Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 24, part

Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 24, part

Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 24, part 4 The Digestive System PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Frederic H. Martini Fundamentals of The liver Performs metabolic and hematological regulation and produces bile Histological organization

Lobules containing single-cell thick plates of hepatocytes Lobules unite to form common hepatic duct Duct meets cystic duct to form common bile duct Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.19 The Anatomy of the Liver

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.19a Figure 24.19 The Anatomy of the Liver Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 24.19b, c Liver lobule is the basic functional unit of the liver Hepatocytes form irregular plates arranged in spokelike fashion Bile canaliculi carry bile to bile ductules Bile ductules lead to portal areas

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.20 Liver Histology Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.20a, b The gallbladder

Hollow, pear-shaped organ Stores, modifies and concentrates bile PLAY Animation: Accessory Organ Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 24.21 The Gallbladder Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.21a, b Coordination secretion and absorption

Neural and hormonal mechanisms coordinate glands GI activity stimulated by parasympathetic innervation Inhibited by sympathetic innervation Enterogastric, gastroenteric and gastroileal reflexes coordinate stomach and intestines

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.22 The Activities of Major Digestive Tract Hormones Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.22

SECTION 24-7 The Large Intestine Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of the large intestine Reabsorb water and compact material into feces

Absorb vitamins produced by bacteria Store fecal matter prior to defecation Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The four areas of the colon are: Ascending Transverse Descending

Sigmoid Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.23 The Large Intestine Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.23a

Figure 24.23 The Large Intestine Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.23b, c The rectum

Last portion of the digestive tract Terminates at the anal canal Internal and external anal sphincters Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Histology of the large intestine Absence of villi

Presence of goblet cells Deep intestinal glands Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Physiology of the large intestine Reabsorption in the large intestine includes: Water

Vitamins K, biotin, and B5 Organic wastes urobilinogens and sterobilinogens Bile salts Toxins Mass movements of material through colon and rectum Defecation reflex triggered by distention of rectal walls

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.25 The Defecation Reflex Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.25

SECTION 24-8 Digestion and Absorption Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Processing and absorption of nutrients Disassembles organic food into smaller fragments

Hydrolyzes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids for absorption Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carbohydrate digestion and absorption Begins in the mouth Salivary and pancreatic enzymes

Disaccharides and trisaccharides Brush border enzymes Monosaccharides Absorption of monosaccharides occurs across the intestinal epithelia Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lipid digestion and absorption

Lipid digestion utilizes lingual and pancreatic lipases Bile salts improve chemical digestion by emulsifying lipid drops Lipid-bile salt complexes called micelles are formed Micelles diffuse into intestinal epithelia which release lipids into the blood as chylomicrons

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protein digestion and absorption Low pH destroys tertiary and quaternary structure Enzymes used include pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase Liberated amino acids are absorbed

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Absorption Water Nearly all that is ingested is reabsorbed via osmosis Ions Absorbed via diffusion, cotransport, and active transport

Vitamins Water soluble vitamins are absorbed by diffusion Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed as part of micelles Vitamin B12 requires intrinsic factor Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.27 Digestive Secretion and Absorption

of Water Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.27 Figure 24.28 Ion and Vitamin Absorption by the Digestive Tract

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.28 SECTION 24-9 Aging and the Digestive System Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Age related changes in the digestive system include: Thinner, more fragile epithelium Reduction in epithelial stem cells Weaker peristaltic contractions Effects of cumulative damage Increased cancer rates

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The organs of the digestive system and their major functions The mechanisms that regulate digestion The anatomy of the organs and accessory organs of the digestive system

The functions of the major structures and regions of the digestive system and the regulation of their activities Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The significance of the large intestine in

the absorption of nutrients The events involved in the digestion of organic and inorganic nutrients The effects of the aging process on the digestive system Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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