Smartphone Operating Systems Hwajung Lee Key Reference: Prof.

Smartphone Operating Systems Hwajung Lee Key Reference: Prof.

Smartphone Operating Systems Hwajung Lee Key Reference: Prof. Jong-Moon Chungs Lecture Notes at Yonsei University iPhone Evolution iOS Evolution iOS Evolution

iOS Evolution iOS Steve Jobs introduced the iPhone on January 9, 2007 The iPhone and iPad started a new era of smart devices, mobile apps, and mobile computing iOS Evolution iOS 1 Released in June 2007 OS of the first iPhone Core iOS user interface

- Capacitive touchscreen - Pinch-to-Zoom - Inertial Scrolling Mobile Safari web browser Visual Voicemail Google Maps iOS Evolution iOS 1.1 Released in September 2007 iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store

iPod Touch compatibility iOS 1.1.3 Released in January 2008 Locate Me feature Web clips on home screen Re-arrange icons

iOS Evolution iOS 2 (1/2) Released in July 2008 App Store - Improved app browsing and installation - Revolution in mobile app distribution iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) - More functional apps - Improved appearance iOS Evolution

iOS 2 (2/2) Contact Search Microsoft Exchange support MobileMe A subscription-based collection of online services and software offered by Apple Inc. Later, the services were being gradually transitioned and replaced by iCloud. iOS Evolution iOS 2.1

Released in September 2008 Battery life and speed fixes iTunes Genius playlists Dropped call fixes iOS 2.2 Released in November 2008 Google street view

Podcast downloads iOS Evolution iOS 3 (1/2) Released in June 2009 Cut, Copy, and Paste New text-selection metaphor that works well with touch Push notifications for 3rd party apps Voice Control iOS Evolution

iOS 3 (2/2) MMS (Multimedia Message Service) functionality including vCards, picture, audio files, video Optional Subject line in the Message Settings Photos can be taken/sent directly from the Messages app MMS messages are played/viewed in the Message app USB & Bluetooth tethering Landscape keyboard Find my iPhone iOS Evolution

iOS 3.2 Released in April 2010 Support for iPad resolution Initial release on iPad (1st generation) Allow user to change home screen background Location-based services rely on Apples own databases instead of Google and Skyhook Wireless Bluetooth keyboard support iBooks

iOS Evolution iOS 4 (1/2) Released in June 2010 Multitasking Fast App Switching/Saved State Allows apps to save current status for easy reuse when returning to app after multitasking Retina Display support iOS Evolution iOS 4 (2/2)

FaceTime video chat using Wi-Fi Home Screen Folders Drag and drop an app icon on top of another app icon to form an app folder iOS Evolution iOS 4.2.5 Released in February 2011 Personal hotspot using CDMA iOS 4.3 Released in March 2011

Personal hotspot using GSM iOS Evolution iOS 5 (1/2) Released in October 2011 iCloud File backup Multiple device sync Siri Siri virtual assistant replaces Voice Control iOS Evolution

iOS 5 (2/2) iMessage - Free multimedia message exchanges No More PC Activation Requirement - iOS 5 devices do not need to be physically tethered to a computer via USB when activated iOS Evolution iOS 6 (1/2) Released in September 2012 Maps Departure from Google Maps

FaceTime over mobile cellular networks Improved Apple ID integration iOS Evolution iOS 6 (2/2) Passbook Mobile payment (tickets, coupons, boarding passes, etc.) and rewards cards Siri enhancements - Sports scores, schedules, and player data - Restaurant reviews from Yelp - Reservations from OpenTable

- Siri car control (future development): this is still evolving iOS Evolution iOS 7 (1/2) Released in September 2013 Touch ID - Fingerprint biometric sensor to unlock phone - Password-less purchases from the App Store AirDrop - Ad-hoc sharing of images, videos, and files iOS Evolution

iOS 7 (2/2) FaceTime Audio Audio-only version of FaceTime between Apple users via WiFi, 3G, or LTE iOS Evolution iOS 8 (1/2) Released in September 2014 Continuity - Works with Apples new Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite for enhanced interactivity between iPhone or iPad and Mac computer - Send and receive text messages from a

Mac - Take phone calls from a Mac iOS Evolution iOS 8 (2/2) Third party keyboard support HealthKit - Hub for third-party fitness trackers data HomeKit - Home automation (future development) - iPhone can serve as a remote control for the entire home

iOS Evolution Any key features of the following iOS? iOS 9 iOS 9.3.5 iOS 10 References Apple, http://apple.com The Verge, iOS : A visual history, http://www.theverge.com/2011/12/13/2612736/ios-histor y-iphone-ipad [Accessed June 1, 2015]

Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOS_version_history Image Sources Evolution of Apple iPhone Family, http://bitsnapper.com/ios-101-day-0-setting-up-the-garage/ Evolution of Apple iOS Family, http://tech.everyeye.it/articoli/speciale-ios-9-come-sara-il-prossimo-sistema-operativo-di-a pple-26373.html iOS 9, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOS_9 Android Evolution

Android Evolution Android Evolution Android Evolution Android Android Beta Released in November 2007 Beginning of the Android mobile OS (Operating System) Android 1.0 Released in September 2008

First commercial Android OS Android versions are linked with API Levels Android Evolution API Level API (Application Programming Interface) API Level is a general indicator of how much the Programmer can communicate with built in functions of a device Higher API levels indicate increased functionality control Android Versions

Name *Release Date API Level Kernel Version 1.5 Cupcake

April 30, 2009 3 2.6.27 1.6 Donut September 15, 2009

4 2.6.29 2.02.1 Eclair October 26, 2009 5-7

2.6.29 2.2 Froyo May 20, 2010 8 2.6.32

2.32.3.2 Gingerbread December 6, 2010 9 2.6.35 2.3.32.3.7

Gingerbread February 9, 2011 10 2.6.35 3.0 Honeycomb

Feb 11, 2011 11 2.6.36 3.1 Honeycomb May 10, 2011

12 2.6.36 3.2 Honeycomb July 15, 2011 13

2.6.36 4.0-4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich October 11, 2011 14 3.0.1

4.0.3-4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich December 16, 2011 15 3.0.1 4.1.X

Jelly Bean July 9, 2012 16 3.0.31 4.2.X Jelly Bean

November 13, 2012 17 3.4.0 4.3 Jelly Bean July 24, 2012

18 3.4.39 4.4 Kit Kat September 2013 19, 20

3.10 5.0-5.0.2 Lollipop November 3, 2014 21 3.16.1

5.1-5.1.1 Lollipop March 9, 2015 22 6.0-6.0.1 Marshmallow

October 5, 2015 23 7.0 Nougat August 22, 2016 24

3.18.10 *Depending on sources, the release dates might have a difference in several days range Android Evolution Android 1.0 (API level 1) (1/2) Grouping of Folders Single Folder Icon Access to web e-mail servers Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support

Google Sync Wireless synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar Android Evolution Android 1.0 (API level 1) (2/2) Basic Applications Calendar, Maps, Street View, Talk Voice Dialer, Wallpaper Additional Applications (Phone) Dialer

(Launcher) Home Screen (Gallery) Pictures Alarm Clock Calculator Android Evolution Android 1.1 (API level 2) Released in February 2009 Released on the HTC Dream smartphone Attachments in messages can be saved Android Evolution

Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3) (1/4) Released in April 2009 Web Browser Copy and Paste User pictures added for Favorites in Contacts Screen Transitions with Animation Starting with Android 1.5 "Cupcake," Android versions were each given a confectionery code name in alphabetical order Android Evolution Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3) (2/4)

Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth A2DP and AVRCP profiles A2DP (Advanced Audio Distribution Profile) Defines how multimedia audio can be streamed from one device (e.g., smartphone) to another device (e.g., wireless headset, hearing aid, car audio) over Bluetooth Android Evolution Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3) (3/4) AVRCP (Audio/Video Remote Control Profile) Enables a single remote controller to control

all local A/V equipment (e.g., TVs, Hi-Fi equipment) Can be used with A2DP Third-Party Virtual Keyboards Text Prediction Custom Words User Dictionary Android Evolution Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3) (4/4) Widget Miniature application that can be inserted into another application

Receives periodic updates Used in home screen customization Touching leads to direct app access Widget Examples Weather widgets Clock widgets Sports score trackers Android Evolution Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4) (1/3) Released in September 2009 Text-to-Speech Engine

Multi-Lingual Speech Synthesis Engine Android applications can Speak a string of text Enhanced fully integrated Gallery, Camera, and Camcorder Faster camera access Android Evolution Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4) (2/3) Multiple photo selection for deletion CDMA/EVDO and 802.1x support VPN (Virtual Private Network) support Virtual point-to-point private dedicated network connection

setup in a public network Virtual tunneling protocols and packet traffic encryption commonly used Android Evolution Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4) (3/3) WVGA (Wide Video Graphics Array) Screen support Wider VGA screen with same 480 Pixel Height Aspect Ratio 3:2 720x480 Aspect Ratio 5:3

