Growth and Maturation Chapter 6 Copyright 2016 by

Growth and Maturation Chapter 6 Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Some Questions About Human Growth What are the expected growth trends for height and weight during middle and late adulthood? What effect does exercise have on the dynamics of human growth? Is there a positive relationship between ones physical characteristics and the acquisition and performance of motor skills? Copyright 2016

by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Why Study Human Growth Understanding predictable growth processes helps to determine if an individual is growing typically. Understanding human structural constraints (e.g., stature, body weight, physique) helps to understand what may be shaping or limiting movement development. Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Measuring Growth in Length and Stature

From birth to 2 years: Recumbent length When child can stand without assistance: For those who cannot stand or for older adults:

Knee height Standing height (stature) Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Milestones in Body Length and Stature Age Selected Growth Info Age Selected Growth Info Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Illustrating Growth

and Determining Typical Growth Illustrating growth in stature: Distance curve Velocity curve Determining typical growth:

Norm-referenced data: National Center for Health Statistics (for ages 220) World Health Organization growth charts (for under 2 years old) Data set from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers National Center for Health Statistics Growth Velocity ChartsStature

Boys (a) Girls (b) Source: Used with permission of Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories Inc., Columbus, OH 43215. From data in the 1981 charts from the Ross Growth and Development Program: Incremental Growth ChartsGirls and Incremental GrowthBoys, 1981 Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories Inc. Predicting Adult Stature Reasons for predicting stature:

Medical management of erratic growth Regulation of human growth hormone and anabolic steroid therapy Techniques: Question of reliability KhamisRoche methodfor White Americans between 4 and 17 years old Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Measuring Body Weight

Instrument of choice: Electronic digital scale For infants: For those who are bedridden or cannot stand: Chair scale and similar scales

Platform scale Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Important Growth Changes in Body Weight Age Selected Growth Info Age Selected Growth Info Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers National Center for Health Statistics Growth Velocity ChartsBody Weight

Boys (a) Girls (b) Source: Used with permission of Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories Inc., Columbus, OH 43215. From data in the 1981 charts from the Ross Growth and Development Program: Incremental Growth ChartsGirls and Incremental GrowthBoys, 1981 Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories Inc. Body Mass Index (BMI) Combination of weight and height Divide body weight (in kg) by the square of the height (in meters) Helps predict future health risks (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension,

hypercholesterolemia, and certain cancers) Does not determine percentage of body fat Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers BMI Trends and Guidelines Adiposity rebound Children and adolescents: BMI-for-age: Guide to determine individual nutritional status

Adults: Fixed ranges that dont depend on age or gender Underweight: BMI less than 18.5 Healthy weight: BMI 18.5 to 24.9 Overweight: BMI 25.0 to 29.9 Obesity: BMI 30.0 to 39.9 Extreme obesity: BMI 40 or more

Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Constraints on Motor Development Related to Stature and Weight In general it may be stated that thin, muscular babies and small-boned babies walk earlier than short rotund babies and exceedingly heavy babies. (Shirley, 1931, p. 126) Body weight and athletic performance: Increased weight is good for propelling an object Lighter body weight is advantageous when the body is being propelled or is supported Copyright 2016

by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Constraints and Performance Changes Adolescent awkwardness Growth spurt leads to disruption in motor performance Boys, primarilybut not universally Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Reflecting on Growth and Maturation

Do you recall your own adolescent growth spurt? Did you undergo a period of adolescent awkwardness and disruption in motor performance? How did you overcome those awkward feelings? What would you advise a younger sibling or cousin currently going through this phase? Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Measuring Changes in Body Proportions Head circumference

Ratio of sitting height to stature Biacromial/bicristal ration Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Changes in Body Proportions As We Age Head length vs. total body length Center of gravity Head circumference Sitting height as it compares to stature Shoulder width vs. hip width Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers

Physique Endomorphicround and soft (a) Mesomorphic muscular (b) Ectomorphictall and thin (c) Another option for rating physique: Somatotyping Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Constraints on Motor Performance Related to Body Proportion Young

children experience limits on early motor performance: Top heavy with high center of gravity Other potential influences: Ratio of trunk length to leg length Arm length and shoulder width Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Skeletal Density Aging society and prevalence of bone diseases

Typical bone (a) and osteoporotic bone (b) Osteoporosis Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) used to measure bone mineral density Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers

Recommendations for Achieving Peak Bone Mass Engage in physical activity and exerciseespecially weight-bearing activities and those that increase muscle strength Avoid periods of immobility, if possible For girls, avoid menstrual dysfunction Eat a well-balanced diet and avoid smoking cigarettes Avoid disordered eating patterns Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Physical Activity and Skeletal Health Physically active children, especially those involved in high-impact weight-bearing activities, possess higher bone mineral density than less active peers.

For post-menopausal women: In one study, women who performed the greatest amount of weekly physical activity reduced their risk of hip fracture by 67 percent. Exercise appears to produce a permanent enlargement in a bones diameter. Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Reflecting on Bone Density

and Osteoporosis Before you read this chapter, was osteoporosis something you thought about? Were you surprised to read that exercise in childhood and adolescence could be key to reducing the incidence of osteoporosis later on? Will this change how you view being physically active now? Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Female Athlete Triad Leads to

amenorrhea This in turn leads to osteopenia An eating disorder Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Resulting in osteoporosis Maturation and Developmental Age Determining

maturation: Chronological age vs. developmental age Skeletal age Age of menarche (girls) Genitalia maturity Studies are difficult due to ethical and privacy concerns. Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers Maturations Interrelationship with Motor Performance

More physically mature individuals will generally perform selected motor tasks more proficiently than less mature counterparts. For girls, however, athletic participation is associated with delayed biological maturation (exception is swimming). Copyright 2016 by Holcomb Hathaway Publishers

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