Response to Intervention (RTI) Adapted from: Hempenstall, K.
Response to Intervention (RTI) Adapted from: Hempenstall, K. (In press). Response to intervention: Accountability in action. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, What is Response to Intervention (RTI)? 2 major fields:
1. Alternative to discrepancy analysis in identification of learning disability 2. A schoolwide multi-tier prevention system There are numerous RTI models not a program but a framework for identification and intervention. In QLD, called Recognition and Response (RnR) In some places called Waves of Intervention Response to Intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce
behavioural problems. With RTI, schools use data to: identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions, and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a students responsiveness, and
identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2010). Assumptions All students can learn neither biology nor SES precludes success in learning Learning is strongly influenced by the quality of instruction especially for at-risk students There is a predictable relationship between instructional quality and learning outcomes
Both general classroom programs and specific interventions are evidence-based to provide greater instructional quality Assumptions Assuming the curriculum content is evidence-based - other causal variables include instructional intensity: lesson frequency, program duration, group size, engagement, lesson pacing, mastery criteria, number of response opportunities, academic engaged time, correction procedures, goal
specificity, instructor skill. Useful for both beginning and remedial instruction All beginning students are screened for the pre-skills that evidence highlights are necessary for success All students are provided with research-validated instruction from the beginning
Current attainment is assessed. A student displaying slow progress is given one or more additional research-validated interventions Academic progress is monitored frequently to detect change using Curriculum Based Measures (CBM) If no worthwhile change is occurring, fidelity to the program is checked If fidelity is evident, then presentation aspects are changed frequency, duration, group size, or use of a specialist instructor
3 Tier approach (applicable to academics and behaviour) Tier I: Universal intervention: Available to all students, e.g., additional classroom literacy instruction if needed
Tier II: Individualized plan: Students found to need further additional support - provide individual intervention plans (for maybe 10-15%). Example: Supplemental peer tutoring in reading to increase reading fluency Tier III: Intensive Intervention: Students whose intervention needs are not sufficiently met by these Tier I and Tier II services are referred for even more intensive intervention
(maybe 5-10% of students) in either small group or individual format. Referral to special education services, educational psychology, speech pathology may become necessary. 3 Tier pyramid of intervention Group size Although there is no agreed on number of how
many students makes a small group, group size can vary significantly from 1-to-1 to as many as 1to-10. There is compelling research indicating that instruction provided to groups of 3 to 5 students is as effective as 1-to-1 instruction, even for the most at-risk students (Wanzek & Vaughn, 2008). Of course, teacher skill becomes even more critical when groups rather than 1:1 are employed. What are the advantages of RTI?
It allows schools to intervene early to meet the needs of struggling learners, and prevent Matthew Effects. RTI procedures document what specific instructional strategies are found to benefit a particular student. High accountability due to frequent monitoring Many fewer students receive resource-intensive referrals, as most are adequately supported by the RTI system. How to estimate an academic skill gap
Local Norms: A sample of students at a school is screened in an academic skill to create grade norms Research Norms: Norms for typical growth are derived from a research sample, published, and
applied by schools to their own student populations e.g., standardised tests or state norms Criterion-Referenced Benchmarks: A minimum level of competence is determined for a skill. Example of a criterion-referenced benchmark: DIBELS [Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early
Literacy Skills]. 3rd-grade students are at low risk for reading problems if they reach these reading-fluency goals: Start of School Year: 77 Words Correctly Read Per Min Middle of School Year: 92 WC/M End of School Year: 110 WC/M Another example of a criterionreferenced benchmark The single strongest predictor of a prep childs end-of-year
spelling ability is a 1-minute letter-sound fluency test at the years beginning (Al Otaiba et al., 2010) Example from DIBELS: Initial Sound Fluency (ISF): Student shown sets of 4 pictures for a total of 1 minute. This is: tomato, cub, plate, doughnut (point to each picture). Which picture begins with /d/? ISF < 4 4 < ISF < 8 ISF > 8 At risk
Some risk Low risk Determine reason for low performance: Skill Deficit: Student lacks the necessary skills to perform the academic task. Fragile Skills: Student possesses the necessary skills but is not yet fluent and automatic in those skills. Motivation Deficit: The student has the necessary skills but lacks
the motivation to complete the academic task. Select an evidence-based intervention to improve academic functioning Any intervention chosen for the student must be backed by scientific research (e.g., by empirical research articles in peer-reviewed professional journals) demonstrating that the intervention is effective in addressing similar students
underlying reason(s) for academic failure. Example, summary of research on struggling ESL students The beginning reading programs with the strongest evidence of effectiveness in this review made use of systematic phonics, such as Success for All, Direct Instruction, and Jolly Phonics (Slavin & Cheung, 2003). Monitor struggling students
academic progress frequently to evaluate the impact of the intervention Interventions are monitored frequently (e.g., weekly/fortnightly) using valid and reliable measures sensitive to short-term gains in student performance. Tests also need to be brief, given time constraints Measures for classroom academic and general behaviours
Measures for Basic Academic Skills: CBM probes - short, timed (usually 1 min) assessments to measure phonemic awareness, oral reading fluency, maths computation, writing, and spelling skills Daily Behaviour Report Cards: Customized teacher rating forms allow the teacher to evaluate the students behaviours each day Direct Observation: An external observer visits the classroom to observe the students rates of on-task and academically engaged behaviours.