800x480 Approximate Aspect Ratio 16:9 848x480, 852x480, 853x480, 854x480 Android Evolution Android 2.0 clair (API level 5) (1/4) Released in October 2009 Account Sync Multiple User Accounts on a single device

Synchronization of e-mail and contacts Bluetooth 2.1 support Android Evolution Android 2.0 clair (API level 5) (2/4) Can search all saved SMS and MMS messages New Camera Features Flash Support Digital Zoom Scene Mode White Balance Color Effect

Macro Focus Android Evolution Android 2.0 clair (API level 5) (3/4) Enhanced Google Maps Enhanced Virtual Keyboard Improved Typing Speed using dictionary suggestions Includes words used by the user Includes user contacts names Android Evolution

Android 2.0 clair (API level 5) (4/4) Motion Event class Track multi-touch events Live Wallpapers Home-Screen Background Animation Microsoft Exchange e-mail support Android Evolution Android 2.2~2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8) (1/2) Released in May 2010 Android C2DM (Cloud to Device Messaging) support

Enables push notification for third-party developers Used in E-mail, Contacts, and Calendar Android Evolution Android 2.2~2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8) (2/2) Adobe Flash support USB Tethering Wi-Fi Hotspot Multiple Keyboard Languages and Dictionary Quick switching

Android Evolution Android 2.3~2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9) (1/3) Released in December 2010 Front and Back Camera support Improved Virtual Keyboard Intuitive text input Improved accuracy Improved suggested text and voice input mode Android Evolution Android 2.3~2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9) (2/3) Easy-to-use Copy & Paste

Word selection by Press-Hold Copy Paste SIP based VoIP (Voice over IP) support SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) supports signaling and controlling of IP multimedia communication sessions VoIP, Video Call, Instant Messaging Android Evolution Android 2.3~2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9) (3/3) More Sensor support Gyroscope, Barometer, etc. NFC (Near Field Communication)

Used to exchange small information segments Application examples Payments, Posters, Stickers, Advertisement Android Evolution Android 2.3.4 Gingerbread (API level 10) Released in April 2011 Support for Voice or Video Chat using Google Talk Google Talk is an Instant Messaging

service Provides text and voice communication Android Evolution Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11) (1/4) Released in February 2011 Simplified multitasking First Tablet only Android OS Optimized for Smart Tablets Android Evolution Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11) (2/4)

Action Bar Top of the Screen Access Contextual options, Navigation, Widgets, etc. System Bar Bottom of the Screen Access Notifications, Status, and Soft Navigation Buttons, etc. Android Evolution Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11) (3/4) Improved Tablet Keyboard Improvements for faster, more efficient, and more accurate

typing on larger Tablet screens Camera Features Quick Access Camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, etc. Android Evolution Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11) (4/4) Multi-Core Processor support External I/O Device support (3.1 Honeycomb, API level 12, May 10, 2011) Keyboards, Pointing Devices, Joysticks, Gamepads, etc.

Android Evolution Android 4.0~4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14) (1/3) Released in October 2011 Easier-to-Create Folders Drag-and-Drop creation Enhanced Visual Voicemail Controllable Speed-Up or Slow-Down Voicemail messages Android Evolution

Android 4.0~4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14) (2/3) Face Unlock Facial recognition based smartphone unlocking Improved Camera functionality Zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, zoom control during recording Android Evolution Android 4.0~4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14) (3/3)

Location and Person based gallery layout Built-in Photo Editor Wi-Fi Direct Android Evolution Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16) (1/3) Released in July 2012 Bi-directional text and other language support Bluetooth data transfer Android Evolution Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16) (2/3)

Android Beam Instant file sharing of two NFC enabled phones by touching each other Keymaps (Keyboard maps) Additional international keymaps and special layout keyboard types can be installed Android Evolution Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16) (3/3) Multi-Channel Audio Supported on smartphones with Multi-Channel Audio output through HDMI

For non-equipped devices, Android automatically downmixes the audio to fit the number of audio channels supported by the smartphone Android Evolution Android 4.3 Jelly Bean (API level 18) BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) support AVRCP 1.3 support AVRCP (Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile) Android Evolution Android 4.4 KitKat (API level 19) (1/3)

Released in October 2013 Wireless Printing Step detector and counter NFC Host Card emulation Smartphones are capable of replacing smart cards Sensor batching

Collects and delivers sensor events efficiently in batches Android Evolution Android 4.4 KitKat (API level 19) (2/3) Loudness Enhancer Increase the loudness of speech in media playback apps Built-in Screen Recording Primarily for developers Use of ADB (Android Debug Bridge) is required Bluetooth MAP (Message Access Profile) Apps can exchange messages with a nearby device

