Late Middle Ages MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Nuclear Family

Late Middle Ages MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Nuclear Family

Late Middle Ages MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Nuclear Family Divorce nonexistent Marriages arranged for economic reasons Prostitution in urban areas Avg. age for men; mid-late 20s Church encourage cult of paternal care Many couples did not observe church regulations on marriage Manners shaped men to please women

Relative sexual equality Late Middle Ages STATUS OF WOMEN Status of upper-class women better than in next two centuries Late Middle Ages

RELIGION Dominated by Catholic Church Reform movements: Wyclif and Hus Some persecution of witches Late Middle Ages NUTRITION AND HEALTH Poor

harvests created malnutrition Black Plague resulted in loss of 1/3 of population Late Middle Ages SOCIAL STRUCTURE Feudalism dominated most of Europe Late Middle Ages

SLAVERY Few Africans lived in Europe 16th and 17th Centuries MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Nuclear Family Divorce available in certain cases

More prostitution Marriages still based on economics but increasingly more romantic Avg. age for marriage: 27 for men; 25 for women Increased infanticide Low rate of illegitimate births Dramatic population growth until 1650; growth slows until 1750 16th and 17th Centuries

STATUS OF WOMEN Status of upper-class women declines in Renaissance Most women not affected by Renaissance Educated women allowed involvement but subservient to men Sexual double standard Woman was to make herself pleasing ot the man(Castiglione)

Rape not considered serious crime 16th and 17th Centuries STATUS OF WOMEN CONT. Protestant Reformation: womens occupation is in the home Catholic orders for women grew 16th and 17th Centuries

EDUCATION Mostly for upper-classes 16th and 17th Centuries RELIGION Protestant Reformation Catholic counter reformation

Religious wars New Monarchs and Absolute Monarchs take control of national churches Major persecution of alleged witches 16th and 17th Centuries NUTRITION AND HEALTH Poor life expectancy (about 25 years) Price Revolution=less food consumption

due to higher prices (until about 1650) Bread is staple food for poor classes Upper-classes eat large quantities of meat Smallpox and famines still ravaged parts of Europe 16th and 17th Centuries SOCIAL STRUCTURES Population

growth began in 16th century until about 1650 Cities grew faster than rural areas Two major hierarchies existed: Countryside: landlords, peasants, landless laborers Urban: Merchants, artisans, laborers

Clergy, lawyers, teachers, and civil servants fit awkwardly in both hierarchies. 16th and 17th Centuries SOCIAL STRUCTURES (Continued) Advancement up the hierarchy possible through education

Enclosure movement Putting out system Serfdom in eastern Europe 16th and 17th Century SLAVERY African Slavery introduced Dramatic increase in slave trade in New World

18th Century MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Nuclear family Growth of cottage industry Marriage based more on romance Average age for marriage: late 20s or later; takes longer for couple to be ready economically for marriage

Many women dont marry spinsters Illegitimate birth explosion: 1750-1850 18th Century MARRIAGE AND FAMILY (continued) Increase in infanticide Foundling hospitals created Young people increasingly worked away from home in the city

spare the rod, spoil the child. Rise of humanitarianism (influenced by enlightenment) 18th Century STATUS OF WOMEN Protestant women still expected to manage the home Upper-class catholic women had selfdevelopment options in religious orders

18th Century EDUCATION Protestantism spurred increased education for boys and girls Humanitarianism of enlightenment led to improved education. 18th Century

Religion Protestant Pietism in Germany Rise of Methodism Catholic piety remains Decrease in witch hunts 18th Century NUTRITION AND HEALTH Improved

diet: more vegetables (esp. potato) Increased life expectancy from twenty five years to thirty five years. Major advances in control of plague and disease (esp. Small Pox-Edward Jenner) William Harvey: Circulation of Blood Development of Public Health Hospital Reform Reform for mental health institutions.

18th Century SOCIAL STRUCTURE Cottage Industry in rural areas Growth of cities Serfdom in eastern Europe. 18th Century SLAVERY Still

exists in Portuguese, Spanish and British empires 19th Century MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Ideal of romantic love now most important reason Fewer children per family; more love

towards children Middle class ore apt to consider economic reasons Many men married late Women closely monitored Sexual double standard 19th Century MARRIAGE AND FAMILY (Continued) Rate

of illegitimacy declined after 1850 in working classes Prostitution sought by middle and upper middle class men Freud: early childhood vital Lower class kids less dependent on parents financially than middle class kids. 19th Century STATUS OF WOMEN

After 1850, increasingly separate spheres: men worked in factories; women stayed at home. By late 19th century, women worked outside the home only in poor families Middle class women began working to organize and expand their rights 19th Century

EDUCATION Increase among middle class 19th Century RELIGION Rerum Novarum Syllabus of Errors

Kulturkampf Increased emphasis on morality among middle class Decline among urban working classes 19th Century NUTRITION and HEALTH Public health movement Bentham and Chadwick

Bacterial Revolution: Pasteur- germ theory Antiseptic (Lister) Increased life expectancy Significant decline in infant mortality after 1890 Poor living conditions in cities. 19th Century SOCIAL STRUCTURE Increased

standard of living for average person; higher wages Society more diverse and less unified 19th Century SOCIAL STRUCTURE Middle Class Upper Middle Class: Banking; industry;

large-scale Commerce Diversified middle class groups moderately successful industrialists, merchants, professionals (doctors, lawyers) Lower Middle Class: Shopkeepers, small traders. 19th Century SOCIAL STRUCTURE Lower Class

80% of the population Highly skilled foremen; highly skilled handicraft trades Semi skilled: Craftspeople Low skilled: day laborers; domestic servants. 19th Century SLAVERY

Ends in Latin America as Spanish and Portuguese leaders are overthrown and Latin American countries become independent Britain ends slavery in 1833 France ends slavery in 1848 Remains in U.S until 1865

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