CABI TOURISM TEXTS 4th Edition Leisure, Sport and

CABI TOURISM TEXTS 4th Edition Leisure, Sport and

CABI TOURISM TEXTS 4th Edition Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning A. J. Veal COMPLEMENTARY COMPLEMENTARY TEACHING TEACHING MATERIALS MATERIALS th Edition Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th CHAPTER 6

Public Policymaking Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Outline Introduction International dimensions Formal national constitutions Other institutions Models of decision-making Urban growth regimes and governance of the local state Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts International dimensions: Agreements etc. (Table 6.1)

UN terminology: Treaties matters of some gravity , typically requiring ratification e.g. Treaty of Rome, 1957 origin of the EU Agreements less formal, narrower subject-matter, limited number of states, technical/administrative, not subject to ratification e.g. General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) predecessor to WTO agreements Conventions instruments negotiated under the auspices of an international organization e.g. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 ( UNICEF) World Heritage Convention, 1972 (UNESCO) Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Agreements (contd) Charters

particularly formal and solemn instruments, such as the constituent treaty of an international organization e.g. UN Charter; Olympic Charter Protocols an instrument 'subsidiary to a treaty' or 'framework the Kyoto Protocol, 1997 re UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 Declarations often not binding statement of aspirations Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 1992 Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts International organizations regulatory (Table 6.2)

IATA International Air Transport Authority ITU International Telecommunications Union WTO World Trade Organization WHC World Heritage Committee of UNESCO UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Org. CAS Court of Arbitration for Sport WADA World Anti-Doping Agency Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts International organizations: advisory, specialist, etc.

WLO World Leisure Organisation IOC International Olympic Committee IPC International Paralympic Committee IFs International Federations of (individual) Sport CGF Commonwealth Games Federation UNWTO UN World Tourism Organisation IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature Conservation Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Supra-national bodies e.g. European Union (Box 6.1) 27/28 member countries cede power over

(commercial) competition policy to European Commission Includes sport Sporting leagues are uncompetitive because of collusion: player contracts broadcasting rights Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Formal national constitutions unitary versus federal (Table 6.3) Unitary: only one level of government (+ local government) e.g. New Zealand, Ireland Federal: additional state/provincial level of government

e.g. USA, Australia Leisure, sport, tourism often administered by all levels (see Table 6.5) Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Westminster model HEAD of STATE: Ceremonial President or Monarch PARLIAMENT Upper House (Senate/House of Lords*) ELECTED * Hereditary/ appointed in UK

GOVERNMENT Prime Minister (Head of govt) + Ministers Lower House (House of Reps/ House of Commons Presidential model: US style GOVERNMENT Executive President = Head of State and Head of Government Appointed Ministers

ELECTED CONGRESS SENATE ELECTED ELECTED HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Presidential model: French style As in Westminster system, but: elected executive President, with: specific areas of responsibility, typically: appointing prime minister foreign affairs and defence

Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Formal national constitutions unitary versus federal (Table 6.3) Unitary: only one level of government (+ local government); e.g. New Zealand, Ireland Federal: additional state/provincial level of government; e.g. USA, Australia Leisure, sport, tourism often administered by all levels (see Table 6.5) Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Forming governments Political parties form around ideologies/group interests (see Ch. 2)

Members of parliament elected as members of political parties (+ independents) with manifesto/programme Leader of party with majority forms government Laws created by bills presented to, and approved by, both houses Signed into law by head of state bill becomes an Act Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Location of Leisure, Sport, Tourism Unitary system National Local LEISURE/CULTURE Broadcasting National arts/cultural institutions Provincial arts/cultural institutions Local arts/cultural institutions

National parks Heritage conservation Regional parks Local parks Childrens play facilities Urban planning Beaches Community facilities/ programmes Federal system National State/ Local provincial

Location of Leisure, Sport, Tourism Unitary system National Local Sport National sport teams/athlete support Doping control Major sport stadia Sport development Community sport facilities/ programmes Federal system National State/ Local

provincial

Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Location of Leisure, Sport, Tourism Unitary system National Local Federal system National State/ Local provincial

TOURISM International tourism promotion Air travel International travel Domestic tourism promotion Road/rail travel

Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Other institutions 1: statutory bodies/authorities Appointed/funded by govt (+ lotteries + licence fees) Arms-length principle Used extensively in the arts, sport, public broadcasting:

e.g. public broadcasting corporations (BBC, ABC, CBC) arts councils sports councils heritage commissions Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Other institutions 2: non-profit/voluntary sector Non-profit trusts used in the arts, education Non-profit sector in sport governing bodies sport clubs International Olympic Committee

Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Other institutions 3: publicprivate partnerships Joint investment in a project by government (at any level) and private sector Typically via a jointly owned company See urban growth regimes Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Models of decision-making Power-based models

Rationality models Public choice Institutional approaches Personality, cognition and informationprocessing Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Power-based models Elitism power (formal and informal) is in the hand of elites industry, money, class Pluralism power is shared by/competed for by many groups Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Political pluralism (Fig. 6.2) GOVERNMENT

ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES Pressure groups The people/electors/ taxpayers/ratepayers Business/ professions Religious organizations etc. Power-based models (contd) Marxism the state supports the interests of capitalism Corporatism government controlled by industrial/commercial interests

Professionalism power lies with professionals e.g. public servants, Treasury economists Technocracy power wielded by technocrats e.g. defence/nuclear Hallmark decision-making decisions made by government/growth regimes for big projects without due process e.g. large building projects, hosting the Olympic Games Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Rationality models Rational-comprehensive model Rationalcomprehensive model 1. Terms of reference/brief

2. Values/mission/vision/goals (Fig. 6.3) 3. Decide planning approach 4. Environmental appraisal 5. Consult with stakeholders 6. Develop options 7. Evaluate options 8. Decide strategy/goals/ objectives 9. Implement/manage 10. Monitor/evaluate/ Feedback Rational-comprehensive model (contd) Unrealistic/impractical? Alternatives: Simon: bounded rationality

Lindblom: disjointed incrementalism: muddling through Etzioni: mixed scanning Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Other approaches Public choice model democratic process is similar to markets voting power = consumer market power Institutional approaches decision-making is influenced by institutional structures Personal, cognition, information processing decision-making is influenced by personality, etc., of leaders Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts

Urban growth regimes and governance of the local state Urban growth regimes: consortia of politicians and business interests who pursue a particular growth agenda for a city e.g. redevelopment of city centre; attracting a sport franchise; hosting Olympic Games Idea of the local state governance = all players in local state Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning, 4th edition, Veal, 2017, CABI Tourism Texts Local state (Fig. 6.4) Higher levels of government (legal

framework + funding) Citizens/ ratepayers Trade unions Other statutory bodies COUNCIL Political parties Elected councillors/ Mayor Paid council officers

Voluntary serviceproviding bodies Media Businesses/ business organizations Pressure groups Clients

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