John Grotzinger, Thomas H. Jordan, Frank Press, Raymond

John Grotzinger, Thomas H. Jordan, Frank Press, Raymond

John Grotzinger, Thomas H. Jordan, Frank Press, Raymond Siever, Understanding Earth Fifth Edition Chapter 6: Metamorphic Rocks Copyright 2007 by W. H. Freeman & Company

Concepts you will need to know for the exams

CHAPTER 6 METAMORPHIC ROCKS Controls on metamorphism by: P,T, fluids Isotherm Geothermal gradient Confining pressure Directed pressure Regional metamorphism Contact metamorphism High-P metamorphism Burial or low-grade metamorphism Foliated texture Crystal Growth Pressure-Temperature Paths (pro-grade and

retrograde metamorphism) Factors that control the type and and degree Metamorphism Heat Pressur e Fluids Temperature increases with depth A typical continental geothermal gradient is 30 degrees C per kilometer Where is the 1300 degree isotherm? Old lithosphere - 150 km

New lithosphere (Divergent) - 30 km Volcanic regions (Convergent)- 50 km Confining Pressure Confining pressure is the same in all directions (incl. 3rd dimension) In water, that is one ton per m2 each meter of depth 10 m ~ 1 atm or 10 tons of pressure Confining pressure implies that there is little more in one direction that in the other directions.

Directed Pressure When one pressure is greater than the other three (incl. 3rd dimension) If directed pressure is great enough rocks can break and/or fold Fluids Accelerate chemical reactions Dissolve ions and move them from one mineral to another

(A change in rock composition by fluid transport is metasomatism) metasomatism TYPES OF METAMORPHISM Pressure (Impacts) Subduction Zones Burial c

n I a e r eRegional d a gr Metamorphism g n i

s Mountain belts (low-P, low-T), Fluids metasomatism) lowgrade Contact Temperatur

e Types of metamorphism shock, contact, regional, and burial Shock metamorphism Depth, km 0 Con tine

nt a 35 Con l cr ust t in ent al m 75 ant le l ith os p As

her the e no sp he re Regional metamorphism Oceanic crust

Oceanic lithosphere Shock metamorphism Regional metamorphism Depth, km 0 Con tine

nt a 35 Con l cr ust t in ent al m 75 ant le l ith os p As

her the e no sp he re Regional metamorphism Oceanic crust

Oceanic lithosphere Shock metamorphism Regional metamorphism Depth, km 0 Con tine

nt a 35 Con l cr ust t in ent al m 75 ant le l ith os p As

her the e no sp he re Regional high-pressure metamorphism Regional metamorphism

Oceanic crust Oceanic lithosphere Shock metamorphism Regional metamorphism Depth,

km 0 Con tine nt a 35 Con l cr ust t in ent al m 75 ant

le l ith os p As her the e no sp he re Regional high-pressure

metamorphism Contact metamorphism Regional metamorphism Oceanic crust Oceanic lithosphere Shock

metamorphism Regional metamorphism Depth, km 0 Con tine nt a 35 Con l cr

ust t in ent al m 75 ant le l ith os p As her the e no

sp he re Regional high-pressure metamorphism Contact metamorphism Regional metamorphism Oceanic

crust Oceanic lithosphere Shock metamorphism Regional metamorphism Depth, km 0

Con tine nt a 35 Con l cr ust t in ent al m 75 ant le l ith

os p As her the e no sp he re Regional high-pressure metamorphism Contact

metamorphism Regional metamorphism Oceanic crust Oceanic lithosphere Water Seafloor

metamorphism Textures to distinguish metamorphic rocks

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