Android Evolution Android 4.4 KitKat (API level 20) (3/3) Released in June 2014 Wearable Extensions Android Wear platform for smartwatches Android Evolution Android 5.0~5.0.2 Lollipop (API level 21) (1/3) Released in November 2014 64 bit CPU support Audio Input and Output through USB devices

Android Evolution Android 5.0~5.0.2 Lollipop (API level 21) (2/3) 3rd-party applications can read and modify data on external storages (e.g., SD cards) Memory of recently used applications Even after restarting the device the memory of recently used apps is maintained Android Evolution Android 5.0~5.0.2 Lollipop (API level 21) (3/3) Addition of 15 new languages

Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Chinese (Hong Kong), Galician, Icelandic, Kannada, Kyrgyz, Macedonian, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Sinhala, Tamil, and Telugu Android Evolution Android 6.0 Marshmallow Android 7.0 Nougat References

Android Developers, http://developer.android.com Android, https://www.android.com V3, Top 10 reasons to be excited by Android Ice Cream Sandwich, http://www.v3.co.uk/v3uk/news/2119111/reasons-excited-android-ice-cream- sandwich20150513 [Accessed June 1, 2015] Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org Image Sources Androids Architecture Diagram, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) Android vs. iOS Android vs. iOS Developer

OS family Customizability Initial release Programming Language Android Google Linux High Sept. 23, 2008 C, C++, Java

iOS Apple OS X, UNIX Low July 29, 2007 C, C++, Objective-C, Swift Android vs. iOS Source model Internet Browsing

Voice Commands Video Chat App Store Android Open Source Google Chrome Google Now Google Hangouts Google Play & other app stores (e.g., Amazon)

iOS Closed but has Open Source components Mobile Safari Siri Facetime Apple App Store Android vs. iOS Latest Release Device

Manufacturer Website Android Android 7.0 (Nougat) August 2016 Google, LG, Samsung, HTC, Sony, ASUS, Motorola, and many more android.com

iOS iOS 10 September 2016 Apple apple.com Android vs. iOS Apps Available on iOS vs. Android Most popular apps are available on both Android & iOS Googles app store is more open and tends to include some apps that are not available in iOS (e.g., Adobe Flash Player and

BitTorrent) Android vs. iOS Apps Available on iOS vs. Android iPad has an advantage in tablets, as more apps are designed specifically iPads Many Android tablet apps are scaled up versions of apps that were made for Android smartphones Developers at smaller companies may first develop their app for an iPhone or iPad and then conduct development in Android

Android vs. iOS Mobile Payments Google Wallet is used in Android Supported on smartphones equipped with NFC (NearField Communication) Apple Pay is used in iOS Integrated with fingerprint identification Android vs. iOS Building & Publishing Apps Android Android apps are programmed in C, C++, and Java Free download of Android source code and Android SDK

One-time $25 registration fee for app developers that need to publish an app Android vs. iOS Building and Publishing Apps iOS iOS apps are programmed using Objective-C and Swift Developers need to annually pay $99 for access to the iOS SDK and publish in Apple's App store iOS SDK is only available for the Mac platform Android vs. iOS

Android Pros & Cons Variety in Hardware selection - Various Android devices are available - Various hardware capabilities, screen sizes and features - Various prices Customizable User Interface - Easy to customize Home screen - Adjustable app icons and widgets Android vs. iOS iOS Pros & Cons

Massive App Ecosystem - Very Large Apple App store - App quality check Locked Down Interface - No third-party apps can be pre-installed by the mobile operator - Limited home screen customization options - Rows of app icons Android vs. iOS iOS Pros & Cons Software Upgrades

- Very good software upgrade system - Good upgrade notifications and reminders - Device capability considered in upgrades Privacy Control - iOS provides good control of user private information (e.g., contacts and location) References

Apple, http://apple.com Android Developers, http://developer.android.com Android, https://www.android.com Diffen, Android vs. iOS, http://www.diffen.com/difference/Android_vs_iOS [Accessed June 1, 2015] Forbes, iOS 8 vs Android 5.0 Lollipop Review: Material Difference, http://www.forbes.com/ sites/gordonkelly/2014/11/07/ios-8-vs-android-5-0-lollipop- review [Accessed June 1, 2015] Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org Image Sources History of Android, http://bitsnapper.com/ios-101-day-0-setting-up-the-garage/

Android Nougat, http://www.nashvillechatterclass.com/android-nougat-release-date-set-august-no-love-nexu s-5-users/10761/

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