Migration from the population development perspective Population on

Migration from the population development perspective Population on

Migration from the population development perspective Population on the Move. Migrants, Refugees and Citizenship Rights Conference in Tallinn University, February 7-8, 2019 , Tallinn Luule Sakkeus Outline Definition. What do we study when we study migration? What can demographic theories offer? Revisiting mobility transition theory what have we missed?

Mobility transition theory how to advance? Critique of mobility transition theory and possible answers Setting of the definitions and some examples Definition of migration People on the move are all of them migrants? Migration is a relocation of oneself in time and space For how long? regular migration: for over 12 months visits, tourists, business trips, education for short-term courses, irregular (like asylum seekers, refugees- assumed to stay less) not to say about illegal are excluded OR Permanent and temproray (US, CAN OECD 2018)

For how far? regular migration: over administrative borders internal, international In which direction? Out of the borders (from which population), into the borders (from which populations) e-(out-)migration, im-(in-) migrationwhich borders urban-rural, rural-rural, rural-urban Why to define? in order to measure the process adequately and understand underlying mechanisms What do we study when studying migration?

Migration processes in the societal development from the long-term perspective Economic approaches are usually been static and applicable to short-run phenomena in the process development (see critique Massey et al 1993; de Haas 2009) Spatial approaches relatively less related to other social processes World systems theories (migration systems) and (human) development theories embrace in themselves counteractions between different systems and often lose the perspective Complex system theories a future challenge in non-linear non-equilibrial dynamical systems modelling? What can demographic

theories offer? Bring in the historical perspective (memory and based on that organization of collective conciousness driving generational shifts in demographic processes) Enable to have the macro-level perspective and not to lose individual behaviour patterns within them (Billari 2015) Offer migration processes the demographic perspective, i.e. related to the population development from which it originates and thus better understanding how (the collective and historical) memory organizes itself, mechanisms of adaptation and rejection and nonlinear interoperability Offer systematic approach into self-organization of new structures, possibly better inclusion into complex system theories And last but not least, people are carrying all these behaviour

patterns, so there is no way we can break away from their collective conciousness building which determine the macro-level trends Trends in demographic processes: fertility Trends in demographic processes: life expectancy Demographic transition: where in a population development the migration potential is lying? Revisiting mobility transition theory what have we missed? Zelinsky (1971) relates spatio-temporal

systems to demographic systems and postulates that there are definite, patterned regularities in the growth of personal mobility through space-time during recent history, and these regularities comprise an essential component of the modernization process Offers a view on the irreversible progression of stages in the development of the process Revisiting mobility transition theory what have we missed? But also that modernization process brings about widening range of options for locating

and patterning ones life genuine migration means usually shift both in spatial and SOCIAL locus (i.e occupations, social class, religious affiliation, variety of political affiliations (including citizenship)) Mobility of mind (access to information, spread of knowledge, educational transition) Revisiting mobility transition theory what have we missed? But also shallower local attachment, rootlessness? Or from increasing trend of formation of political, civic and community oriented networks (Lesthaeghe, Neels 2002) and state-formation

process (Skeldon 1997) to weakening social cohesion and social capital shifts towards expressive and affective types (Lesthaeghe, Neels 2002)? Or rather the short-run and long-run view on the issue of diversity (Putnam 2007) Or the Third Demographic Transition (Coleman 2006)? Zelinsky(1971) warns that despite a lot of research related to migration The intrinsic nature of the phenomenon might not have been captured due to definitional problems and thus, availability of relevant data and analysis remains a problem STILL TRUE TODAY!

Mobility transition theory how to advance? Definition setting Do not apply colonial thinking With colonial thinking European marriage type and Hajnal line (1956) would have never come into existence, vice versa, explore the state formation process in relation to demographic development (Skeldon 1997), i.e. what is the definition of place of birth? (current problems in Kyrgyztan (Fergana is historical Uzbekistan territory), countries and regions in FSU, Yugoslav ) Construct valid population entities It is for scientific community to influence their NSOs and administrative

databases to serve the populations in their best interest start collecting data on diversity aspects and to each populations apply what is relevant to them (not political constructs)(see Haug 2000, Haug, Compton, Courbage 2000, 2003), i.e. self-identification, mother tongue, usual language, other languages, religious affiliation, place of birth of oneself (first generation), parents (second generation), grandparents (third generation, think of Paris, Tallinn, Malm, Stockholm), new concept of citizenship because of its dual, triple or even quadraple nature Examples on definition of who is foreign? Source: OECD, 2018, Statistics Estonia 2011

