged body which results in the transfer of electrons

Induction which produces a charge redistribution of electrons in a material Charge is transferred in all three cases, it is not created or destroyed. Charging by induction. The comb has become charged by friction, acquiring an excess of electrons. The paper (A) normally has a random distribution of (+) and (-) charges. (B) When the charged comb is held close to the paper, there is a reorientation of charges because of the repulsion

of the charges. This leaves a net positive charge on the side close to the comb, and since unlike charges attract, the paper is attracted to the comb Electrical Conductors and Insulators. Electrical conductors are materials that can move electrons easily Good conductors include metals. Electrical nonconductors are materials that do not move electrons easily

These are also known as insulators Semiconductors are materials that vary in their conduction and nonconduction, sometimes conducting sometimes not conducting. Measuring Electrical Charges. The magnitude of an electrical charge is dependent upon how many electrons have been moved to it or away from it. Electrical charge is measured in coulombs.

A coulomb is the charge resulting from the transfer of 6.24 X 1018 of the charge carried by an electron A very large amount of charge A lightning discharge may transfer 200 coulombs of charge A charged comb is less than 1 microcoulomb The fundamental charge is the electrical charge on an electron and has a magnitude of 1.6021892 X 10-19 C To determine the quantity of an electrical charge you simply multiple the number of electrons by the

fundamental charge on an electron or: q=ne Where q is the magnitude of the charge, n is the number of electrons, and e is the fundamental charge. Coulomb constructed a torsion balance to test the relationships between a quantity of charge, the distance between the

charges, and the electrical force produced. He found the inverse square law held accurately for various charges and distances Measuring Electrical Forces. Force is proportional to the product of the electrical charge and inversely proportional to the square of the

distance. Coulombs Law 1 2 F k qq d 2

F is the force k is a constant and has the value of 9.00 X 109 newtonmeters2/ coulomb2 (9.00 X 10 9 Nm2/C2) q1 represents the electrical charge of object 1 and q2 represents the electrical charge of object 2 d is the distance between the two objects. Force Fields. The condition of space around an object is changed by

the presence of an electrical charge. The electrical charge produces a force field, that is called an electrical field since it is produced by electrical charge All electrical charges are surrounded by an electrical field just like all masses are surrounded by gravitational fields. A map of the electrical field can be made by bringing a positive test charge into an electrical field. When brought near a negative charge the test charge is

attracted to the unlike charge and when brought near a positive charge the test charge is repelled. You can draw vector arrows to indicate the direction of the electrical field This is represented by drawing lines of force or electrical field lines These lines are closer together when the field is stronger and farther apart when it is weaker. A positive test

charge is used by convention to identify the properties of an electric field. The vector arrow points in the direction of the force that the test charge would experience

Lines of force diagrams for (A) a negative charge and (B) a positive charge when the charges have the same magnitude as the test charge. Electrical Potential. An electrical charge has an electrical field that surrounds

it. In order to move a second charge through this field work must be done Bringing a like charge particle into this field will require work since like charges repel each other and bringing an opposite charged particle into the field will require work to keep the charges separated. In both of these cases the electrical potential is changed. Electric potential

results from moving a positive coulomb of charge into the electric field of a second positive coulomb of change. When 1.00 joule of work is done in moving 1.00 coulomb of charge, 1.00 volt of potential

results. A volt is a joule/coulomb. The potential difference (PD) that is created by doing 1.00 joule of work in moving 1.00 coulomb of charge is defined as 1.00 volt A volt is a measure of the potential difference between two points electric potential =work to create . potential charge moved

PD=W Q The voltage of an electrical charge is the energy transfer per coulomb. The energy transfer can be measured by the work that is done to move the charge or by the work that the charge can do because of the position of the field. Electric Current.

Introduction Electric current means a flow of charge in the same way that a water current flows. It is the charge that flows, and the current is defined as the flow of the charge, it would be redundant to speak of a flow of current. The Electric Circuit. In order to have an electric current there must be a

separation of the charge maintaining the electrical field (a potential difference). This potential difference can push a charge through a conductor. An electrical current is maintained by pumping charges to a higher electrical potential and the then do work as they flow back to a lower potential The falling water

can do work in turning the water wheel only as long as the pump maintains the potential difference between the upper and lower reservoirs.

