Chapter 14 The Age of Democratic Revolution Page

Chapter 14 The Age of Democratic Revolution Page

Chapter 14 The Age of Democratic Revolution Page 1: Essential Questions 1) How were the American and French Revolutions alike and different? (2,4,6) 2) Was the violence of the French Revolution justified? (8,10) 3) Was Napoleon Bonapartes impact more harmful or beneficial? Explain your answer. (12,14) 4) How did Latin American colonies achieve their

independence? (16) Page 3: Introduction/Key Ideas During American Revolution (1775-1783), American colonists fought 4 their independence from Great Britain. Traditions of English political liberty, such as the legacy of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the ideas of John Locke and other Enlightenment writers influenced their thinking. The Declaration of Independence reflected many of these Enlightenment ideas In the U.S. Constitution, Americans adapted the ideas of

Montesquieu to create a new republican govt. based on a separation of powers among the branches of govt. and a system of checks and balances Social divisions, Enlightenment ideas, and a severe financial crisis triggered the French Revolution. When the king asked the nobles to give up their tax exemptions, they demanded a meeting of the Estates General. Once the Estates General met, the deputies of the Third Estate declared themselves as the National

Assembly. The storming of the Bastille prevented the King from using force against them. The National Assembly abolished hereditary privileges, wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and wrote a new constitution turning France into a constitutional monarchy. King Louis XVI refused to cooperate. He was overthrown and executed. France was soon at war with Europe. French leaders introduced mass conscription and a Reign of Terror.

Later, radical leaders themselves were executed. Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Frances enemies and seized power in 1799. Later, he crowned himself emperor. Napoleon spread the achievements of the French Revolution throughout Europe, but he created anti-French feelings and stirred new nationalist feelings by his conquests. Napoleon was defeated after his failed invasion of Russia. The Allies restored Louis XVIII and the other rulers. At the Congress of Vienna, the allied leaders

redrew the borders of Europe to achieve legitimacy and a balance of power. During the period from 1815 to 1848, European leaders like Klaus von Metternich crushed revolutions and stifled the rising nationalist spirit in Europe. The American and French Revolutions influenced Latin America. Leaders like Simon Bolivar led the fight for independence from Spain. Page 5: Key Vocabulary/Terminology

1) American Revolution 2) Declaration of Independence 3) U.S. Constitution 4) Checks and Balances 5) Louis XVI 6) French Revolution 7) Estates General 8) Declaration of Rights of Man 9) Robespierre 10) National Assembly 11) Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

12) Committee of Public Safety 13) Reign of Terror 14) Napoleon Bonaparte 15) Congress of Vienna 16) Balance of Power 17) Nationalism 18) Metternich 19) Simon Bolivar 20) Toussaint lOuverture 21) William Wilberforce

Page 2: Origins of the American Revolution Rights of the American colonists came from earlier documents/wars like: Magna Carta (1215) English Civil War (16421649) Glorious Revolution (1688) English Bill of Rights

(1689) Origins of the American Revolution During the 18th century, Britain protected American colonists from Indian attacks & French neighbors in Canada during French and Indian War (1754-1763)

Origins of the American Revolution The British had run up a massive debt during the French & Indian War The British govt. introduced various ways to tax the colonists in order 2 pay the debt of the war

Origins of the American Revolution The Colonists felt that these new taxes were imposed w/out their consent no taxation w/out representation Colonists favored greater self-govt. Enlightenment and Revolution

Religious beliefs + Glorious Rev. + Enlightenment ideas = outbreak of American Revolution 2 prevent unrest, British govt. sent in more troops Enlightenment and Revolution The British insisted the

colonists pay a duty (tax) on tea 2 help the struggling East India Company Colonists boarded a ship carrying tea and dumped tea into Boston Harbor Boston Tea Party Enlightenment and Revolution Colonists sent representatives 2

Philadelphia 2 discuss growing problem In 1775, violence erupted near Boston between British troops and colonial volunteers War quickly spread Enlightenment and Revolution Thomas Paine, published a pamphlet, Common

Sense, applying Enlightenment ideas to the problem Paine argued that it was reasonable for the colonies, so far from England 2 become independent Page 4: Enlightenment and Revolution In 1776, the colonists in

fact declared their independence Volunteers like the Marquis de Lafayette from France and Tadeusz Kosciuszko from Poland traveled to America 2 assist the colonists Enlightenment and Revolution France allied with the

colonists 4 revenge 4 their defeat in 1763 and the loss of Canada After winning their independence in 1783, Americans sent representatives to a Constitutional Convention (Philly) Enlightenment and Revolution

