Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox Part Four W B T L E ENTER Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox Language Study I. Word Study II. Phrases and Expressions III.Word Building IV. Grammar W B T
L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study Word list: 1. append 7. designate 13. hound 2. aristocratic 8. disperse 14. momentous 3. beckon 9.
dissolve 15. outnumber 4. bind 10. dwindle 16. resolve 5. conciliate 11. enlist 17. spare 6. doubt 12. havoc 18. successive W B T L E
Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study Synonyms 1. append v. to add or join (esp. something written or printed) to a piece of paper Antonym Examples: They appended their signatures to the state ment. appendix W B add attach affix join T L
n. E detach Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 2. aristocratic a. belonging to or typical of the highest so cial class, who traditionally have a lot of la nd, money and power Examples: an aristocratic family her aristocratic manners aristocracy n. aristocrat W B T L n.
E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study Synonyms 3. beckon v. to call, order, or signal with a movement of the head, hand, etc. Examples: I could see her beckoning (to) me from the other side of the room. Id like to staybut work beckons, you know. W B T L E gesture invite motion signal
Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 4. bind v. to form a strong emotional or economic connection between two people, two countries, etc. Examples: Commerce binds the two countries together . The welfare of the individual is bound up wi th the welfare of the community. binding a. The statement is unofficial and not binding on either country. W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
I. Word Study 5. conciliate v. to win the support or friendly feelings of (someone), removing the anger or distrust they felt before Examples: The explorers tried to conciliate the natives with presents. The government ignored the unions attemp ts at conciliation (n. ). conciliatory a. a conciliatory gesture/ attitude W B T L E Synonyms alleviate moderate soothe
Antonyms alienate estrange Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 6. doubt v. a. to be uncertain about; not trust or have confidence in b. to consider unlikely Examples: I doubt his honesty. I doubt that she will get the job. I doubt if/whether we will make a profit out of it. W B T L E To be continued on the next page.
Usage Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study In negative statements doubt is followed by that: I dont doubt that hes telling the truth. In other statements doubt is often followed by if or that, though some people feel whether is the only correct form here: I doubt whether hes telling the truth. W B T L E
Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 7. designate v. a. to choose or name for a particular job or purpose b. to point out of call by a special name Examples: The Town Hall has been designated (as) an emergency feeding center in the event of an enemy attack. These crosses on the drawing designate all the possible entrances to the castle. W B T L E Synonyms
appoint indicate nominate specify Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 8. disperse v. a. to scatter or spread in different directions, so as to be no longer present b. to place at different points Examples: Police used tear gas to disperse the crowd. Groups of police were dispersed all along the street where the Queen was to pass. W B T L E
Synonyms distribute scatter spread Antonyms collect gather Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 9. dissolve v. a. to make or become liquid by putting into liquid b. to (cause to) end or break up c. to lose ones self-control d. to disappear c She dissolved in tears. a Dissolve the tablets in warm water. d The vision dissolved before her eyes.
b The military government dissolved the countrys parliament. W B T L E Decide the meaning of dissolve according to a, b, c and d. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 10. dwindle v. to become steadily fewer or smaller Examples: The number of people who live on the island is rapidly dwindling.
Membership has dwindled to only 25. W B T L E Synonyms decline decrease diminish lessen shrink Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study Synonyms 11. enlist v. a. to (cause to) join the armed forces b. to join a course of study Examples:
He enlisted when he was 18. enlisted man Ive enlisted in the Womens Studies course. W B T L E enroll join Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study 12. havoc n. widespread damage or serious disorder Examples: The earthquake wreaked havoc on the city. W
B T L E Synonyms damage destruction devastation ruin wreck Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study Synonyms 13. hound v. to keep following someone and asking them questions in an annoying and threatening way Examples: I must finish the work so my boss will stop hounding me.
He was hounded out of public life by the persistent attacks newspapers. W B T L E of the popular chase drive hunt press pursue urge Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
I. Word Study Synonyms 14. momentous a. of very great importance or seriousness, esp. because of possible future effects Examples: a momentous decision a momentous occasion a momentous event W B T L E eventful important serious Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I.
Word Study 15. outnumber Synonyms v. to be more in numbers than Examples: We were completely outnumbered by the ene my. We outnumbered them (by) four to one. W B T L E exceed surpass Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I. Word Study
16. resolve v. a. to find a satisfactory way of dealing with a difficulty b. to decide firmly a The dispute among them should be resolved by consultation. b She resolved to study harder. W B T L E Decide the meaning of resolve according to the sentences. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
I. Word Study 17. spare v. a. to treat mercifully b. to give someone something you are not using or can do without c. to avoid doing something difficult, Examples: boring, unpleasant etc. for somebody Take my money but spare my life! Can you spare me ten minutes? Use the telephone and spare yourself a visit. a. a spare bedroom/pen/tyre spare time/moment W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox I.