An electrical circuit contains some device that acts as a source of energy as it gives charges a higher potential against an electrical field. The charges do work as they flow through the circuit to a lower potential The charges flow through connecting wires to make a continuous path. A switch is a means of interrupting or completing the circuit.

The source of the electrical potential is the voltage source. The device where the charges do work is the voltage drop. A simple electric circuit has a voltage source (such as a generator or battery) that maintains the electrical potential, some device (such as a lamp or motor ) where work is done by the potential, and continuous pathways for the current to follow.

Voltage is a measure of the potential difference between two places in a circuit. Voltage is measured in joules/coloumb. The rate at which an electrical current (I) flows is the quantity (q) that moves through a cross section of a conductor in a give unit of time (t) I=q/t the units of current are coulombs/second. A coulomb/second is an ampere (amp)

In an electrical circuit the rate of current is directly proportional to the difference in electrical potential between two parts of the circuit IPD. A simple electric circuit carrying a current of 1.00 coulomb per second through a cross section of a conductor has a current of 1.00 amp. The Nature of Current. Conventional current describes current as positive

charges that flow from the positive to the negative terminal of a battery. The electron current description is the opposite of the conventional current. The electron current describes current as a drift of negative charges that flow from the negative to the positive terminal of a battery. It is actually the electron current that moves charges. Actually it does not matter which description is used, since positive charges and negative charges are mathematically

equal A conventional current describes positive charges moving from the positive terminal (+) to the negative terminal (-). An electron current describes negative charges (-) moving from the negative terminal (-) to the positive terminal (+) (A) A metal conductor without a current has immovable positive

ions surrounded by a swarm of chaotically moving electrons. (B) An electric field causes the electrons to shift positions, creating a separation charge as the electrons move with a zigzag motion from collisions with

stationary positive ions and other electrons. Electrons move very slowly in a direct current circuit. With a drift velocity of 0.01 cm/s, more than 5 hr would be required for an electron to travel

200 cm from a car battery to the brake light. It is the electric field, not the electrons, that moves at near the speed of light in an electric circuit. The current that occurs when there is a voltage depends

on: The number of free electrons per unit volume of the conducting material. The fundamental charge on each electron. The drift velocity which depends on the electronic structure of the conducting material and the temperature. The cross-sectional area of the conducting wire. It is the electron field, and not the electrons, which does

the work. It is the electric field that accelerates electrons that are already in the conducting material. It is important to understand that: An electric potential difference establishes, at nearly the speed of light, an electric field throughout a circuit. The field causes a net motion that constitutes a flow of charge. The average velocity of the electrons moving as a current is very slow, even thought he electric field that

moves them travels with a speed close to the speed of light. What is the nature of the electric current carried by these conducting lines? It is an electric field that moves at near the speed of light. The field causes a net motion of electrons that constitutes a flow of charge, an alternating current. As opposed to DC. Electrical Resistance.

Electrical resistance is the resistance to movement of electrons being accelerated with an energy loss. Materials having the property of reducing a current and this is electrical resistance (R). Resistance is a ratio between the potential difference (PD)between two points and the resulting current (I). R=PD/I The ratio of volts/amp is called an ohm ()

The relationship between voltage, current, an resistance is V=IR Ohms Law The magnitude of the electrical resistance of a conductor depends on four variables. The length of the conductor. The cross-sectional area of the conductor. The material the conductor is made of. The temperature of the conductor.

The four factors that influence the resistance of an electrical conductor are the length of the conductor, the cross-sectional area of the conductor, the material the conductor is made of, and the temperature of the conductor Electrical Power and Electrical Work. All electrical circuits have three parts in common. A voltage source.