The authors were challenged to create a strong national government, but not so strong that it would threaten individual liberties The U.S. Constitution created system in which power was shared between national and

state govts. Enlightenment and Revolution The Constitution created 3 separate branches of govt., legislative, executive, judicial Checks and balances were created in order 2 ensure that no 1

branch became 2 powerful or tyrannical Enlightenment and Revolution A Bill of Rights added 2 include protections of individual liberties Finally, ultimate power rested with the people who elected officials creating a system of

popular sovereignty, where the people are supreme Page 6: The French Revolution The American Revolution ended in 1783 when Britain signed the Treaty of Paris with the new United States

6 years later, the desire 4 change erupted in France Causes of the French Revolution French Social Divisions Society divided into 3 classes or estates First Estate, the clergy, priests and Church

officials Causes of the French Revolution Second Estate, the Nobility Held many special privileges, such as being exempt from many taxes Served as officers in army, held high positions in govt.

Causes of the French Revolution Third Estate, common people, largest of the 3 estates Bourgeoisie, the middle class: merchants, professionals, shopkeepers Causes of French Revolution

Frenchmen unwilling 2 accept the divine right of kings, & the privileged positions of Church & nobility Many bourgeoisie resented the special privileges of the nobles Causes of the French Revolution Many liberal nobles &

clergy shared the bourgeoisies belief A flourishing underground press poked fun at the king & his unpopular wife Causes of the French Revolution Different social classes and even different geographical regions paid different tax rates

Financial Crisis- tax system outdated & unfair 1st and 2nd estates exempt from most taxes Causes of the French Revolution Financial Crisis French ministers relied heavily on borrowing $$ High costs of helping

the American colonists caused a financial crisis By 1786, France could no longer obtain any more loans Causes of the French Revolution Financial Crisis In 1787, the kings ministers suggests that the nobles surrender

their privileges 2 help France pay off its debts Causes of the French Revolution Financial Crisis The govt. then called meeting of the Estates General, a national assembly in which each of the 3 social classes/estates was

represented in its own chamber Causes of the French Revolution Financial Crisis The 1st & 2nd estates would vote together 2 control the Estates General No Estates General had met since 1614, so the

people were excited about debating issues Page 7: Bubble Maps Create a bubble map featuring the Major Causes of the French Revolution Title will go in the middle and map should have 6-8 causes, be brief and to the point ------------------------------------------------------------------- Create another bubble map featuring the Main Events of the French Revolution Same directions as above, map should have 5-6

key events, be brief and to the point Page Main Events of the Revolution Main8:Events of the Revolution What was the future of the monarch and the

existence of hereditary privileges? Power shifted 1st 2 the liberal nobles & moderate bourgeoisie, then 2 radical commoners & finally back 2 bourgeoisie Main Main Events

Events of of the the Revolution Revolution The third estate broke away from the Estates General and took the Tennis Court Oath, a promise 2 stay & write a new constitution In May 1789 the delegates from the Third Estate

declared themselves to be a National Assembly Main Events of the Revolution The King sought 2 break up the Assembly Rioters from the Third Estate seized the royal prison known as the Bastille, looking 4 weapons

The King reluctantly recognized the new National Assembly Main Events of the Revolution The National Assembly abolished privileges of nobles, confiscated Church lands 2 pay off states debts The Assembly issued the

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Main Events of the Revolution The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, proclaimed that the gov.t rested on the consent of the people (popular sovereignty), not on the divine right of

the king Main Events of the Revolution The document also announced that all Frenchmen were free and equal Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, became the slogan of the Revolution Created a constitutional

monarchy Main Events of the Revolution constitutional monarchy- form of govt. in which monarchs power is shared with a popular assembly and it is limited by law The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn

After a poor harvest, hungry Parisians marched on Versailles and dragged the royal family back 2 Paris Louis took an oath 2 the Constitution in July 1790, but by June 1791 Louis and his family tried to escape

The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn The family were caught and returned 2 Paris The monarch was overthrown and France became a republic a govt. w/out a king, in which citizens given right 2 elect their representatives

Page 10: The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn Under the new constitution, every adult male could vote A single-chamber legislature, known as the Convention, was elected Louis XVI was put on trial and executed in 1793

