Speciation The How and Why of Species What is a Species? A species is one or more populations of organisms with the potential to interbreed with one another but NOT with members of other such groups
naturally. But What about the liger? Well get there. I promise! Determining Separate Species Biological Species Concept
Proposed by Ernst Mayr who said: Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups."
Explains why the members of a species resemble one another and differ from other species. Breeding organisms pass genes to offspring By contrast, genes are not transferred to other species, and different species therefore look different
Has some fallacies: asexual organisms, hybrids, ring species, chronospecies What leads to New Species? Diversifying or Directional Selection can lead to new species.
More on this later! When differences between subpopulations become large enough that gene flow between them may stop.
Reduced Hybrid Fertility Hybrid Breakdown Modes of Speciation Allopatric speciation of squirrels in the Grand Canyon Allopatric Speciation
New species arise as a result of geographic isolation Rivers change course, mountains rise, continents drift, organisms migrate, and what was once a continuous population is divided into two or more smaller populations
Allopatric means different homelands Sympatric Speciation Cichlids from Lake Victoria
Sympatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation Two subpopulations become reproductively isolated within the same geographic area. First proposed by Darwin in the 1850s.
Parapatric Speciation Images from Evolution Berkeley Parapatric Speciation No specific extrinsic barrier to gene flow Continuous
population exists but the population does not mate randomly Individuals are more likely to mate with their geographic neighbors than with individuals in a different part of the populations range Divergence may happen because of reduced gene
flow within the population and varying selection pressures across the populations range Competitive Exclusion Competitive Exclusion Also known as Gauses Law
Two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist. As a result, competing related species often evolve distinguishing characteristics in areas where they both coexist Rate of Speciation
Rate of Speciation Often can take millions of years, but can occasionally occur faster.
Banana trees moth species Gradualism Punctuated equilibrium And Now, Those Hybrids
And Now, Those Hybrids
Ligers hybrid between lions and tigers Zebroids hybrid between horses and zebras Cama hybrid between a camel and a llama (artificial insemination) Wolphin - bottlenose dolphin and a false killer whale Remember, most of these hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce with each other.
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