What can eye tracking tell us about reading,

What can eye tracking tell us about reading,

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? A range of literacy schemes are highly successful Estimated that between 133% of the population has reading difficulties Educational practice must continue to be informed by research Eye movement research can inform our knowledge of childrens reading progress Understand what a child must learn to become a skilled reader Will enable a children to transition from learning to read, to reading to learn Highly sensitive research tool

a window to the mind What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What do eye movements look like? Your may have the impression that we scan smoothly over text when we read making very smooth eye movements Saccade: ballistic eye movement between words Fixation: eyes are relatively still and the majority of lexical processing occurs

Eye movements provide a highly sensitive index of the cognitive processing during reading What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Rapid decline in visual acuity on the retina What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What can eye tracking tell us

about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Parafovea Fovea 8 letters 15 letters Characteristics of skilled reading What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? - most fixation duration ~200ms less than a of a second A series of saccades and fixations * The beautiful girl was feeding the birds - 85% forward saccades,15% backwards saccades Aim to land a saccade close to centre of a word

The beautiful girl was feeding the birds - 15% content words, 65% function Not all words are fixated (especially short words) The beautiful girl was feeding the birds Some words are refixated The beautiful girl was feeding the birds Linguistic influences on childrens eye Word length how many letters Thebeautiful birds The kind birds What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements

gaze duration (ms) girl was feeding the 438 girl was feeding the 350 - 88 ms Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009 Linguistic influences on eye movements Word length how many letters Thebeautiful birds The kind birds

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? gaze duration (ms) girl was feeding the 438 girl was feeding the 350 Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White & Rayner, 2009 Word frequency how often the word is read The kind girl was feeding birds the The kind girl was feeding eagle the - 88 ms

459 + 67 ms 526 Joseph, Nation, & Liversedge, 2013 Linguistic influences on eye movements Word length how many letters Thebeautiful birds The kind birds gaze duration (ms) girl was feeding the 438

girl was feeding the 350 Word frequency how often the word is read The kind girl was feeding birds the The kind girl was feeding eagle the What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009 459 + 67 ms 526 Joseph, Nation, & Liversedge, 2013

Word predictability how much a word is expected The kind girl was feeding viper the - 88 ms 539 + 80 ms Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, Gathercole, & Rayner, 2008 Linguistic influences on eye movements What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Eye movements are driven by cognition We move our eyes to subsequent areas of the text once the fixated word is fully processed Reichle, Pollatsek, & Rayner,

2006 As long as reading is progressing well, eye movements move from left-to-right (English) But if comprehension breaks down, eye movements are directed back to previously Frazier & Rayner, 1982 read text While Mary bathed the baby slept These backwards eye movements are known as regressions Reading progress influences on eye Individual differences are important in understanding how children read Most people score about average Number of people What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements

We usually refer to these children as typically developing readers Skill ability Reading progress influences on eye What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements Individual differences are important in understanding how children read Sentence reading in a typically developing reader Reading progress influences on eye Individual differences are important in understanding how children read Most people score about average Number of people

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements Some children struggle or excel in reading ability beyond the typical range Skill ability Reading progress influences on eye What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements Individual differences are important in understanding how children read Sentence reading in a reader with developmental dyslexia Reading progress influences on eye

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements How difficult is the reading process for children compared to adults? Typically developing reader Skilled adult reader Reading progress influences on eye What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements How difficult is the reading process for children compared to adults? Children typically show longer reading times, make more longer fixations, shorter saccades, more regressions refixations and skip less words than adult readers; as increases, and alongside reading ability, less fixations required and reading becomes easier and quicker.

and and age are Kirkby, Blythe, Drieghe, & Liversedge, 2011 Reading progress influences on eye What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements How difficult is the reading process for a dyslexic reader? Typically developing reader Reader with developmental dyslexia Reading progress influences on eye

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements How difficult is the reading process for a dyslexic child? Comparison between TD readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, eye movement recordings highlight lexical processing difficulties. With more and longer fixations, more regressions, rarely skipping words, longer total reading times Kirkby, Blythe, Drieghe, & Liversedge, 2011 What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Eye movements clearly highlight lexical processing difficulty But how do we isolate dyslexia from reading ability? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia?

Matching comparison groups Dyslexic Group Age matched controls Reading-age matched controls Word reading 84.5 110 103 Pseudoword reading 87.5 110 103 RAN letters 90

105.5 95 RAN numbers 91 107 102 Chronological age 10y 8m 10y 8m 8y 0m Reading age 8y2m 11y2m

8y2m IQ 113 115 112 Basic characteristics of eye movements for What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? child groups Dyslexic readers Chronological-age match Reading-age matched 307 ms 245 ms

294 ms Saccades amplitude 1.92 2.31 2.11 Number of fixations 24 16 20.5 7818 ms 4080 ms 6711 ms 32% 26%

29% Fixation duration Total sentence reading time Regression frequency Reading progress influences on eye 450 350 250 150 What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements 454 398 282 Gaze durations

Reading progress influences on eye What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? movements Landing position probability 0.3 0.25 0.2 Dyslexic Group 0.15 Chronological-age matched TD readers 0.1 Reading-age matched TD readers 0.05 0 Space 1

2 3 Position within target word 4 5 What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? We know that dyslexic readers are processing text differently We have seen that eye tracking can detect these small differences So why would there be a difference? Listening vs. reading Listeners receive information one word

at a time What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Readers can potentially access all the information in the fovea and parafovea. But do they use all of it? Only information from the line they are reading Mostly information to the right of fixation Measuring the extent of parafoveal processing What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Preprocessing: Gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) Fixation There was a magic dragon in the kingdom. There was a magic dragon rdagon in the kingdom.