Only if failure to respond to several well-implemented intervention levels - consider a full assessment. The interventions were carried out as designed (treatment/intervention integrity) Progress-monitoring data shows that the
student did not meet the goal set for his or her improvement In the RTI model what is different? A structured format for problem-solving. Knowledge of a range of scientifically based interventions that address common reasons for school failure. The ability to use various methods of assessment to monitor student progress in academic and behavioural areas.
Implementing RTI: Next Steps Train staff to collect frequent progress-monitoring data. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) can be used to assess a students accuracy and speed in basic-skill areas such as reading fluency, math computation, writing, spelling, and pre-literacy skills. Teachers can measure the behaviour of struggling learners
on a daily basis by using classroom daily behaviour report cards: simple rating forms to track work completion, attention to task, compliance with teacher directions, and other behaviours that influence learning. The issue of teacher training to properly implement interventions in Australia. Teacher training does not generally equip teachers in either the evidence base for the initial teaching of reading or with the tools to intervene effectively
with students who struggle with literacy in particular (Fielding-Barnsley, 2010; Mellard, 2009; Productivity Commission, 2012). From the Australian Governments Sep, 2012 Response to recommendations of the Dyslexia Working Party Report Helping people with dyslexia: A national action agenda. Recommendation 6. Evidence-based teaching
All schools ensure that the three Waves (Tiers) of literacy provision are in place, are of a high quality, and are wellcoordinated. Provision should be made for close monitoring of students at risk of dyslexia as well as those diagnosed with dyslexia. Learning Support should be provided for those diagnosed with dyslexia through a written Support Plan that incorporates individual literacy teaching, resilience teaching, and classroom accommodations. QLDs RnR approach is based on
RTI Nine steps have been identified to assist a school with implementing the RnR Framework: 1. Establish RnR Leadership Team 2. Develop and Implement RnR Action Plan 3. Ensure Understanding and Commitment of RnR within the School Community 4. Alignment of School Resources that Address the Learning Needs of All Students in Timely and Flexible Ways
5. Develop and Implement Professional Development Plan for Supporting Staff and Parents 6. Implement Evidence-Based Screening and Assessment Processes 7. Establish Data Sorting for Decision Making 8. Implement Universal Evidence-Based Teaching Practices/Interventions 9. Develop Processes for Addressing and Responding to the Needs of All Students.
What type of training is needed within schools? (Mellard, 2009). A crucial component of RTI is fluency its role is often misunderstood There is a misunderstanding about what it means to be good at something, and how we measure it.
