DNA The Code for Life Question: Why dont we all look alike? Characteristics of Living Things All living things reproduce All living things have DNA
We have been told that DNA is the blueprint for life, BUT what DNA holds thethat instructions does mean? that tell a cell how to construct amino acid
chains. SO WHAT? That is important because amino acid chains build
proteins. AND Protein s build cells We do not look alike because we all have
different DNA or genes. We got half from our mom and half from our dad. How did this happen? This is what we are going to answer. Gene: segment of DNA on your chromosomes that determines your traits. Trait: characteristics about you. It can be a body part or a behavior. You inherited your
traits from your parents. DINO DNA!!! DNA DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid Functions of DNA: 1. Carries the codes to make proteins.
2. Carries the genetic material that is passed on from the parents to the offspring. Discovery of DNA Rosalind Franklin - Invented X-ray diffraction photography. Photo used to determine the shape of DNA is spiral.
DISCOVERY OF DNA James Watson and Francis Crick used the information from Franklin and other scientists to build a 3-D model of DNA. Won the Nobel Peace
Prize in Chemistry in 1961. Structure of DNA Shape of DNA - Like a twisted rope ladder. This shape is called Double Helix. A single spiral would be
called Helix. STRUCTURE OF DNA Side Pieces (The Rope Part) Are alternating units of a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group. These go down both sides of the molecule
phosphate Sugar (called deoxyribose) STRUCTURE OF DNA Nitrogen Bases (Steps of the ladder) 1. Adenine A 2. Thymine T 3. Cytocine C 4. Guanine - G
The bases are connected to the sugar only !!!!! STRUCTURE OF DNA The nitrogen bases fit together in this way: Adenine always goes with Thymine
Cytosine always goes with Guanine The bases are held together by a weak hydrogen bond. Two (2) bonds between A and T, three (3) bonds between C and G. STRUCTURE OF DNA These three parts form the basic unit of DNA called the NUCLEOTIDE.
phosphate Sugar (deoxyribose) Nitrogen base Can be A, T, C or G STRUCTURE OF DNA
The nitrogen bases fit together in this way: Adenine always goes with Thymine Cytosine always goes with Guanine The bases are held together by a weak hydrogen bond. Two (2) bonds between A and T, three (3) bonds between C and G.
STRUCTURE OF DNA One complete turn of the double helix is 10 base pairs or 10 steps on the ladder
phosphate adenine sugar thymine cytocine guanine How does DNA copy itself? Purpose: DNA copies itself to ensure that each
new cell that is produced gets the correct number of chromosomes and receives an EXACT copy of the DNA molecule. This is called DNA REPLICATION. The DNA molecule serves as its own pattern or template so as an exact copy can be made.
STEPS OF DNA REPLICATION 1. DNA untwists and unzips down the hydrogen bonds. This is why the bonds had to be WEAK. 2. New nucleotides fill in the naked ends produced by the unzipping process. 3. Nucleotides continue to fill in until the entire strand is complete. 4. This results in 2 new identical DNA molecules.
DNA REPLICATION What if there is a mistake? There is always a chance that the wrong nucleotide bonds to another. HOWEVER,
DNA has a special enzyme that is responsible for reading the bases and recognizing and replacing damaged or wrong nucleotides. This PROOFREADING allows for only one (1)
error in ONE BILLION nucleotides. Replication #1 Replication #2
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