Documentation Guidelines for Professional Billing KMSF Documentation/Coding Education
Documentation Guidelines for Professional Billing KMSF Documentation/Coding Education Department and Revenue Cycle - Professional Coding Objectives Identify the differences between professional (physician) billing and hospital (facility) billing Identify the overarching criteria for documenting Evaluation and Management (E/M) services Discuss guidelines for Chief Complaint (CC), History of Present Illness (HPI), Exam and Medical Decision Making (MDM)
Provide documentation tips for professional billing Physician (professional) Coding vs Facility (hospital) Coding Before accurate comparisons of professional and facility claims can be made, you must understand the definition of both. Professional claims: Represents the skills and knowledge of highly trained healthcare professionals. Facility Claims: Represents resource utilization. Lets Compare Physician/Outpatient Coding Facility/Inpatient Coding Utilizes ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding
Utilizes ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding Coding for probable, suspected, or rule-out conditions is NOT allowed Coding for probable, suspected, or rule-out conditions IS allowed Utilizes CPT and HCPCS Level II for medical/surgical procedures Utilizes ICD-10-PCS for medical/surgical procedures Reimbursement primarily based on physician fee schedule, insurance contracted rates Reimbursement primarily based on the diagnosis-related group (DRG)
No hospital stay Requires a hospital stay Code assignment is based on the individual encounter/visit Code assignment is based on the entire admission (length of stay) Services are billed on CMS-1500 form Services are billed on UB-04 form DOCUMENTATION The CPT and ICD-10 codes being generated begin with good documentation in the medical record.
PRINCIPLES OF DOCUMENTATION Complete and legible Include chief complaint (CC), reason for encounter, exam, assessment, plan of care, date and identity of observer Indicate rationale for ordering diagnostic and/or ancillary services Indicate past and present diagnosis Indicate appropriate health risk factors Show patient progress or lack thereof Support service/procedure and diagnosis MEDICAL NECESSITY Social Security Act 1862 (a)(1)(A): No payment may be made for items or services that are not reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member. CMS Guidelines: Medical necessity is the overarching criterion for payment in addition to the individual requirements of a CPT code. CMS Medicare Claims Processing Manual, Chapter 12, Section 30.6.1 KEY COMPONENTS OF E&M SERVICES
History Chief Complaint History of Present Illness (HPI) Review of Systems (ROS) Past Medical, Family, Social History (PFSH) Physical Exam Medical Decision Making Number of diagnoses or management options Amount and/or complexity of data reviewed or ordered Risk of complications and/or morbidity or mortality CHIEF COMPLAINT The chief complaint is traditionally the reason for the visit, usually stated in the patients own words briefly describing his/her symptom,
problem, or condition. The CC is required for all E/M codes. HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS (HPI) The HPI is a timeline describing the patients current illness from the first symptom(s) to the present usually in the patients own words. HPI should clearly show development of problem since last visit If there is a new problem, it should be clearly identifiable as a new issue. Conditions and diagnoses the patient presents with should correlate throughout the note starting with the HPI, physical exam, and assessment and plan. There are 8 elements included in the HPI. DIMENSIONS OF THE HPI Location Duration Site of problem (back pain) Length of time existed (one week ago)
Timing Regularity of occurrence (onset, continuous, intermittent) Severity Intensity of degree (scale of 1-10, mild, severe) Quality Description of characteristic (sharp, dull, stabbing) Context Events surrounding occurrence; what patient was doing at onset (while mowing the lawn) Modifying Factor Associated Signs and Symptoms
Effect on symptom (what relieves/exacerbates a symptom; (medicine, ice) Significantly related to presenting problem HPI EXAMPLE From : AMA Medical Record Auditor, 2nd Edition By: Deborah Grider o Patients cough is nonproductive and nonbarky,and has worsened today. Patient also has rhinorrhea, which began yesterday Location: cough Quality: nonproductive Context (or) Modifying Factors: nonbarky and has worsened today Associated Signs and Symptoms: rhinorrhea o 4 elements identifiedExtended HPI REVIEW OF SYSTEMS (ROS) o The ROS is a series of questions and answers related to the patients complaints as stated in the Chief Complaint and History of Present Illness
o The ROS may be recorded by ancillary staff or the patient, as long as it is referenced in the chart note by the physician REVIEW OF SYSTEMS (ROS) Constitutional Eyes Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestin al Genitourinary Musculoskeletal Integumentary Neurological Psychiatric Endocrine Hematologic/ Lymphatic