An electrical device Conducting wires. The work done by a voltage source is equal to the work done by the electrical field in an electrical device. W=PDq The electrical potential is measured in joules/coulomb and a quantity of charge is measured in coulombs, so the electrical work is measure in joules. A joule/second is a unit of power called the watt.

power = current (in amps) X potential (in volts) P=IV What do you suppose it would cost to run each of these appliances for one hour? (A) This light bulb is designed to operate on a potential difference of 120 volts and will do

work at the rate of 100 W. (B) The finishing sander does work at the rate of 1.6 amp x 120 volts or 192 W. (C) The garden shredder does work at the rate of 8 amps x 120 volts, or 960 W. This meter measures the amount of electric work done in

the circuits, usually over a time period of a month. The work is measured in kWhr Magnetism. Magnetic Poles. A North seeking pole is called the North Pole A South seeking pole is called the South Pole Like magnetic poles repel and unlike magnetic poles attract.

Every magnet has ends, or poles, about which the magnetic properties seem to be concentrated. As this photo shows, more iron filings are attracted to the poles, revealing their location. Magnetic Fields. A magnet that is moved in space near a second magnet experiences a magnetic field. A magnetic field can be represented by field lines.

The strength of the magnetic field is greater where the lines are closer together and weaker where they are farther apart. These lines are a map of the magnetic field around a bar magnet. The needle of a magnetic compass will follow the lines, with the north end showing the direction of the field. The earth's magnetic field.

Note that the magnetic north pole and the geographic North Pole are not in the same place. Note also that the magnetic north pole acts as if the south pole of a huge bar magnet were inside the earth. You know that it must be a magnetic south pole since

the north end of a magnetic compass is attracted to it and opposite poles attract This magnetic declination map shows the approximate number of degrees east or west of the true geographic north that a magnetic compass will point in various locations The Source of Magnetic Fields.

Since electrons are charges in motion, they produce magnetic fields as well as an electric field. magnetism is a secondary property of electricity the strength of the magnetic field increases with the velocity of the moving charge. The magnetic field does not exist if the charge is not moving A magnetic field is a property of the space around a moving charge.

A bar magnet cut into halves always makes new, complete magnets with both a north and a south pole. The poles always come in pairs, and the separation of a pair into single poles, called monopoles, has never been accomplished. Oersted discovered that a compass needle below a wire (A) pointed north when there

was not a current, (B) moved at right angles when a current flowed one way, and (C) moved at right angles in the opposite direction when the current was reversed He had discovered an electric current produces a magnetic field!

The Source of Magnetic Fields. Permanent Magnets. Since electrons are charges in motion, they produce magnetic fields. In most materials these magnetic fields cancel one another and neutralize the overall magnetic effect. In other materials such as iron, cobalt, and nickel, the electrons are oriented in such a ways as to impart magnetic properties to the atomic structure. These atoms are grouped in a tiny region called the

magnetic domain. (A) In an unmagnetized piece of iron, the magnetic domains have random arrangement that cancels any overall magnetic effect. (B) When an external magnetic field is applied to the iron, the magnetic domains are realigned, and those parallel to the field grow in size at the expense of the other domains, and the iron is magnetized Earth's Magnetic Field.

The Earths magnetic field is thought to originate with moving charges. The core is probably composed of iron and nickel, which flows as the Earth rotates, creating electrical currents that result in the Earths magnetic field. How the electric currents are generated is not yet understood There seems to be a relationship between rate of rotation and strength of planets magnetic field.

Electric Currents and Magnetism. A magnetic compass shows the presence and direction of the magnetic field around a straight

length of currentcarrying wire Use (A) a right-hand rule of thumb to determine the direction of a magnetic field around a conventional current and (B) a left-hand rule of thumb to determine the direction of a magnetic field around an electron current Current Loops. A current-carrying wire that is formed into a loop has

perpendicular, circular field lines that pass through the inside of the loop in the same direction. This has the effect of concentrating the field lines, which increases the magnetic field intensity. Since the field lines pass through the loop in the same direction, the loop has a north and south pole. Many loops of wire formed into a cylindrical coil are called a solenoid. When a current is in the solenoid a magnetic field around the