Word Study Synonyms 18. successive a. following each other closely Examples: It happened on two successive days. There had been successive waves of invaders . succession n. The days followed each other in close success ion and still no news came. A succession of visitors came to the door. W B T L E The end of Word Study. succeeding following in a row Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
II. Phrases and Expressions List: 1. as a token of 6. inflict on 2. in close pursuit 7. nothing but 3. dig in 8. set in motion 4. drop out 9. touch off
5. exult in 10. tuck in W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 1. as a token of something that represents a feeling, fact, event, etc. Examples: All the family wore black as a token of their grief. This old watch was given to me by a French friend of mine as a token of friendship.
W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 2. in close pursuit following close behind Examples: The police car raced through the streets in close pursuit of another car. The pop starts ran from the theater to their car, with dozens of fans in close/hot pursuit. W B T
L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 3. dig in a. to dig a hole to protect a soldier in war b. to mix (something) into the soil by digging c. to establish (oneself) in a position Examples: The soldiers were ordered to dig (themselves) in. Were digging some fertilizer in the soil. I like my new job but I havent had time to dig myself in yet. W B T L
E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 4. drop out (of) drop phrases to stop attending or taking part in Examples: He dropped out of college after only two weeks. Three of the runners dropped out. W B T L E To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
II. Phrases and Expressions Cf. The guests dropped away one by one. The soldiers dropped back before the enemys attack. Some friends dropped in to tea. Sales have dropped off. W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions
5. exult in to show that you are very happy and proud, esp. because you have succeeded in doing something Examples: The soldiers exulted in/at their victory. The headmaster exulted in the school teams victory. W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 6. inflict on to make someone suffer something unpleasant Examples: We inflicted a fatal blow on the enemy.
Mary has inflicted the children on her mother for the weekend. W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 7. nothing but (fml.) only Examples: Nothing but a miracle can save him. It is nothing but a joke. W B T
L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions 8. set in motion to start a process Examples: The worker set the engine in motion. The machine has been set in motion. At that time it required great courage to set in motion such a reform. W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox
II. Phrases and Expressions 9. touch off to start a difficult situation or violent event Examples: Some slight incident may touch off a major war. His remarks touched off a heated controversy. W B T L E To be continued on the next page. touch phrases Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II.
Phrases and Expressions Cf. The plane touched down at 15:25. (to land) In her speech she touched on the need for further economies. (to talk about shortly) The cars paintwork needs touching up. (to improve by making small changes or additions) W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox II. Phrases and Expressions
10. tuck in to put the edge of a piece of clothing, paper etc. inside something so that it looks tidier or stays in place Examples: He tucked his shirt in. Tuck your shirt into your trousers. W B T L E The end of Phrases and Expressions. III. Word Building List: 1. Prefixout 2. Rootscribe/script 3. Suffixion W B
T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox III. Word Building prefi x outnumber; outrace outdo outgrow outlaw outlay outline outlive outpace outrival outrun outshine outwear
outwit W B T out: out, beyond L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox III. Word Building root scribe, script : to write scribble scribe scrip script
scripture ascribe conscribe description inscription prescription subscription W B T L E Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox III. Word Building
Suffix -ion More examples n. the act, state, or result of Examples: reconciliation (=the result of reconciliating) presentation (=the act of presenting something) W B T L E To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox III. Word building Suffix -ion dissolve dissolution designation designate
exhaust exhaustion infliction inflict exult exultation resolution resolve disperse dispersion rebellion rebel humiliate humiliation provision provide W B T L
E The end of Word Building. Give corresponding nouns of the following verbs. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction Definition: Absolute constructions consist of a noun and some kind of modifier, the most common being a participle. Because they often come at the beginning of a sentence, they are easily co nfused with dangling participles. But an absol ute construction modifies the rest of the sente nce, not the subject of the sentence (as a part icipial phrase does). You can use absolute con structions to compress two sentences into one and to vary sentence structure as a means of holding a readers interest. W B
T L E To be continued on the next page. Examples Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar No other business arising, the meeting was adjourned. The paint now dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off. The horse loped across the yard, her foal trailing behind her. W B T L E
To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction The formation of these constructions falls into five categories. Noun/pronoun + W B T L E present participle (phrase) past participle (phrase)
adjective (phrase) adverb (phrase) prepositional phrase To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction Constructions like these are used more often in writing than in speaking, where it is more common to use a full clause: When the paint was dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. There are, however, many fixed absolute constructions that occur frequently in speech: The picnic is scheduled for Saturday, weather permitting. Barring bad weather, we plan to go to the beach tomorrow. All things considered, its not a bad idea. W
B T L E To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction On April 2nd, his railroad lifeline cut by the North, Lee retreated. (4) noun + past participle phrase W B T L E
To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction he gave word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position, honor answering honor. (14) noun + present participle phrase W B T L E To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox IV. Grammar Absolute Construction one, symbolizing nobility and the aristocratic tradition of the old South, and the
other symbolizing the self-made common man of the new North, Midwest and West. (19) noun + present participle phrase W B T L E The end of Grammar. Lesson 14 Mercy at Appomattox Part Four This is the end of Part Four. Please click HOME to visit other parts. W B
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