# Pressure caused by particles of air Atmospheric pressure Pressure caused by particles of air Atmospheric pressure Depends on depth and density Pressure in fluids Inelastic distortion Object does not return to its original shape Non-linear relationship Extension does not increase at the same rate as force increases Plotted graph would not be a diagonal straight line Linear relationship Extension increases at the same rate as force increases Plotted graph would be a diagonal straight line Diagonal line through 0,0 = directly proportional. Forces are needed to change the shape of an object. Forces and elasticity Extension and energy transfers Less particles of air the higher up you go, so less atmospheric pressure More particles of air nearer you are to sea level. Atmospheric pressure is 100,000Pa. The deeper you go, the more weight of fluid is above you to exert pressure. Area large, so force is spread out, pressure reduced Area small so force is concentrated, pressure increased The deeper you go, the greater the pressure The further down you go, the more water is above you, so the more weight there is. Pressure due to a column of liquid = height of the column X density of liquid X gravitational field strength. Fluid with greater The greater the density, the densities have more particles there are, so P = hpressure XpXg greater the more weight there is. Up thrust Force acting upon objects in a fluid Force occurs due to the difference in pressure above and below object. Floating The up thrust on the object is equal to the weight of the object. The up thrust is equal to the water displaced by their density. A better hope brighter future Investigate the extension and work done when applying force to a spring Measure initial length of spring, Add masses to spring. Re-measure the spring length. Work out the extension. Force exerted on a spring = spring constant X extension. F=kXx E = X k X x2 Work done can also be calculated by working out th4e area under a force-extension graph. PHYSICS HIGHER ONLY Pressure Diagonal line = proportional. Work done on a spring = X

spring constant X extension2. EDEXCEL Topic 15 FORCE AND MATTER PHYSICS ONLY Stiletto shoes Object returns to its original shape More than one force is needed to bend, stretch or compress an object. The amount of force applied before an object no longer increases proportionally Pressure in fluids causes a force normal to a surface. Pressure = force normal to P = F A surface area of surface Snow shoes Elastic distortion Core Practical Maximum force applied to an object before it is permanently distorted Density and pressure Depth and pressure Limit of proportionality Elastic limit Newton (N) Spring constant Newton per meter (N/m) Extension Metres (m) Energy transferred Joules (J) Area Metres squared (m2) Pressure Pascals (Pa) Height Metres (m) Density (liquid) Kilogram per cubic metre (Kg/m3) Gravitational field strength Newton per kilogram (N/Kg) A Floating near the top of the water Less pressure is needed beneath the block to balance its weight B Floating deeper in the water More pressure is needed beneath the block to balance its weight C Sunk to the bottom Weight of block greater than the pressure beneath it. B C Force Object returns to its original shape Maximum force applied to an object before it is permanently distorted Object does not return to its original shape The amount of force applied before an object no longer increases proportionally Extension does not increase at the same rate as force increases Plotted graph would not

be a diagonal straight line Extension increases at the same rate as force increases Plotted graph would be a diagonal straight line More than one force is needed to bend, stretch or compress an object. Diagonal line through 0,0 = directly proportional. Forces are needed to change the shape of an object. Forces and elasticity Pressure caused by particles of air Depends on depth and density Extension and energy transfers Less particles of air the higher up you go, so less atmospheric pressure More particles of air nearer you are to sea level. Atmospheric pressure is 100,000Pa. Area large, so force is spread out, pressure reduced Area small so force is concentrated, pressure increased PHYSICS ONLY Pressure in fluids causes a force normal to a surface. Pressure = force normal to P = F A surface area of surface Investigate the extension and work done when applying force to a spring Measure initial length of spring, Add masses to spring. Re-measure the spring length. Work out the extension. Force exerted on a spring = spring constant X extension. Work done on a spring = X spring constant X extension2. EDEXCEL Topic 15 FORCE AND MATTER The deeper you go, the more weight of fluid is above you to exert pressure. Diagonal line = proportional. F=kXx E = X k X x2 Work done can also be calculated by working out th4e area under a force-extension graph. Newton (N) Newton per meter (N/m) PHYSICS HIGHER ONLY Pressure Metres (m) The deeper you go, the greater the pressure The further down you go, the more water is above you, so the more weight there is. Fluid with greater densities have greater pressure The greater the density, the more particles there are, so the more weight there is. Joules (J) Metres squared (m2) Pascals (Pa) Metres (m) Kilogram per cubic metre (Kg/m3) Pressure due to a column of liquid = height of the column X density of liquid X gravitational field strength. Newton per kilogram (N/Kg) P=hXpXg Force acting upon objects in a fluid Force occurs due to the difference in pressure above and below object. The up thrust on the object is equal to the weight of the object. The up thrust is equal to the water displaced by their density. A

better hope brighter future B C Floating near the top of the water Less pressure is needed beneath the block to balance its weight Floating deeper in the water More pressure is needed beneath the block to balance its weight Sunk to the bottom Weight of block greater than the pressure beneath it. Elastic distortion Non-linear relationship Inelastic distortion Linear relationship . Forces and elasticity Extension and energy transfers Atmospheric pressure EDEXCEL Topic 15 FORCE AND MATTER Pressure in fluids Up thrust Work done can also be calculated Force Spring constant PHYSICS HIGHER ONLY Pressure Extension Density and pressure Depth and pressure Stiletto shoes PHYSICS ONLY Snow shoes Core Practical Limit of proportionality Elastic limit Energy transferred Area Pressure Height Density (liquid) . Gravitational field strength P= A B A B Floating C better hope brighter future C Extension and energy transfers EDEXCEL Topic 15 FORCE AND MATTER PHYSICS ONLY PHYSICS HIGHER ONLY Pressure A B A B C better hope brighter future C Core Practical Forces and elasticity