Biomes climate and plants What is an Ecosystem?

Biomes climate and plants What is an Ecosystem?

Biomes climate and plants

What is an Ecosystem?
An ecosystem is a system in which organisms interact with each other and
with their environment.

Ecosystems Components

Biome

Location

Temperature

Rainfall

Flora

Fauna

Tropical
rainforest

Centred along the
Equator.

Hot all year (25-30C)

Very high (over
200mm/year)

Tall trees forming a canopy; wide
variety of species.

Greatest range of different animal
species. Most live in canopy layer

Abiotic

These are non-living, such as air, water, heat and rock.
These are living, such as plants, insects, and animals.

Tropical
grasslands

Between latitudes 5- 30
north & south of Equator.

Warm all year (20-30C)

Biotic

Wet + dry season
(500-1500mm/year)

Grasslands with widely spaced
trees.

Large hoofed herbivores and
carnivores dominate.

Flora

Plant life occurring in a particular region or time.

Hot desert

Found along the tropics
of Cancer and Capricorn.

Hot by day (over 30C)
Cold by night

Very low (below
300mm/year)

Lack of plants and few species;
adapted to drought.

Many animals are small and
nocturnal: except for the camel.

Fauna

Animal life of any particular region or time.
Temperate
forest

Between latitudes 40-60
north of Equator.

Warm summers + mild
winters (5-20C)

Variable rainfall (5001500m /year)

Mainly deciduous trees; a variety
of species.

Animals adapt to colder and
warmer climates. Some migrate.

Tundra

Far Latitudes of 65 north
and south of Equator

Cold winter + cool
summers (below 10C)

Low rainfall (below
500mm/ year)

Small plants grow close to the
ground and only in summer.

Low number of species. Most
animals found along coast.

Coral Reefs

Found within 30 north
south of Equator in
tropical waters.

Warm water all year
round with temperatures
of 18C

Wet + dry seasons.
Rainfall varies greatly
due to location.

Small range of plant life which
includes algae and sea grasses that
shelters reef animals.

Dominated by polyps and a
diverse range of fish species.

Food Web and Chains
Simple food chains are useful in
explaining the basic principles
behind ecosystems. They show only
one species at a particular trophic
level. Food webs however consists
of a network of many food chains
interconnected together.

Nutrient cycle

Ecosystems

Plants take in nutrients to build into new
organic matter. Nutrients are taken up when
animals eat plants and then returned to the soil
when animals die and the body is broken down
by decomposers.

Tropical Rainforest Biome
Litter

Biomass

This is the surface layer of
vegetation, which over time
breaks down to become humus.

Tropical rainforest cover about 2 per cent of the Earths surface yet they are
home to over half of the worlds plant and animals.

The total mass of living
organisms per unit area.

Interdependence in the rainforest
A rainforest works through interdependence. This is where the plants and
animals depend on each other for survival. If one component changes, there
can be serious knock-up effects for the entire ecosystem.

Biomes
A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups,
which are adapted to that particular environment. The climate and geography
of a region determines what type of biome can exist in that region.

Distribution of Tropical Rainforests

Coniferous
forest

Tropical rainforests are centred along the
Equator between the Tropic of Cancer and
Capricorn. Rainforests can be found in South
America, central Africa and South-East Asia.
The Amazon is the worlds largest rainforest
and takes up the majority of northern South
America, encompassing countries such as
Brazil and Peru.

Deciduous
forest
Tropical
rainforests

Hot Deserts
The Thar Desert is located on the border between India and Pakistan in Southern
Asia. With India soon becoming the
most populated country in the world in the next five years. With this, more people
will plan to live in the desert.

Distribution of the worlds hot deserts
Most of the worlds hot deserts are found in
the subtropics between 20 degrees and 30
degrees north & south of the Equator. The
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn run through
most of the worlds major deserts.
Hot Deserts inhabitants

Climate of Hot Deserts

- People often live in large
open tents to keep cool.
- Food is often cooked
slowly in the warm sandy
soil.
- Head scarves are worn
by men to provide
protection from the Sun.

Hot deserts.

Evening temperatures rarely fall below 22C.
Due to the presence of clouds, temperatures rarely
rise above 32C.
Most afternoons have heavy showers.
At night with no clouds insulating, temperature drops.

Camels

The most productive biomes which have the greatest
biomass- grow in climates that are hot and wet.

Cactus

Climate of Tropical Rainforests

Tropical
grasslands

Adaptations to the desert

Tundra

Temperate
grasslands

Very little rainfall with less than 250 mm per
year.
It might only rain once every two to three
years.
Temperate are hot in the day (45 C) but are
cold at night due to little cloud cover (5 C).
In winter, deserts can sometimes receive
occasional frost and snow.

-Large roots to absorb water soon after
rainfall.
-Needles instead of leaves to reduce
surface area and therefore transpiration.
-Hump for storing fat (NOT water).
-Wide feet for walking on sand.
-Long eyelashes to protect from sand.

Desert Interdependence
Different parts of the hot
desert ecosystem are
closely linked together
and depend on each
other, especially in a
such a harsh
environment.

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