TASK 2 Modeling & Simulation Fall 2013 Workflow

TASK 2 Modeling & Simulation Fall 2013 Workflow

TASK 2 Modeling & Simulation Fall 2013 Workflow web software to support decision making in building retrofit projects Workflow + Case Study: Building101 developer.eebhub.org tools.eebhub.org | 4 Platform Tools with different analytical capabilities designed to engage the owner throughout a building retrofit lifecycle tools.eebhub.org/visitors over 600 visits & 2,000 page views last month! tools.eebhub.org Simulation Platform DEVELOPERS

USERS PEOPLE building owners building designers Inverse Modeling Toolkit Design Advisor CoolVent Urban Weather Generator Portfolio Inverse Modeling Benchmarking

Manufacturer Materials building auditors Energy Audit Tool building analysts Retrofit Manager integrates iPad Audit Interface Parametric Analysis Toolkit 3 INPUTS to platform interface

DATA FLOW among platform tools RESULTS from simulation engine KEY for DATA FLOW Simulation Platform INPUTS DATA OUTPUTS utility data weather shape of building typical room

Systems Issues Benchmarking Issues + EUI actual Energy Use Intensity Benchmark with EnergyStar, CBECS, EIA, based on climate/budget LEED 1-5 3D geometry, efficiency measures SubSystem

to refine Systems Benchmark SubSystems Audit General System Components Breakdown Targeted SubSystem Replacement Investigation 5-15 30-50 Installation Staging EUI actual vs. simulated

Daylighting, Airflow, & all EnergyPlus Files 40-50 MEASURES > 5 Retrofit Analysis COMPREHENSIVE Outputs building shape air tightness level typical room on each facade +owner desired energy conservation measures Building Component Library SUBSTANTIAL

+3D geometry import Inputs & 40-80 Low > High Cost Measures with Retrofit Staging Timeline DAYSIM: Shade Schedule Lighting Shade Schedule, Spatial Daylight Autonomy, Critical Point Illuminance, Occupancy Sensors CONTAM airflow, EnergyPlus energy use (heating/cooling) + all files (.idf, .rad, .sql) for experts ECM Categories: Lighting/Daylighting, Plug/Process, Occupant, Envelope, HVAC 7 COMPREHENSIVE Daylighting, Airflow, Energy OpenStudio input file created Daylight Data File

by Orientation Hourly Shade Operation Schedule Hourly Lighting Power Fraction Annual Zone Lighting Energy & Savings (representative spaces on each orientation) Airflow Calculation Building Energy

Performance with Integrated Daylighting Controls, Airflow, and Contaminant Transport Impacts 8 Daysim Development Penn State added photosensor control system modeling and other modeling features (electric lighting, advanced shading device operation, system calibration, etc.), to the original version of Daysim that was developed by NRCCanada & Fraunhofer Institute. DAYSIMps is downloadable from www.daysim.ning.com. The EEB Hub funded Daysim enhancements and the development of standalone Daysim modules for implementation in other programs. A new user interface is currently being developed using OpenStudios menu system to apply these enhancements

in an updated (new) version of DAYSIMps. Daylight Energy Savings Calculations Typical spaces are applied at the center of each faade. Window specifications determine whether ribbon or punched windows are considered (by faade). EPW weather data are applied to determine hourly sky conditions using Perez skies. Shading devices are applied on an hourly basis to block direct sunlight. Blinds = 20% transmittance Fabric Shades = 5% transmittance Daylight Calculations 8 ft. and 10 ft. luminaire row spacings are applied. Different daylight control zones are considered (1 row, 2 rows, 3 rows, etc.). Critical points are placed four feet from the side walls near the interior

edge of each daylight zone. A 70/30 contribution is considered from the dimmed and non-dimmed zones at the critical point. Dimming levels are determined for each layout. Room power levels are calculated. The configuration with the highest energy savings is applied. Daylight Output Monthly electric lighting energy savings table/graph. Electric lighting power levels at each hour of the year are applied in an EnergyPlus schedule for each perimeter zone. A shading device schedule is produced for each faade (for EnergyPlus). Option - Daylight Autonomy contour graphs and Spatial Daylight Automony (sDA300 lux,50%) can be computed for each