We tend to make an assumption that mastery = 100% correct. Carl Binder on fluency Fluency = Accuracy + Speed = Doing the right thing without hesitation = Automatic or second nature response = True Mastery Fluency levels
1. 2. 3. 4. Incompetence (no measurable performance) Beginner's level (inaccurate and slow) 100% accuracy (traditional "mastery") Fluency (true mastery = accuracy + speed) Children who struggle even with strong interventions
usually display fluency problems from the start (Harn, Jamgochian, & Parisi, 2009). Strong curriculum design and sufficient scheduled practice enhance fluency acquisition Other useful fluency measures (DIBELS) Initial Sound Fluency - Begin Preschool to late Prep Letter Naming Fluency - Begin Preschool to mid Prep Phoneme Segmentation Fluency - Mid prep to end of 1st
Year Nonsense Word Fluency - Mid prep to end of 1st Year Oral Reading Fluency - Mid 1st Year to end of 6th Other useful fluency measures (Binders criteria reflect full automaticity) 1. Phonemic Awareness Fluency Blend sounds to form words (hear/say) 12 10 / min Segment words into sounds moving colored blocks to mark sounds (hear-do/say) 50-40 sounds /min
Make new words by substituting one phoneme for another (hear/say) 20 15 / min 2. Phonics Fluency Read consonants and vowel sounds (see/say) 120 80 /min Read nonsense words (see/say) 120 100 / min Read real words (see/say) 130 100 / min 3. Basic Arithmetic Count by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s (free/say) 120
100 /min Read numbers (see/say) 150 120 / min Write numbers 0-9 repeatedly (free/write) 120 100 / min Say or write answers to basic +, -, x, and / facts (see/ write, see/say) 100-70 /min 4. Handwriting and Typing Write straight marks (free/write) 300 - 250 / min Write curved marks (free/write) 200 - 150 / min Write letters (free/write) 120 - 80 / min
Copy words or numbers from paper or board (see/write) 120 - 80 chars/min Typing using a keyboard 90 60 chars /min 5. Spelling Write words from dictation (hear/write) 15 10 words /min Write words in a category (free/write) 15 10 words / min Other free CBM measures
AIMSweb http://www.aimsweb.com/ Benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments for Reading, Language and Maths, Grades P-8 Easycbm http://www.easycbm.com/ Benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments for Reading and Maths, Grades P-8 See also Intervention Central http://www.interventioncentral.org/cbm_warehouse#2 AIMSweb Year 3 oral reading passage
A 2.5 crwm/week fluency target from 30 to 55 wcrm in 10 weeks Outcomes associated with fluency: Improvement in: Retention and maintenance of skill Endurance, attention span, resistance to distraction Application of knowledge and skill to more complex tasks e.g., fluency with number tables improves maths problem solving Decoding fluency enhances comprehension
Reading fluency and comprehension You dont need to use your conscious mind to read it This frees up resources for comprehension Very high (0 .91) correlations between oral reading rate and reading comprehension (Fuchs et al., 2001) Oral reading fluency is easy to test.
Students in 3rd grade at or above 110 wcpm are at low risk of reading below grade level (9%) on the state reading comprehension test (FCAT, like NAPLAN) Students scoring below 80 wcpm are at high risk Fluency (wcpm) Reading fluency and the brain Poor readers brain activity before phonologically based
instruction Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Poor readers brain activity after 80 hrs phonologically based instruction Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere What about dyslexia? we are not suggesting that children diagnosed as having dyslexia cannot make progress in learning to read. Rather, our claim is that these children require more intensive instruction of longer duration of the kind provided in the third tier of RTI models (Tunmer & Greaney, 2010).
How do I find evidence-based programs? NECTAC: National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center [http://www.nectac.org/topics/evbased/evbased.asp] The American Institutes for Research: http://www.air.org/files/csrq.pdf Florida Center for Reading Research: http:// www.fcrr.org/interventions/Interventions.shtm Oregon Reading First Center: http://reading.uoregon.edu Council for Exceptional Children: http:// www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Publications1 Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education:
http://www.bestevidence.org Education Consumers Foundation: http://www.education-consumers.org What Works Clearinghouse http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ Free Curriculum-Based Measurement resources at CBM Warehouse http://www.interventioncentral.org/cbm_warehouse Special issue of Psychology in the Schools: Jones, R. E., & Ball, C. R. (2012). Introduction to the special issue: Addressing response to intervention implementation: Questions from the field. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 207209.
