Review for Final SPAU 3343 Before we start The final review session gives you great assistance. BUT The session may not cover 100% of your exam. You are RESPONSIBLE for
all the issues introduced in your textbook, lectures, and lab sessions!!! 1. IPA International Phonetic Alphabet. Each symbol represents a single sound. We can transcribe any sound of any language with IPA.
2. Linguistics The scientific study of language (Note: not one particular language, but language in the universal sense) 3. Phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics. It
is the scientific study of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Auditory phonetics Linguistic phonetics 4. Phonology How speech sounds are used in
language. The study of systems of speech sounds and the rules which govern them. 5. (Elements of) sound Sound consists of variations in air pressure creating longitudinal waves. The waves occur very rapidly
one after another. 6. Phone An individual sound of speech; an elementary sound unit. 7. Phoneme Refers to the smallest sound unit in a language that
distinguishes word meanings. -eme = systematic unit 8. Allophone [ ] Allophones refers to a variant of a phoneme. The allophones of a phoneme form a set of sounds that do not change the meaning of a word. The differences among allophones
can be stated in terms of phonological rules. 9-1. Vowel Monophthongs vs. Diphthongs Monophthongs A vowel in which there is no appreciable change in quality during a syllable, as in father.
Diphthongs A vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable, as in high. 9-2. Vowel Tense vowels with partial offglide But these are not full diphthongs. // = //
// 11. Consonants of GAE 12. Connected speech The way we talk daily. Our talk is connected because we do not separate each word as we talk.
Connected speech is not like citation form. 13. Citation form Single words pronounced by themselves. We rarely talk in citation form. Our conversation is usually carried out in connected
speech. 14-1. Feature theory Markedness mark only unusual cases (Item 52. on the review sheet) Voicing, place and manner Consonants are assumed to be: Central instead of lateral Therefore, lateral is a marked feature. You dont
have to mark central. Oral instead of nasal Therefore, nasal is marked. You dont have to mark oral. 14-2. Feature theory Binary vs. Graded Features Binary features: In a binary system, a state is either on or
off. For example, voiced or voiceless. Graded features: Like prosody (the melody of language), it cannot be explained by clear-cut binary features. 15-1. Coarticulation Coarticulation is:
Overlapping of speech sounds. language dependent. 2 types: Anticipatory coarticulation look-ahead future sounds influence the present sound. Perseverative coarticulation carryover previous sounds still influence your present sound.
15-2. Coarticulation Example: screws // The lip-rounding needed for /u/ and // seems to take place as early as the /s/. (anticipatory coarticulation). This command remains in effect after the end of the //, even into the final // (perseverative coarticulation)
25-1. Assimilation Coarticulation is one form of assimilation. Assimilation refers to the change of one sound into another sound because of the influence of neighboring sounds, as in the change of underlying [n] to [m] in input  or of underlying [z] to  in
does she . 25-2. Dissimilation A phonological process whereby segments become less similar to one another. One good example is the process which changed one of two r segments within a word into an l in the development of Latin into modern-day Romance languages. Thus,
Latin arbor (tree) became Spanish arbol. 16. Electropalatography (EPG) Subjects wear the unit on the upper surface of the mouths. Platinum electrodes record points of
tongue contact. 17. Syllable A unit of speech consisting of either a single vowel (or a syllabic consonant) or a vowel and one or more consonants associated with it. The syllable is often used to describe patterns of stress and timing in speech.
18. Tonic syllable Within an intonational phrase, the stressed syllables of multisyllabic words must still be marked for their local primary stress -- but we must also mark the one syllable that carries the major stress of the whole phrase The syllable within a tone group that stands out because it carries the major stress is
called the tonic syllable. 19. Sentence-level intonation English also uses sentence-level intonation, which is the use of pitch variations to convey syntactic information. Examples: Yes/No question
Wh Question Simple declarative sentence 20. Tone group A group of words which constitutes one complete intonational pattern. Also known as an intonational phrase.
