DEMOCRACY AND LIBERALISM Give me the liberty know,
DEMOCRACY AND LIBERALISM Give me the liberty know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience. John Milton Laissez-faire, laissez-passer. Unknown Political Ideologies & Political Concepts What is an ideology? Are you ideological? Essentially contested concepts: Freedom Equality Democracy - Property Origins? the Enlightenment Enlightenment is mans emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use ones understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Sapere Aude! [dare to know] Have courage to use your own understanding!that is the motto of enlightenment.
Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment, Berlinische Monatsschrift (Berlin Monthly), 1784 the science of ideas.. traditional ideologies of the Enlightenment? What do we mean by the terms left and right? Keep in mind each ideology can encompass broad perspectives and ideals. not always easy to distinguish between them because difference can be subtle. Democracy and Liberalism the individual cast in terms of natural rights freedom and equality early liberalism directed against 18th century absolutism and many feudal practices the origins of ideology response to end of feudalism conservative tradition? laissez-faire capitalism middle class
freedom of movement and trade against political and economic constraints appealed to a large sector of society new risings classes, peasants, workers against the landed aristocracy, while also being opposed by the monarchy and the church The Three Cores of Liberalism Moral freedom, dignity and life what does it mean to be human? Economic rights and freedoms of individuals to produce and to consume, to enter contractual relations, to buy/sell through a market economy, to satisfy wants in ones own way, to dispose of ones property and labour as one decides John Locke (1632-1704) Two Treatises on Government (1693) the state is the custodian of natural rights and is founded upon the consent of the government in order to protect these rights life, liberty,
and property. contract theory led to the elaboration of institutions of limited state and a limited govt Representative Govt political authority derives from the people In the British tradition parliamentary sovereignty and majority rule Must restrain from violating peoples natural rights Elitist? Applied to only those who held property Middle class Landed Aristocracy Note: It was only much later, when the vote was expanded to ultimately to all citizens, that the problem of how to limit the majority assumed particular importance Constitutionalism (Think: US Constitution) Emphasis on restraining political power of majority rule on individual Adam Smith (1723-1790)
and The Wealth of Nations (1776) the bible of liberal economic theory fundamental economic laws exist such as the law of supply and demand that provide self-regulation of the economy favoured a limited state staunchest supporter of a worldwide free trade Divine Hand of Providence free competition and interplay of economic interests and forces would lead to social and economic harmony.laissez-faire John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Enlightened Self-Interest On Liberty (1859) Moral individualism links it to requirements of education and enlightenment
What is Enlightened Self-Interest? Someone who forgos an immediate pleasure in order to derive a greater one later Same criteria applies to groups or classes of people If we act in terms of enlightened self-interest, we may consider concessions to other groups or classes than risk the loss of all we have Some pleasures are better than others because of their intrinsic quality, not because of the particular pleasure they give to an individual So..A poem has more utility than a hot dog?!?! But how can the people be led to make the right decision? Education Obligation of the state to establish education, and. It is the function of education to enlighten.....transforming an essentially hedonistic society into a body of civic-minded The State and the Individual Liberalism as an antistate philosophy? Role of the state is to protect the individual
On Liberty (1859) That every restraint imposed by the state is bad That even if the individual cannot do certain things well, the state should not do them for fear that it might undermine the individuals independence and initiative Increase of the power of the state is bad and prejudicial to individual freedom Achievements: The Expansion of Liberalism Slavery was abolished Religious disabilities against holding public office abandoned Freedom of press, speech and association granted Public Education Universal Suffrage Constitution-making Representative govt became increasingly accepted throughout Europe (not Russia!) Free(r) Trade Self-determination
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1831) and Utilitarianism Every object can satisfy a want This is subjective For some, a poem has a greater utility than a hot dog. For others, the hot dog comes first. The market decides. Our purpose is to please ourselves and avoid pain But pain is inevitable hence: Self-interest gives way to enlightened selfinterest Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) The Social Contract (1762) argued for the sovereignty of the people the general will of the people is inalienable, infallible, and indestructible Rousseau believed in direct government by the people - no restraints on popular will
Nobody could really represent anybody else....representative government? Meh. More like uninhibited majority rule.. So, how is the general will expressed? What does it look like? Nationalism? Historical Development of Liberalism free market v. state intervention? Classic Liberalism Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations negative liberty emphasis on individual libertyfrom the state late 19th century extent of poverty recognized; trade unions Reform (New) Liberalism positive liberty freedom to pursue self-development, which is assumed to require state intervention to protect rights, promote equality of opportunity social contract idea that individuals have voluntarily agreed to