Jones, R. E., Yssel, N., & Grant, C. (2012). Reading instruction in tier 1: Bridging the gaps by nesting evidence-based interventions within differentiated instruction. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 210218. Kupzyk, S., Daly, E. J., Ihlo, T. & Young, N. D. (2012). Modifying instruction within tiers in multitiered intervention programs. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 219 230. Ball, C. R. & Christ, T. J. (2012), Supporting valid decision making: Uses and misuses of assessment data within the context of RTI. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 231244. Nellis, L. M. (2012). Maximizing the effectiveness of building teams in response to intervention implementation. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 245256.
Lembke, E. S., Hampton, D., & Beyers, S. J. (2012). Response to intervention in mathematics: Critical elements. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 257272. Pyle, N., & Vaughn, S. (2012). Remediating reading difficulties in a response to intervention model with secondary students. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 273 284. Hernndez Finch, M. E. (2012). Special considerations with response to intervention and instruction for students with diverse backgrounds . Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 285296. O'Connor, E. P., & Freeman, E. W. (2012). District-level considerations in supporting and sustaining RtI implementation. Psychology in the Schools, 49(3), 297310.
More References Al Otaiba, S., Puranik, C.S., Rouby, D.A., Greulich, L., Sidler, J.F., Lee, J. (2010). Predicting kindergarteners' end-of-year spelling ability based on their reading, alphabetic, vocabulary, and phonological awareness skills as well as prior literacy experiences. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33(3), 171-183. Binder, C., Haughton, E., & Bateman, B. (2002). Fluency: Achieving true mastery in the learning process. www.fluency.org/Binder_Haughton_Bateman.pdf Fielding-Barnsley, R. (2010): Australian pre-service teachers' knowledge of phonemic awareness and phonics in the process of learning to read. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 15(1), 99-110. Harn, B.A. Jamgochian, E., & Parisi, D.M. (2009). Characteristics of students who dont respond to researchbased interventions. Council for Exceptional Children. http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm? Section=CEC_Today1&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=10645
Mellard, D., McKnight, M., & Jordan, J. (2010). RTI tier structures and instructional intensity. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(4), 217225. Mellard, D. (2009, June). Response to intervention: Reforms to meet the needs of all students. Presented at the Supporting Student Learning Conference, Indianapolis, IN. National Center on Response to Intervention (March 2010). Essential Components of RTI A closer look at Response to Intervention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention. http://www.rti4success.org/pdf/rtiessentialcomponents_042710.pdf Sadler, C., & Sugai, G. (2009). Effective behavior and instructional support: A district model for early identification and prevention of reading and behavior problems. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Interventions
11, 35-46. Slavin, R.E., & Cheung, A. (2003). Effective reading programs for English language learners: A best-evidence synthesis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. Retrieved 5/2/2004 from ww.csos.jhu.edu/crespar/techReports/Report66.pdf Tunmer, W., & Greaney, K. (2010). Defining dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(3) 229243. Wanzek J., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to varying amounts of time in reading intervention for students with low response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 126142. Other Resources Learning Difficulties Australia [http://www.ldaustralia.org/304.html] National Center on Response to Intervention
[http://www.rti4success.org/] National Association of State Directors of Special Education [http://www.nasdse.org/] International Reading Association [http://www.reading.org/resources/issues/focus_rti_library.html] RTI Action Network [http://www.rtinetwork.org/] National Center for Learning Disabilities [www.ncld.org/ ] A Parent Guide to RTI [http://www.ncld.org/publications-a-more/parent-advocacy-guides/aparent-guide-to-rti] Research Roundup [http://www.ncld.org/ld-basics/research-roundup] Wrightslaw [http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/rti.index.htm]
Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports [http://www.pbis.org/default.aspx] Local QLD resources for RnR RnR enables schools to align and implement existing departmental and national educational initiatives and requirements: Roadmap for curriculum, teaching, assessment and reporting http://www.learningplace.com.au/uploads/documents/store/ doc_755_2734_The_Roadmap.pdf Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support
http://education.qld.gov.au/studentservices/behaviour/swpbs/index.html A Whole-School Approach to Improving Student Achievement http://www.learningplace.com.au/uploads/documents/store/ doc_755_2764_A_wholeschool_approach_to_improving_student_ach ievement_V2_Apr_2010.pdf Acknowledgement This presentation has borrowed shamelessly from the work of Carl Binder and Jim Wright.
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