solenoid is created that acts like a magnetic field and is called an electromagnet (A) Forming a wire into a loop causes the magnetic field to pass through the loop in the same direction. (B) This gives one side of the loop a north pole and the other side a south pole. When a current is run through a cylindrical

coil of wire, a solenoid, it produces a magnetic field like the magnetic field of a bar magnet that can be turned on and off, and is called an electromagnet. The strength depends on current, loops and presence of a soft iron

core. Applications of Electromagnets. Electric Meters. The strength of the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet is proportional to the electric current in the electromagnet. A galvanometer measures electrical current by measuring the magnetic field. A galvanometer can measure current (ammeter), potential

difference (voltmeter), and resistance (ohmmeter). Electromagnetic Switches. A relay is an electromagnetic switch device that makes possible the use of low voltage control current to switch a larger, high voltage circuit on and off A galvanometer measures the direction and relative strength of an electric current from the magnetic field it produces. A coil of wire wrapped around an iron core

becomes an electromagnet that rotates in the field of a permanent magnet. The rotation moves pointer on a scale You can use the materials shown here to create and detect an electric current. A schematic of a relay circuit. The mercury vial turns as changes in the temperature expand or

contract the coil, moving the mercury and making or breaking contact with the relay circuit. When the mercury moves to close to the relay circuit, a small current activates the electromagnet, which closes the contacts on the large-current circuit

(A) Sound waves are converted into a changing electrical current in a telephone. (B) Changing electrical current can be changed to sound waves in a speaker by the action of an electromagnet pushing and pulling on a permanent

magnet. The permanent magnet is attached to a stiff paper cone or some other material that makes sound waves as it moves in and out Electric Motors. An electrical motor is an electromagnetic device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

A motor has two working parts, a stationary magnet called a field magnet and a cylindrical, movable electromagnet called an armature. The armature is on an axle and rotates in the magnetic field of the field magnet. The axle is used to do work. A schematic of a simple electric motor Electromagnetic Induction.

Introduction If a loop of wire is moved in a magnetic field a voltage is induced in the wire. The voltage is called an induced voltage and the resulting current is called an induced current. The interaction is called electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction occurs when the loop of wire cuts across magnetic field lines or when magnetic field

lines cut across the loop. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to: The number of wire loops cutting across the magnetic field lines. The strength of the magnetic field. The rate at which magnetic field lines are cut by the wire. A current is induced in a coil of wire moved through a magnetic field. The direction of the current depends on the

direction of motion Generators. A generator is basically an axle with many wire loops that rotates in a magnetic field. The axle is turned by some form of mechanical energy, such as a water turbine or a steam engine. (A) Schematic of a simple alternator

(ac generator) with one output loop. (B) Output of the single loop turning in a constant magnetic field, which alternates the induced current each half cycle

(A) Schematic of a simple dc generator with one output loop. (B) Output of the single loop turning in a constant magnetic field. The split ring (commutator) reverses the sign of the output when the voltage starts to reverse, so the

induced current has halfcycle voltages of a constant sign, which is the definition of direct current. Transformers. A transformer has two basic parts. A primary coil, which is connected to a source of alternating current A secondary coil, which is close by.

A growing and collapsing magnetic field in the primary coil induces a voltage in the secondary coil. A step up or step down transformer steps up or steps down the voltage of an alternating current according to the ratio of wire loops in the primary and secondary coils. The power input on the primary coil equals the power output on the secondary coil. Energy losses in transmission are reduced by stepping

up the voltage. (A) This step-down transformer has 10 turns on the primary for each turn on the secondary and reduces the voltage from 120 V to 12 V. (B) This step-up transformer increases the

voltage from 120 V to 1,200 V, since there are 10 turns on the secondary to each turn on the primary Energy losses in transmission are reduced by increasing the voltage, so the voltage of generated power is stepped up

at the power plant. (A) These transformers, for example, might step up the voltage from tens to hundreds of thousands of volts. After a step-down transformer reduces the voltage at a substation, still another transformer (B) reduces the voltage to 120 for

transmission to three or four houses