Allergic/immune REVIEW OF SYSTEMS There are three types of ROS: Problem pertinent: Inquires about the system directly related to the problems identified in the HPI ( 1 system) Extended : Adds a limited number of additional systems (2-9 systems) Complete: Inquires about the system directly related to the problem identified in the HPI plus all additional organ systems (10+ systems) DOCUMENTATION TIPS FOR ROS Document pertinent positive and/or negative findings Any negative findings must be documented individually Noncontributory is NOT acceptable For a complete ROS, at least 10 organ systems must be reviewed. Those systems with positive or pertinent negative responses must be individually documented. For the remaining systems, a notation indicating all other systems are negative is permissible. In the absence of such a notation, at least 10 systems must be individually
documented. If the provider is unable to obtain a history from the patient or other source, the record should describe the patients condition or other circumstance which precludes obtaining a history. 17 PAST, FAMILY, SOCIAL HISTORY (PFSH) Past History Prior major illnesses and injuries Prior operations and/or hospitalizations Current medications Allergies Age-appropriate immunizations Diet Social History
Marital status and/or living arrangements Current employment Occupational history Use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco Level of education Sexual history Other relevant social factors Military status PAST, FAMILY, SOCIAL HISTORY (PFSH) Family History Health status or cause of death of parents, siblings and children Specific diseases related to problems identified in CC, HPI, and/or ROS Hereditary diseases of family members that may affect patient
HISTORY DOCUMENTATION TIPS The CC, ROS, and PFSH may be listed as separate elements of the history, or they may be included in the description of the HPI. A ROS and/or PFSH obtained during an earlier encounter does not need to be re-recorded if there is evidence that the physician reviewed and updated the previous information. This is done by: Describing any new ROS and/or PFSH info or noting there has been no change in the information; and Noting the date and location of the earlier ROS and/or PFSH PHYSICAL EXAMINATION The extent of the exam is dependent on clinical judgment and the nature of the presenting
problem There are 4 levels of examination services Problem Focused Expanded Problem Focused Detailed Comprehensive PHYSICAL EXAMINATION o Problem Focused: A limited examination of the body area or organ system o Expanded Problem Focused: A limited examination of the affected body area or organ system and other symptomatic or related body system o Detailed: An extended examination of the affected body area(s) and other symptomatic or related organ system(s). o Comprehensive: A general multisystem examination or a complete examination on an organ system.
EXAM LEVEL SELECTION EXAM PROBLEM FOCUSED EXPANDED PROBLEM FOCUSED DETAILED COMPREHENSI VE 1995 1 body area/system Up to 7
systems 2-7 systems; 1 in detail 8 or more systems 1997 1-5 bullets 6-11 bullets 12-17 bullets 18+ bullets (2 bullets in 9 systems) PHYSICAL EXAMINATION/ORGAN SYSTEMS & BODY AREAS
Organ Systems Eyes ENMT (Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal Genitourinary Musculoskeletal Skin Neurologic Psychiatric Hematologic/Lymphatic Immunologic Body Areas Head, including face Neck
Chest, including breasts/axillae Abdomen Genitalia, groin, buttock Back Each extremity EXAM EXAMPLE Vitals: 120/80, 88, 98.6 HEENT: PERRLA, oropharynx clear with moist mucous membranes, no mucosal ulcerations Respiratory: CTA, normal respiratory effort Cardio: RRR, no MRGs GI: Abdomen soft, nontender, no masses or HSM Skin: No rash, ulcers or subcutaneous nodules Psych: Appropriate affect; alert and oriented to person, place and time PHYSICAL EXAMINATION DOCUMENTATION TIPS Specific abnormal and relevant negative findings should be
documented. Abnormal or unexpected findings of the exam of any asymptomatic body areas or organ systems should be described. A brief statement indicating negative or normal is sufficient to document normal findings related to unaffected or asymptomatic systems or areas. MEDICAL DECISION MAKING (MDM) Medical decision making refers to the complexity of establishing a diagnosis and/or selecting a management option. Number of possible diagnoses and/or the number of management options Amount and/or complexity of medical records, diagnostic tests, and/or other information that must be obtained, reviewed, and analyzed Risk of significant complications, morbidity, and/or mortality, as well as comorbidities associated with the patients presenting problems, diagnostic procedures,
and/or possible management options NUMBER OF DIAGNOSIS/MANAGEMENT OPTIONS NUMBER OF DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT OPTIONS Self limited or minor; stable, improving, worsening 1 Established problem to examiner; stable, improved 1 Established problem to examiner; worsening 2 New problem to examiner; no workup planned 3 New problem to examiner; additional workup planned
4 Total diagnosis or management options AMOUNT AND/OR COMPLEXITY OF DATA DATA TO BE REVIEWED Review and/or order of clinical lab test Review and/or order tests in the radiology section of CPT Review and/or order tests in the medicine section of CPT Discussion of test results with performing provider Decision to obtain old records and/or history from someone other than the patient Review and summarization of old records and/or obtaining history from someone other than patient and discussion of case with another health care provider Independent visualization of image, tracing or specimen itself ( not simply review of the report) 1 1