Definition setting Measure migrations to relevant population, i.e. go to the beginning where it all started Emigration is tied to the certain structure of population Immigration a certain stage during populations development Consider pool of return migration Start of mobility increase at a certain point in each populations development? Source: Rogers, 1982 Out-migration into two main

directions 2010s , Estonia Source: Statistics Estonia 2011, 2018, EstPOPDatabank Age-specific emigration rates, Estonia, 1960s-2010s Source: Statistics Estonia 2018, EstPOPDatabank, authors own calculations Age-specific emigration rates, Sweden, 1969-2008 Source: Statistics Sweden, 2010

Net migration rates, regions of Europe, 1950-2050 Source: UN Population Prospects database, rel.2008 Definition setting Do not apply your system to the part of immigrant population they are in another phase, i.e. measure in accordance with that stage in demographic development as well as their populations social structure

No effect of economic transition, but effect of imposed colonial structures Crude emigration rates (per 1000) by self-identification, Estonia 1990s, 2010s 1989 1992 Ukrainians 2,9 105,9

Tatars 1,6 97,8 111,3 91,5 0,7 89

58,5 72,9 0,8 54,5 106,3 53,9 Finns (Ingrians)

1,9 19 Estonians 0,3 0,9 Germans Bielorussians Jews Russians

Polish Source: Statistics Estonia 2011, Est POP Databank, authors own calculations 2011 1,7 5,1 Return migration of those of Estonian citizenship, Estonia 2017

Source: Statistics Estonia 2019, own calculations Definition setting Development of new forms of migration are intrinsic to the population in accordance with the developmental stage of demographic transition of this population, we need to start measuring them Modern phases of migration- urban to rural (urban sprawl)? 19 192 193 193 194 By 24

9 4 9 4 age Native population 30 13.0 8.9 7.3 11. 10. 0 2 35 8.7 8.4 7.9 9.8 10. 5 Foreign origin population 30 4.3 7.8 4.2 4.7 3.8 35

4.3 5.6 3.2 2.3 1.1 Source: Est GGS 2004, birthplace in urban environment, by that age in rural environment 194 9 195 4 195 9 196

4 196 9 197 4 14. 17. 17. 15. 14. 14. 2 4 2 0 7

5 14. 16. 18. 17. 16. 0 1 5 9 2 5.1 4.5 4.7 3.1 4.0 4.5 2.9 4.0 4.7 4.2 10. 5 In order to understand new forms of migration....... Additional definitions who is in emigration waves and

who is not? EU wide movements in case of free movement countries with excellent register systems can have the opportunity to distinguish ( in 2006 14% formed own nationals, another similar amount other EU MS (Herm , 2009)) at what time in their lifetime they come back? Do not count residence permits, but real residence Education attainment abroad - to which extent is it registered in our populations data? Commuting between household in own country and work in the neighbouring country (the same in internal migration) Residing half a year in own country, half a year in another country

In order to understand new forms of migration....... DATA; DATA; DATA: Nordic countries can have advantage to monitor different movements and distinguish new forms through linking different datasets (residence permits,asylum applications, tax payments, border-crossing, benefit reception, study loans and education registers etc) Tackle the movements of native population, in particular through linking on personal data emigration dates with return dates, understanding who is going away for how long, what new characteristics have acquired (higher educational level, for some professionals professional advancement can be monitored through relevant registers (health care staff))

Distinguish population groups (foreign origin population evaluated separately from native population) and their migration rates in accordance with their population structure in the residence country Cooperation between countries with registers to exchange personal level data in order to tackle their movements in neighbouring countries and back LET US START A BALTO-SCANDIC COOPERATION START THEORIZING BIG.... Encompass the social mobility transition as a whole On the basis of understanding better emergence of new forms of mobility adjust the mobility concept (like health transition or union formation transition) Systematic approach to processes under study will help to model them in the frame of complex system approach but you cannot start at the complex level without

understanding the development process of sub-systems you put into the complex system Link to social mechanisms (i.e. micro-level behaviours) (Billari 2015) 1) situational mechanisms through which the macro level affects individual outcomes (e.g., how mortality decline in a society affects individual fertility choices). 2) action-formation mechanisms through which inter-individual processes (over time) affect individual outcomes (e.g., how past fertility choices affect current fertility choices). 3) transformational mechanisms through which, via the aggregation of individual outcomes or the interaction among individuals, macro-level outcomes are generated. THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION!

e-mail: [email protected] Five stages in migration transition (Zelinsky 1971)

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