The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn France had been at war with other European nations since 1792 Parts of France were in open rebellion A Committee of Public Safety was established 2 protect France from

foreign & domestic threats The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn Maximilien Robespierre directed the Committee of Public Safety They felt the need to use force to achieve their goals

They used savage force to crush the rebels The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn Laws passed allowing government 2 arrest anyone Nobles, Catholic priests and suspected traitors executed Some 40,000 suspects may have been killed

This period under Robespierre and the Committee became known as the Reign of Terror The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn France needed to raise a large army to fight and introduced mass conscription, requiring all males 2 serve in the

army Frances large armies turned the tide of war The Revolution Takes a Radical Turn Once the risk of losing the war ended, the Convention turned against its leaders Robespierre and his

followers were executed The terror ended and power shifted back to the Moderates Impact of the French Revolution 1. Changed idea of divine right of kings and privileges of nobility 2. Removed feudal

restrictions and created modern capitalist economy Impact of the French Revolution 3. Stood for democratic govt. and social equality 4. Served as model for citizens seeking political change

Page 9: Comparing the American and French Revolutions (A) American Taxation

Enlightenment Ideas Based on Locke Democratic principles Limited democracy in which only property owners could vote

French Taxation Enlightenment Ideas Based on Rousseau Democratic principles Democracy for all adults Page 9: Comparing the American & French Revolutions (B)

French American Guaranteed freedom of religion Republican Government

Overthrew a distant colonial ruler Led to violence Challenged role of Catholic Church Republican Govt., replaced by dictator Napoleon People overthrew their own existing social

order Led to violence Much more violent Page 9: Acting As An Amateur Historian (C) The Declaration of the Rights of Man was a basic document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all French citizens. Answer the below 2 questions, write the questions Utilize page 223 from textbook 1) Which provisions of the Declaration of the Rights of

Man took away the hereditary privileges of the nobility? 2) How was the Declaration of the Rights of Man similar to and different from the Declaration of Independence? The Rise and Fall of Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Came from lower nobility on island of Corsica Sent to military school in France Gifted general, developed new tactics for mass armies The Rise of Napoleon Seized power in France where govt. had become unpopular He negotiated peace with other powers including

Britain Introduced domestic reforms including a new legal code, reached a settlement with Catholic Church Combined social reforms of French Rev. with his own absolute power Crowned himself emperor in 1804 The Rise of Napoleon He was at war again with Europe, defeated all other powers except Britain Placed friends and relatives in power in Italy,

Holland, Poland, Spain Page 11: Applying What You Have Learned Was Napoleon a positive or negative force in world history? Support your answer with specific examples Length of answer should be 1-2 paragraphs Page 12: The Fall of Napoleon Napoleons ambitions united most of Europe against him

His inability to invade England, economic problems, his unpopular rule throughout Europe created strains on his empire Conquests and wars awakened nationalist feelings in Britain, Spain, Germany, Italy, Russia Invaded Russia with his Grand Army, 600K men The Fall of Napoleon (cont.) Defeats Russians but Tsar Alexander I refused 2 surrender As winter approached the Russians burned Moscow

to the ground rather than provide shelter and supplies to French army His forces are defeated on their retreat by bitter Russian winter Faced with typhus, hunger, suicide, few survived long march back 2 France Fall of Napoleon (cont.) After his failure in Russia other Euro. powers combined forces 2 overthrow him Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria formed a coalition

and invaded France 1814 Coalition defeats Napoleon, brings back old French royal family, makes Louis XVIII new king Napoleon sent into exile (Elba), returns 2 France & once again takes control 4 a brief time Napoleon is defeated at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo (Belgium) by Britains Duke of Wellington Fall of Napoleon (cont.) This time allies imprisoned him on distant island (Saint Helena) where he dies in 1821

Impact of Napoleon Napoleon only ruled France for 15 years but had huge impact on France, Europe, and rest of world Napoleon created stability by establishing Code Napoleon, a law code that consolidated achievements of Rev., such as social equality, religious toleration, trial by jury Napoleon ended feudal restrictions and serfdom in conquered areas Freed Germany Jews from traditional restrictions

Impact of Napoleon (cont.) French rule stimulated nationalism Weakened Spain causing it to lose colonies in Latin Am. Sold Louisiana Territory to U.S. in 1803 Page 13: Acting As An Amateur Historian Read The Transformation of European Politics by Paul Schroeder and then read The Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna by