space (below). sDA300 lux,50% = 63.5% Why Airflow Modeling? Airflow in buildings are either Intentional (supply/return flow, exhaust) Unintentional (infiltration, zone-to-zone leakage) Both types play a role in transport phenomena Heating and cooling Contaminant transport Internal unintentional transport typically not modeled, infiltration should be modeled Infiltration Modeling Infiltration accounts for up to 25% of load Modeling is typically very coarse Standards/guidelines Rules of thumb Alternate approach: use CONTAM to compute

infiltration based on building airtightness What is CONTAM? General purpose multizone airflow simulation code Often used for contaminant transport simulation Uses an element assembly model of the building Leakage paths, air handlers, and other components of the model are represented as logical elements Approach Translate energy model into airflow model Run CONTAM to compute infiltration Process CONTAM outputs to create enhanced energy model Programmed using the OpenStudio SDK Automatic Translation Convert energy model objects into airflow model objects Process is 100% automatic

1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 Applications Infiltration calculation (presently a part of RMT) HVAC security modeling (described in ASHRAE paper) IAQ/IEQ building performance assessment

Summary on Airflow Enable enhanced energy modeling with airflow modeling CONTAM objects are integrated into OpenStudio (as of version 1.1.3) Current applications include infiltration and security modeling Modeling Theory Energy Models Run Time Reduce Complexity Detailed 15 min 9 min Simplified Thermal Zones

Simplified Geometry 5 min Reduced Order Model 2 min 20 OpenStudio/E+ SUBSTANTIAL Validation Case Studies Building101 User Input Geometr y Enclosure Data Flow

Building Component Library (BCL) Typical Room Mechanical Energy Simulation Interactive Output Tracking Sheet Measure Selection Building Component Library (BCL)

One Montgomery Energy EndUse Financial Lighting Healthcare/Lab Case Study Schedules tools.eebhub.org/game 21 Retrofit Decisions & Features Factors that impact retrofit decisions: Building Type, Size, Location, Age Financial constraints (capital availability, financial return requirements) Measure cost & performance uncertainty Building use, reliability, and disruption constraints Planned capital projects and maintenance

Energy source uncertainty (price, availability) Technological change (new technology, regulation of old technology) Environmental considerations (greenhouse gas emissions, water use) Indoor environmental quality and productivity impacts Features for January: Add new measures (Economizer, service hot water, exterior lighting) Features for March: ASHRAE Standard 90.1 HVAC Systems (No3- No8) Schedule editor Upload measures to the Building Component Library Benchmark building with the LEED NC buildings Acknowledgements: Editable information and costYang-Seon assumptions PSU: Jinmeasure Bin Li, Mujing Wang, Nicholas Mattise, Josh Kuiros,

Kim, Ibrahim Alanqar, and Liusheng Yan NREL: Kyle Benne, Andrew Parker, Nick Long, Brent Griffith, and Brackney Editable financial assumptions & financialLarry planning tab 22 RMT Measures Measure Name Occupancy/Schedule Description

Heating Set Back Cooling Set Back Ventilation Set Back Set back the thermostat heating setpoint from 21C(70F) to 13C(55F) when unoccupied Set back the thermostat cooling setpoint from 24C(75F) to 32C(90F) when unoccupied Turn off building ventilation when unoccupied Plug Load EnergyStar Equipment Plug Load Control Require that new office equipment be EnergyStar certified, assuming a 15% reduction in equipment power density During unoccupied hours, reduce plug load to 60% of prior unoccupied equipment power density Lighting Occupancy-Based Lighting Sensors Daylight-Based Dimming Office Lamp/Ballast Retrofit Luminaire Retrofit During unoccupied hours, reduce lighting power to 80% of prior unoccupied lighting power density Change lighting schedule to dim lighting to target lighting level when daylight available

Replace lamps and ballasts in all office fixtures to T8 with low ballast factor Convert lighting system to 90% of ASHRAE 90.1 Lighting Power Density values Enclosure Increase Roof Insulation by R-10 Increase Wall Insulation by R-10 Increase Wall Insulation by R-20 Window Upgrade Window Film Door Weatherization Exterior Wall Weatherization Add R-20 insulation to roof Add R-10 insulation to exterior walls Add R-20 insulation to exterior walls Replace windows with low-e, double pane, argon fill windows Install a reflective window coating to lower solar heat gain Weatherstrip doors to reduce infiltration by 5% Air seal exterior wall to reduce infiltration by 15% HVAC Outdoor Air Economizer Condensing Boiler

Condensing Unit Replacement Install an outdoor-air economizer for the venilation system Install a condensing boiler with 95% efficiency at 120F return temperature Replace condensing units with 30% higher efficiency units

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