There was a magic dragon jvagon in the kingdom. Preview benefit effect Calculating preview benefit What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Preview identical condition: fixation time on dragon = 315 511 ms There was a magic dragon in the kingdom. Preview transposed letters: Fixation time on dragon = 347 552 ms There was a magic rdagon in the kingdom. Preview substituted letters: Fixation time on dragon= 387 616 ms There was a magic jvagon in the kingdom. Preview benefit = 72 95 ms Transposed letter effect = 40 64 ms

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? We know that dyslexic readers are using all the same information to the right of fixation compared to reading-age and chronological-age matched readers So something else must be going on, what are dyslexic readers doing differently? The Magnocellular Theory: Binocular coordination What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? (Kirkby, White, & Blythe, 2011) Testing the Magnocellular Theory What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? If dyslexia caused by impaired binocular coordination Increased binocular disparity - in dyslexic individuals during

reading and non-linguistic task If dyslexia causes disruption to binocular eye movements during reading Increased binocular disparity should occur only during reading Eye Movements What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? (Kirkby, Blythe, Drieghe, & Liversedge, 2011) Binocular coordination During Dot Scanning What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? During Reading The Results Showed What can eye tracking tell us

about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Children with dyslexia have increased disparity during reading compared to dot scanning Binocular coordination was affected by the task Fixation disparity was significantly greater for dyslexic readers Adults & typical child readers binocular coordination equivalent Conclusions What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Poor binocular coordination is unlikely to play a causal role in dyslexia Our data suggests that when dyslexic readers look at words there is something different about their binocular coordination How can we help dyslexic readers access text

Increasing inter-letter spacing found to improve legibility of text shown in French, Spanish, Italian child readers (Perea et al., 2012; Zorzi et al., 2012) We find similar benefit in English dyslexic readers What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Our pattern of effects suggest this is especially effective for children with dyslexia Appling this simple technique to eBooks for example, can potentially improve the accessibility of text for dyslexic readers The beautiful girl was feeding the birds The be a uti fu l gi r l w as f e e di ng the bi rds

What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Dyslexia Friendly Classroom BDA Dyslexia Friendly Classroom - difficulty in copying from the board Classroom learning relies heavily on copying and note-taking Copying from a board presents serious difficulties to almost all learners with dyslexia Psychologically complex task, involving visual-encoding, construction and maintenance of a mental representation in working memory, production in written form Do children engage in meaning or just pattern copying? Visual-encoding

lexical access Do children read and fully understand information they copy? How much can children accurately remember and write? mental representation written production Using mobile eye tracking What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? The Dikablis mobile eyetracker allows us to record eye movements during a task in which children are not required to keep still! The mobile eye tracker links the location of the eye with the objects in the environment to work out what children are looking at and how long they spend processing Study

skilled adult readers children aged 7-10 Task To copy individually presented words from a whiteboard in a classroom What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What did this look like in practice? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia?

Initial encoding time Adults Lexical influence on long words, advantage for high frequency Children 2000 Adults 1800 Similar trend in short words Children Lexical influence on short

words, advantage for high frequency Gaze Time (ms) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 No lexical influence on long words 200 0 tiny ruin treasure portrait Word type

stable fixation initial encoding writing onset secondary encoding end writing verification end trial What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Initial encoding time

Adults Lexical influence on long words, advantage for high frequency Children 2000 Adults 1800 Similar trend in short words 1600 Lexical influence on short words, advantage for high

frequency Gaze Time (ms) 1400 Children 1200 1000 800 600 400 No lexical influence on long words 200 0 tiny ruin treasure portrait

Word type stable fixation initial encoding writing onset secondary encoding end writing verification end trial What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Initial encoding time

Adults Lexical influence on long words, advantage for high frequency Children 2000 Adults 1800 Similar trend in short words Children Lexical influence on short words, advantage for high

frequency Gaze Time (ms) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 No lexical influence on long words if anything, there is a reverse frequency influence 200 0 tiny ruin treasure portrait

Word type stable fixation initial encoding writing onset secondary encoding end writing verification end trial What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Written production

Both adults and children showed very similar patterns in writing Word length influences writing processing time There is no robust influence of word frequency in processing writing Children Adults 10000 8000 Gaze Time (ms) 6000 4000 2000 0 C1: short, high

C2: short, low C3: long, high C4: long, low Condition: length, frequency stable fixation initial encoding writing onset secondary encoding end writing verification end

trial Summary of copying findings What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? What does this mean? In sentence reading, children are capable of reading long, low frequency words But during copying, children do not always process these words as whole words Break them down into clusters of letters to make the task easier Why is this important? Children can write accurately and efficiently without processing the meaning of the words Impact on learning Even if children do read the whole word, during written production, smaller sublexical units seem more important during the writing process

Summary What can eye tracking tell us about reading, writing, and dyslexia? Eye movements provide a highly sensitive index of the cognitive processing during reading Eye movements clearly highlight lexical processing difficulty in dyslexic readers We know that dyslexic readers are processing text differently We know that dyslexic readers are using all the same information to the right of fixation compared to reading-age and chronological-age matched readers We know that when dyslexic readers look at words there is something different about

their binocular coordination A simple technique of adding spaces between letters can, potentially, make text more accessible for dyslexic readers But during copying, even typical readers do not always read words as whole words, instead they break them down into clusters of letters to make the task easier but may not access the meaning

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