21-1. Stress The use of extra respiratory energy during a syllable. Usually LOUDER, LONGER, HIGHER (in pitch). 21-2. Stress placement The symbol // is a stress mark that has been placed before the
syllable carrying the main stress. Stress should always be marked in words of more than one syllable. 22. Language Family Stress-timed language English, German Syllable-timed language Spanish, Japanese
Tone Language Chinese 23. Diacritics A small mark that can be used to distinguish different values of an IPA symbol. 24. 12 Phonological Rules
Know all 12 of them. When to apply each of them. Which one is applicable in XX situation. , [ ], none, [ ], , , [ ], [ ], , [ ], [ ], [ ] 26. Source-filter theory
Vocal source vocal tract filter speech 27. Fundamental Frequency (F0) In speech, the fundamental
frequency refers to the first harmonic of the voice. The perceptual correlate is pitch. 28. Harmonics Energy at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency in voiced sounds. Ideally, the voice source can be
conceptualized as a line spectrum in which energy appears as a series of harmonics. 29. Formants Formants are a product of vocal tract resonances. Vowels are characterized chiefly by the frequencies of the first three
formants (F1, F2, and F3). The formants that characterize different vowels are the result of different shapes of the vocal tract. 30. Resonance three basic rules F1 rule inversely related to tongue height. As the jaw goes down, F1 goes up. F2 rule directly related to tongue fronting.
As the tongue moves forward, F2 increases. Lip rounding rule All formants are lowered by lip rounding (because lip protrusion lengthens the vocal tract tube) 31. Physical vs. perceptual PHYSICAL PERCEPTUAL
Fundamental frequency (F0) Pitch Amplitude/ Intensity Loudness
Duration Length 32. Vowel Reduction The replacement of a vowel by  or by a vowel closer to , usually triggered by the unstressed nature
of the syllable concerned. More likely to occur in spontaneous speech than in citation form. 33. Tense/lax Vowels Tense /, , , / Lax /, , , , /
34. Geminate consonant Long consonants that can be analyzed as double are called geminates. Example: the long consonant in the middle of Italian folla. Careful: many English words are spelled with two consonants, but these are NOT usually geminates (e.g., running).
35-1. Cardinal Vowels A set of reference vowels first defined by Daniel Jones. The vowels of any language can be described by stating their relations to the cardinal vowels. A series of eight cardinal vowels, evenly spaced around the outside of the possible
vowel area and designed to act as fixed reference points for phoneticians. 35-2. The Cardinal Vowels (p. 215 Fig. 9.2) 36. Transcription methods Broad captures the phonemes of a language, by using a simple
set of symbols. Narrow captures allophones and shows more phonetic detail, either by just using more specific symbols or by using a variety of diacritics. 37-1. Spectrogram A graphic representation of sounds in
terms of their component frequencies, in which time is shown on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and the intensity of each frequency at each moment in time by the darkness of the mark. 37-2. A spectrogram of the words in GAE
heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, whod (p. 204 Fig. 8.17) 38-1. Bandwidth A measure of the frequency band of a sound. Bandwidth is determined at the halfpower (3 db down) points of the frequency response curve. Both the lower and higher frequencies that
define the bandwidth are 3 db less intense than the peak energy in the band. 38.2 Phase The relative timing of two or more components of a complex periodic waveform. Phase is measured in degrees. Suppose
that two components are at zero amplitude at the same time. If one is positive-going and the other negativegoing, then they have a relative phase of 180 degrees. 38-3. Amplitude The magnitude of displacement for a sound wave. The waveform of a sound is represented on a
two-dimensional graph in which amplitude is plotted as a function of time. Generally speaking, amplitude of sound determines the perceived loudness of the sound. 38-4. Frequency The rate of vibration of a periodic event. For example, a periodic
sound has a frequency measured as the number of cycles of vibration per second (Hz). Frequency = Cycles Per Second (CPS) = Hz 38-5. Wavelength The distance that a periodic signal travels in one complete cycle of
vibration. wavelength = speed of sound / frequency NOT REALLY USED MUCH IN THE SOUND WORLD Know this one The frequency of B is higher than that of A.
A One cycle in a second. 1/1=1 1 Hz B Four cycles in a second. 4/1=4 4 Hz The amplitude of Wave A is much greater/larger than that of Wave B.