accept certain limits on their freedom in return for benefits government will provide.. Key individuals are of equal value..but not equal meritocracy? But..Does the free market allow for genuine equality of opportunity? THE CONSERVATIVE TRADITION When the leaders choose to make themselves bidders at an auction of popularity, their talents, in the construction of the state, will be of no service. They will become flatterers instead of legislators; the instruments, not the guides, of the people Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790 Historical Roots of Conservatism What was Plato suggesting by philosopher kings? Our society today is based on liberal ideas and values liberalism is the dominant political ideology but not everyone buys in, and not everyone bought in during the Enlightenment
landed aristocracy rural groups, those who live in small towns, the old, and the uneducated Why? Is Conservatism more a state of mind than a political ideology? to conserve what? property status power Can it be identified with certain fundamental convictions? a way of life privilege An aversion to rationalist thought? Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790 Edmund Burke Classic Conservatism: The British Model political society idea is that society is a tapestry, a fabric woven of different threads,
so everyone depends on everyone else..but hierarchical and with social inequality political authority disagree with contract theory of state propounded by liberals we are born into society like our father and forefathers we do not make it change Change should be gradual, not revolutionary leadership Natural leaders men, or women of talent, high birth, and property should govern and the many should follow Paternalistic social welfare? American Conservative Tradition Rights of Man, 1791 Thomas Paine self-made man a persons worth lies in achievement, not birth, inheritance or status
the Constitution limitations on direct democracy & emphasis on law opposed to majoritarianism and reason restraints placed on both government and the people wisdom of the framers The 2nd amendment to the US constitution? Economics economic liberalism or paternalistic capitalism? free market, free enterprise hostility to big government, government spending and high taxes Moral Issues religious values? law and order The Seven Pillars of Conservative Thought? The logic of conservative ideology 1. Individual liberties are more important than equality 2. Against the concentration of power in the hands of anybody, especially the people
3. Insist on a hierarchy of groups and classes and a cooperation among them 4. Respect for tradition and inheritance 5. Religion, with its reverence for authority, is dear to conservatives 6. Distrust reason and the propriety of using it as a solution for social problems 7. Elitist Some are better equipped than others to lead, some are superior, while some (generally the many) are inferior Socialism 19th Century Industrialism Working class? Middle Class? ..Reform Liberalism? Reforming Capitalism or Destroying Capitalism? Socialist principles. human nature? Equality?
Collectivism? Revolutionary v. Evolutionary Socialism? Marx popular uprising? Lenin coup detat led by a vanguard Democratic Socialism universal suffrage the state can be responsive to working class interests. attached to the moral core of liberalism stress on individual and civil rights What are the objectives of socialism? strong state in a socialist society v. decentralized communal society? public ownership? market socialism but, where to draw the line? Marx and the Roots of Communism Theory of Communism: - The Communist Manifesto - Das Kapital Marx and Engel outline industry in the 20th century Bourgeoisie the factory owner
Proletariat the worker For Marx the Proletariat was most significant, as workers produced the productCapitalists stole profit of the product from worker Karl Marx Marx Workers take over all elements of production Private property is evil Marx Revolution: i) Class Struggles=Exploitation: Masses must be made to see this and revolt ii) Capitalism will end once the worker becomes conscious iii) After the revolution: Dictatorship of the Proletariat iv) After a time this dictatorship will wither away, giving way to true communism Marx envisioned the revolution would take place in
a heavily industrialized society Russia?!!! Marxs five stages of history * Private property is abolished Benito Mussolini the schoolteacher Il Duce 1919 Mussolini leads small radical rightwing movement the Fascists Anti-socialist Anti-liberal Anti-mass democracy Extreme Nationalism Violence Black Shirts paramilitary political goons https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Jg7fFYL3z4
1920-1922: Populist movement Professional, the intelligentsia, and middle class members https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7lw30qKFLw 1922: The March on Rome Strategy whereby they would forcibly take over the government Mussolini gathers 26,000 Black Shirts outside Rome & demands role in government King (anti-communist) hands over Mussolini government without a single shot fired Acerbo Law (1923) - assures a two-thirds majority for the party with the most votes Lateran Accords (1929)- Catholic Church signs in order to ensure its survival, and Mussolini signs to receive an appearance of sanction by the Church (important because most Italians were practicing Catholics) Italy Under the Fascists Did conditions in Italy improve under the fascists? Economics The Corporate State Management and workers running everything together In fact this suppressed the rights of the working man; economic planning was now centralized and made to appear
efficient State interference in the economy Problems: Limited Natural Resources Agricultural Production: Increase by 40%-70% Nevertheless Italy still imports food at start of WWII Italian Imperialism 1935 Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Hoare-Laval Plan: Early form of appeasement by Br. & Fr. Failure of League of Nations & Collective Security 1935-39 Mussolini makes Italy predominant in Mediterranean-Red Sea Region 1939 Annexation of Albania Early Hitler Hitlers Early Life: Born in Austria, 1889 Denied entry into Vienna Art School What if?