1 1 1 2 2 RISK OF COMPLICATIONS, MORBIDITY AND/OR MORTALITY OVERALL RISK: The final element of medical decision making, the overall risk, is a combination of the risks related to the patients presenting problem and the risks associated with the performance of any diagnostic procedure and treatment/interventions. The overall risk is ranked as minimal, low, moderate or high using a specific table (see next slide).
The highest level of risk in any one category (presenting problem, diagnostic procedure or management option) determines the overall risk. The determination of risk is complex, and not readily quantifiable; the table includes common clinical examples, rather than absolute measure of risk. Level of Risk Presenting Problem Diagnostic Procedure Ordered Management Options Minimal
One self-limited or minor problem, e.g., cold, insect bite, tinea corpuris Laboratory tests requiring Venipuncture Chest x-ray EKG-EEG Urinalysis Ultrasound Echo Koh prep Rest Gargles Elastic bandages Superficial dressings Low Two or more self-limited or minor problems One stable chronic illness, e.g., well controlled hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes, cataract, BPH Acute uncomplicated illness or injury, e.g., cystitis, allergic
rhinitis, simple sprain Physiologic tests not under stress, e.g., pulmonary function tests Non-cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast, e.g., barium enema Superficial needle biopsies Clinical laboratory tests requiring arterial puncture Skin biopsies Over-the-counter drugs Minor surgery with no identified risk factors Physical therapy Occupational therapy IV fluids without additives Moderate One or more chronic illnesses with mild exacerbation, progression or side effect of treatment Two or more stable chronic illnesses Undiagnosed new problem with uncertain prognosis, e.g., lump in breast Acute illness with systemic symptoms, e.g., pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, colitis Acute complicated injury, e.g., head injury with brief loss of consciousness
Physiologic test under stress, e.g., cardiac stress test, fetal contraction stress test Diagnostic endoscopies with no identified risk factors Deep needle or incisional biopsy Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast and no identified risk factors, e.g., arteriogram, cardiac catheterization Obtain fluid from body cavity, e.g. lumbar puncture, thoracentesis, culdoncentesis Minor surgery with identified risk factors Elective major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) with no identified risk factors Prescription drug management Therapeutic nuclear medicine IV fluids with additives Closed treatment of fracture or dislocation without manipulation High
One or more chronic illnesses with severe exacerbation, progression, or side effects of treatment Acute or chronic illnesses to life or bodily function, e.g., multiple trauma, acute MI, pulmonary embolus, severe respiratory distress, progressive severe rheumatoid arthritis, psychiatric illness with potential threat to self or others, peritonitis, acute renal failure An abrupt change in neurologic status, e.g., seizure, TIA, weakness, sensory loss Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast with identified risk factors Cardiac electrophysiological test Diagnostic Endoscopies with identified risk factors Discography Elective major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) with identified risk factors Emergency major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) Parenteral controlled substances
Drug therapy requiring intensive monitoring for toxicity Decision not to resuscitate or to de-escalate care because of poor prognosis EXAMPLE OF MDM A&P: By history, suspect possible herniated disk. Patient will be scheduled for MRI. Prescribe Motrin 800 mg tid with food and prescription written for Vicodin for pain. BREAKDOWN OF MDM Number of dx/tx options = new problem with additional workup (4) Amount/complexity of data = ordered MRI (1) Risk = prescription management (moderate) MODERATE MEDICAL DECISION MAKING MDM Once all of the elements have been determined, the type of medical decision making can be figured using the table below. To qualify for a given type of medical decision making, two of the three elements in the table must be met or exceeded. # Diagnosis
Amount of Data Risk MDM Minimal Minimal or None Minimal Straightforward complexity Limited Limited Low
Low complexity Multiple Moderate Moderate Moderate complexity Extensive Extensive High High complexity DOCUMENTATION TIPS FOR MDM When documenting the number of diagnosis/treatment options, an assessment, clinical
impression or diagnosis should be documented for each encounter. The decision should be clearly documented. For a presenting problem with an established diagnosis, the record should reflect whether the problem is: Improved, well controlled, resolving OR Inadequately controlled, worsening or failing to change as expected The review of lab, radiology, and/or other diagnostic tests should be documented. A simple notation, such as WBC elevated or Chest x-ray unremarkable is acceptable. Alternatively, the review may be documented by initialing and dating the report containing the test results. The review of old records must be documented and findings or lack of findings should be stated in the record.