Know this one Periodic waves Simple (sine; sinusoid) Complex (actually a composite of many overlapping simple waves)
39. Suprasegmental features Phonetic features which are not properties of single consonants or vowels. Stress Length Tone Intonation
40. Sonority The loudness of a sound relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress, and pitch. Low vowel /a/ is louder (has greater sonority) than /i, u/. 41. Prominence
The extent to which a sound stands out from others because of its sonority, length, stress, and pitch. 42. Strong form & Weak form Strong form The form in which a word is pronounced when it is stressed. This term is usually applied only
to words that normally occur unstressed and with a weak form, such as to and a. Weak form The unstressed form of any word, such as but or as, that does not maintain its full form when it occurs in conversational speech. 43. Tone A pitch that conveys part of the meaning a
word. In Mandarin (Chinese), for example, / ma/ pronounced with a high-level tone means mother and with a high falling tone means scold. There are two types of tone: Register (e.g., in African Languages) and Contour (e.g., Chinese). Register tone = set levels Contour tone = may include e.g. rise/fall (tone
shapes) 44. Voice type of phonation Breathy voice (murmur) the vocal folds are only slightly apart so that they vibrate while allowing a high rate of airflow through the glottis, as in Hindi //. Creaky voice (laryngealization) the arytenoid cartilages hold the posterior end
of the vocal folds together so that they can vibrate only at the other end, as in Hausa //. 45-1. Airstream mechanism Airstream mechanism: The manner in which an airstream is set in motion for the purposes of speech. Airstream mechanisms may produce
egressive (outward) or ingressive (inward) airflow. Speech sounds are produced with one of three airstream mechanisms, or occasionally by a combination of two of these. 45-2 & 57. Airstream Mechanism
/, , !, , / !Xhosa, Zulu 46. Ejective vs. Implosive sounds Ejective A stop made with an egressive glottalic airstream, such as Hausa //. Implosive A stop made with an
ingressive glottalic airstream, such as Sindhi //. 47. Voice Onset Time (VOT) The interval between the release of a stop consonant and the beginning of vocal cord vibration (voicing). In English, consonants with a VOT greater than 25 milliseconds are
perceived as voiceless (such as /p/), and VOTs less that 25 milliseconds are perceived as voiced (such as /b/). 48-1. Closure Steps for the production of a stop consonant in initial position 1. closure 2. build up intra-oral pressure
3. release (burst) 4. (VOT) 5. if voiceless in syllable-initial position aspiration 6. voicing 48-2. Aspiration A period of voicelessness after the release of an articulation, as in English
pie. In a narrow transcription, aspiration may be indicated by a small raised h, //. pie /pa/ tie /ta/ kye /ka/ 48-3. Fricative voicing -- Effect on preceding vowel length
The same rule as that of stops. When a vowel occurs before one of the voiceless fricatives /, , , /, it is shorter than it would be before one of the voiced fricatives /, , , /. strife // vs. strive // teeth // vs. teethe // rice // vs. rise //
49. Prevoicing The onset of voicing before the appearance of a supraglottal articulatory event; for example, for stops, prevoicing means that voicing precedes the stop release. Also called voicing lead. Optionally produced by some English talkers; mandatory for many sounds of Russian.
50. Natural classes A group of segments which are phonetically similar and which occur frequently as the input, output or environment of phonological rules. Example: stops and affricates are grouped together as a natural class. 51. Sibilants
A speech sound in which there is high-pitched, turbulent noise, as in English  and  in sip and ship. 53-1. GAE Vowel Quadrilateral 53-2. Vowels of General American English
53-3. How to describe vowels Main classification Tongue height high, mid, or low. Tongue advancement front, central, or back. Also, we talk about Tenseness tense or lax Lip rounding
53-4. But remember.. As Ladefoged tells us, vowels are more precisely described by their acoustic characteristics (i.e., formant frequency relations, duration) than by their articulatory features (e.g., mid/high, etc.). Fr: American Accent
54-1. Accent The phonetic and phonological distinctions between language varieties. Some of the NE accents sound more like British English. For example, r reduction
Fr: American Accent 54-2. Dialect A dialect is any variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by both the aspect of word selection and phonological characters. (word choice)
Texans: Im fixing to go lunch. Some of NE region: May I aid you? Fr: American Accent 54-3. Social vs. Geographic constraints Social
Teenagers: Dude College professors: Henceforth Geographical Texans: Im fixing to go lunch. Some of NE region: May I aid you?
Fr: American Accent 54-4. Language Variation
Regional Socioeconomic Political Age Gender Ethnicity
Fr: American Accent 54-5. Important Note Linguistically speaking, no one dialect or language is better, more correct, or more logical than any other. 55-1. Basic Speech Anatomy upper details (p. 8, Fig. 1.5)
55-2. Basic Speech Anatomy lower details (p. 9, Fig. 1.6) 55-3. A sagittal section of the vocal tract (p. 11, Fig. 1.7) Remember this one Vocal Cord
Glottis is the space between the vocal folds. Vocal folds are the two moving parts. Remember this one Nasal sounds The velum goes
down to close the oral tract. The air comes out through the nasal tract. Remember this one Oral vs. Nasal Sounds
56. Famous phoneticians Sir William Jones Set a trend in the linguistic study of Sanskrit. Henry Sweet Pioneer in modern scientific phonetics. Daniel Jones Cardinal vowels Raymond H. Stetson Speech movements and phonetics.
Peter Ladefoged Major contributions in articulatory, acoustic, and linguistic phonetics. GOOD LUCK!!
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