Adam Zamoyski, both found on page 230 in textbook With which of these statements about the Congress of Vienna would you most agree? Explain your answer Length of answer should be minimum of 1-2 paragraphs Page 14: Restoring the Old Order After defeat of Napoleon, European rulers met in Paris, at Congress of Vienna (1814-15), 2 redraw boundaries of Europe

Main objective to settle issues arising from French Rev. & Napoleonic Wars All other Euro. Nations invited 2 participate The Congress of Vienna Allies restored many former rulers and borders restoring Europe back 2 the way it was prior to French Rev. and Napoleon Allied leaders: Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia met privately making all major decisions Allies sought establish a balance of power- system

in which no single power like France could become so powerful The Congress of Vienna (cont.) Congress also dealt with issues such as: steps to abolish slave trade, rights of German Jews, continue to meet to resist revolutionary change William Wilberforce English reformer, devout Christian, horrified by slavery

* Lead fight to abolish slavery in England 1807, persuades Parliament to pass Slave Trade Bill, bans slave trade As a result France and Spain also ban slave trade Entire British Empire abolishes slavery in 1833 The Spirit of Nationalism Nationalism- belief that each nationality (ethnic group) is entitled 2 its own govt. and national homeland French Rev. ignited spirit of nationalism throughout

Euro. teaching that each govt. be based on the will of the people Congress of Vienna favored legitimacy-maintain traditional rulers/monarchs As a result many Euro. peoples still not united; others lived under foreign rule The Metternich Era (1815-1848) Prince Klemens von Metternich- Austrian, leading statesmen at Congress of Vienna Instrumental in establishing system that prevented

attempts at nationalism 30 years following the Congress of Vienna unsuccessful revolutions in Italy, Germany, Poland National groups sought to achieve independence but were defeated by armies of Austria or Russia Only revolutions successful were in Greece and Belgium 1830, then France in 1830 The Revolutions of 1848 1848 considered 1 of the turning points of 19th century

1848, constitutional monarchy of France was overthrown & new republic was created Events in France inspired revolutions in Italy, Germany, Austria Revolutionaries sought to establish own unified nations Page 15: Timeline Use your page 16 ISN notes to complete the following assignment Use the dates and events to create a timeline

featuring Latin Americas Road to Independence, (this will be your title) Be sure to include dates, events, and a brief descriptions of the events You may wish to create a vertical timeline, so you can use the lines of your paper Page 16: The Independence of Latin Am. American and French Rev.s led 2 independence of Latin America Abuses of Colonial System- late 18th century, Spanish &

Portuguese colonial system caused unrest in Latin America Although Creoles were descendants of Spain they were denied political power and resented Euro. born Peninsulares Colonists resented Spanish econ. restrictions which made it difficult for them to trade with other than Spain or to manufacture their own goods Revolutionary Ideas Spread 2 Latin America Both American and French Rev. ideas spread to

Latin America Revolutions taught that people should be entitled 2 a govt. that protected their interests When Napoleon was defeated in 1814, King of Spain was restored to throne He re-imposed old colonial system prohibiting colonists from trading directly with Britain or other countries except Spain Revolutionary Ideas Spread 2 Latin America

Latin Am. rulers refused 2 return 2 Spanish rule and demanded independence Brazil declared its independence from Portugal in 1823 By 1824, Latin America independence was firmly established Page 16: Leaders in Wars 4 Independence Toussaint LOuverture- led uprising of African slaves in 1791, forcing French out of Haiti, 1st Latin Am. colony 2 achieve independence

Jose de San Martin- worked to liberate Argentina and Chile from Spain 1816-18 Simon Bolivar- defeated Spanish forces 1819-25, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, known as The Liberator Miguel Hidalgo- priest, began revolt against Spain in Mexico, uprising failed but Mexico gains independence in 1821 Bolivar and Struggle for Independence Simon Bolivar born in Venezuela known as the

Liberator A Creole aristocrat, emerged as most important leader in South American independence movement from Spain His Decree to War to the Death threatened those who opposed him and sided with Spain 1st President of Gran Colombia, set out to unite all of S. Am. The Monroe Doctrine (1823) Issued by U.S., protected newly independent

countries of S. Am. by warning Euro. powers against further intervention in those countries Bolivars dream was to create a democratic S. Am. Federation like the U.S. However in 1830, he declared himself dictator just as Napoleon had done in France Bolivar resigned the Presidency and died shortly after The End

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