Document co-morbidities and/or underlying diseases that increase risk of presenting illness (those that do not significantly increase complexity of MDM should not be considered). COUNSELING AND COORDINATION OF CARE An exception to the 3 key components rule exists when the visit consists predominantly of counseling and coordination of care, such as when more than 50% of the visit is spent face to face with the patient for counseling. Time then becomes the controlling factor. COUNSELING AND COORDINATION OF CARE Counseling as it relates to E/M coding is defined as a discussion with a patient and/or family concerning one or more of the following areas:
Diagnostic results, impressions, and/or recommended studies Prognosis Risks and benefits of management or treatment options Instructions and/or follow up Importance of compliance with chosen treatment or management options Risk factor reduction Patient and family education DOCUMENTING ON TIME CMS states, When counseling and/or coordination of care dominates (more than 50 percent of) the physician/patient and/or family encounter (face-toface time in the office or other outpatient setting, floor/unit time in the hospital, or nursing facility), time is considered the key or controlling factor to qualify for a particular level of E/M services. If the level of service is
reported based on counseling and/or coordination of care, the total length of time of the encounter should be documented and the record should describe the counseling and/or activities to coordinate care. EXAMPLE I spent 20 of 35 minutes counseling patient on ____________. Total visit time was 35 minutes with greater than 50% of time spent counseling patient on ________________. Medicare Claims Processing Manual Chapter 12 30.6.1 Section C PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER If it isnt documented, it hasnt been done. The medical record should be complete and legible. The documentation of each patient encounter should include: - Reason for encounter - Assessment, clinical impression or diagnosis - Plan of care - Legible identity of the observer along with the date of
the signature If not documented, the rationale for ordering diagnostic and other ancillary services should be easily inferred. Past and present diagnosis should be accessible to the treating and/or consulting provider. Appropriate health risk factors should be identified. Patient progress, response to and changes in treatment, and revision of diagnosis should be documented. The information in the medical documentation should support the CPT and ICD-10 codes billed. RESOURCES
Medicare Claims Processing Manual, Pub. 100-04, Chapter 12, Section 30.6.1 30.6.16 http://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/Downl oads/clm104c12.pdf Evaluation and Management Services Guide http://www/cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network -MLN/MLNProducts/Downloads/eval mgmt serv guide-ICN006764.pdf 1995 Documentation Guidelines for Evaluation and Management Services http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-NetworkMLN/MLNEdWebGuide/Downloads/95Docguidelines.pdf 1997 Documentation Guidelines for Evaluation and Management Services http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-NetworkMLN/MLNEdWebGuide/Downloads/95Docguidelines.pdf CGS Education website www.cgsmedicare.com CPT 2017 Professional Edition
Presenters Kelly Rupard CPC-I, CPMA, CPC Manager KMSF Documentation and Coding Education [email protected] Shelby Gorman RN, CHC, CPC Director KMSF Documentation and Coding Education [email protected] Kim Charles CPC, CPMA, CEMC Charge Integrity Manager Revenue Cycle Professional Coding [email protected] Justin Perry MHA, CPC
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