Chapter 16 Developing the Research Proposal Chapter 16
Chapter 16 Developing the Research Proposal Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Steps in the Research Process Narrow to specific problem Develop approach
Identify question State hypotheses Review literature Identify sample Design data collection plan Select collection procedures Choose analysis Chapter 16 Implement plan Prepare report
Conducting & Reading Research Selecting the Problem - Tips 1. While reading, attending lectures, write down ideas immediately. 2. Research a subject for a paper. 3. What questions seem unresolved? 4. Challenge commonly accepted beliefs. 5. Look at masters & doctoral studies. 6. Discuss ideas, topics with professors or other researchers. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading
Research Defining the Problem Literature search conceptual literature related research Consider your interest in the problem Consider the importance of the problem Consider whether researching the problem is a feasible task Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading
Research Developing the Research Proposal Title Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Procedures Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Chapter 1: Introduction Statement of problem
Significance of study Delimitations Limitations Assumptions Hypotheses Definition of Terms Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Statement of problem problem statement: declarative statement indicting question addressed in research project
Example: The focus of the study was to determine whether particular variations within the CHRNA4 gene are associated with smoking behaviors. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Purpose of the study purpose statement: indicates why the study was done Example: The purpose of the study was to facilitate identification of
individuals at risk for becoming addicted to nicotine. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Significance of the study Possible reasons: 1. Gaps exist between theoretical and practical aspects of the problem. 2. More & better knowledge is needed. 3. Current knowledge needs to be validated. 4. Current practices need to be clarified/improved.
5. There is no known solution to the problem. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Example Identifying a gene that is associated with smoking may help: Target prevention programs toward at-risk adolescents Assist in understanding the biological basis of addiction to nicotine Lead to the development of pharmaceutical treatments for
smokers who wish to quit Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Delimitations scope of study Description of subjects Description of variables Description of tests, instruments, procedures Description of special equipment Type of training Time and duration of study Analytical procedures Chapter 16
Uncontrolled variables Errors in test administration or data handling Generalizability of data Representativeness of subjects Compromises to internal and external validity Reliability and validity of research instruments Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Assumptions
Usually drawn from literature or previous experiments Example: We assume the same genes are important in different populations for mediating smoking behavior. We assume the genes contribute enough of an effect to the behavior to be able to be observed. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Hypotheses Statement of what you predict the
results of the study will reveal. Example: There is an association between a variant in the CHRNA4 gene and the number of cigarettes smoked each day. Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Definition of terms Important for terms that may have multiple meanings Example tobacco use: ever tried, tried at least 5 times, used on a
daily basis, used only in bars, used five years ago Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Working bibliography Listing of all sources pertinent to the problem notecards, notepads, computerized reference databases Include author, title, year, journal or book, volume, issue, publisher, page numbers, etc.
Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Chapter 2: Literature Review Needs to present broad background of the research related to the problem Not a simple listing of other works Should bring together results from multiple studies to draw conclusions, relationships Should facilitate identification of problems, gaps that need to be
addressed Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading Research Chapter 3: Procedures Aka Methodology, Experimental Procedures, Survey Procedures Data collection plan Step-by-step instructions Extremely detailed, so someone else could replicate the study Chapter 16
Conducting & Reading Research Procedures: General Guidelines Restatement of problem Overview of organization of chapter Description of subjects, sampling methods Description of tests, instruments, measures Description of study design Description of administrative procedures Description of analysis of data Chapter 16 Conducting & Reading
Research Steps in the Research Process Narrow to specific problem Develop approach Identify question State hypotheses Review literature Identify sample
Design data collection plan Select collection procedures Choose analysis Chapter 16 Implement plan Prepare report Conducting & Reading Research
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