Enlisted in German army where he became a fanatical soldier and was decorated with the Iron Cross. After the war, he drifted. In bars and taverns he became well known for his debating and oratorical skills. He joined the German Workers Party and in 1920 became its leader. He changed the name to the National Socialist German Workers Party, from which we get NAZI. Hitler, far left, circa 1916 Key Ideas in Hitlers Doctrine Repudiated democratic government and called the Weimar Republic an abortion of filth. He defined personal freedoms as
rotten liberalism, incompatible with a strong and vigorous nation. Racial superiority of the Aryan or Nordic peoples. Jews, Slaves, Africans and Gypsies, homosexuals and the disabled were at the other end of the human scale. Lebensraum (living space) Hitler believed that the German people had a collective will (das folk). He referred to this as the will of the people = Triumph of the Will This was to become the foreign policy expression of the Aryan myth. It stated that inferior nations next-door to Germany would have to make room for the superior Germans. This applied to the Slav peoples the
Rise of Nazism How did a civilized nation such as Germany allow for Hitlers rise? The great masses of the peoplewill more easily fall victim to a big lie than to a small one. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf Their key ideas would remain: a) Ultra-nationalism b) Repudiation of the Treaty of Versailles c) Fanatical opposition to Communism Swastika With the coming of the Depression came widespread unemployment and growth of communist support. Wealthy landowners and manufacturers saw Hitler as their best defence against the communist threat. Most important, was his appeal to the middle classes who dreaded the return to the chaotic conditions of 1923. The bulk of his support
would come from this group. Nazis in the Reichstag Our movement must necessarily be antiParliamentary and if it takes part in the parliamentary constitution, it is only for the purpose of destroying this institution from within Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf 1933 Reichstag Fire 1932 Elections see NAZIs lose seats to Communists Reichstag Fire blamed on Communists SA (Hitlers goons) suspected Communist Revolution? Hindenburg annuls civil rights 4 000 communists arrested 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor Elites believe they can control
Hitler Anti-Liberal & Anti-Communist 1934 Enabling Act Joseph Goebbels Hitlers Economic Reforms Deficit Financing Autarky= Self-dependence & a closed economy Public works projects to improve economy Autobahn (Highways) Industrialization Volkswagen Planned Economy Four Year Plans War Industry Rearmament
Compulsory military service (1935) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1uoB1BHScA 1936 Olympics (Berlin) Jesse Owens (4x Gold medal winner) Anti-Semitism 1935 Nuremberg Laws Excluded Jews from Reich citizenship Forbidden to marry/ have relations with German or German-related blood Disenfranchised 1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) Est. 91 killed 30 000 arrested, incarcerated in camps Homes, school, hospitals
ransacked 1 000 synagogues burned 7 000 businesses destroyed or damaged Q. Was the Holocaust gradually improvised, or was it the execution of a plan in advance? Kristallnacht, 1938 Anarchism Highly optimistic view of human nature Core Human Assumptions: Humans are morally upstanding and natural cooperative when in a natural state. Core Values: Individual freedom State corrupts society People do not require an overarching power to live peaceably & settle differences
Organic, un-coerced community Libertarian(ism) Maximum Freedom, Minimum Government Opposes any form of government Individual Freedom Promotes free market economy Absences of regulation in moral, economic and social life Revisiting the Political Spectrum
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