4 Research Methodology Questionnaire Design and Measurement Scale

4 Research Methodology Questionnaire Design and Measurement Scale

4 Research Methodology Questionnaire Design and Measurement Scale Sou Veasna, PhD Email: [email protected] ..

(Measurement and Scales )Measurement and Scales ) (Measurement)Measurement)) (Measurement)Scale) (Measurement and Scales )concepts) (Measurement and Scales )constructs) .. (Type of Measurement and Scales )Type of Measurement and Scales ) Dat)a Nonmet)ric

or Qualit)ative Nominal Scale Met)ric or Quantit)ative Ordinal Scale Int)erval Scale Ratio Scale

Source: Hair et al. (Type of Measurement and Scales )2013) Nominal Scale (Measurement and Scales )Age) 20-25 26-30 (Measurement and Scales )Gender) Male Female Ordinal Scale

(Measurement and Scales )) Interval Scale (Measurement and Scales )) ,

Level of Agreement ----------

Strong Disagree------- Strong Agree 1 2 3 4

5 1. 1 2 3

4 5 2. 1 2 3

4 5 3. 1 2

3 4 5 4. ,

1 2 3 4 5 5.

1 2 3 4 5 Ratio Scale (Measurement and Scales ) Zero)

.. Classification of Measurement Scales Type of Scales Noncomparative Scales Comparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank

Order Source: Cooper & Schindler (2014) Constant Sum Likert Continuous Rating Scales Semantic Differential Itemized Rating Scales

Stapel Noncompetitive Scales Continuous Rating Scales It)emized Rating Scales Likert) Semantic Differential St)apel 12-11 Continuous Rating Scale The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably. How would you rate Sears as a department store? Version 1 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the best Version 2 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --Probably the best

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Version 3 Very bad Neither good Very good nor bad Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---Probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 It)emized Rating Scales Likert Semantic Differential Stapel 113

Likert Scale The Internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree 12-14 Semantic Differential 12-15 Stapel Scales 12-16

Comparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Const)ant) Sum 12-17 Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Form Brand Rank Order 1. Crest) _________

2. Colgat)e _________ 3. Aim _________ 4. Gleem _________ 5. Sensodyne _________ 6. Ult)ra Brit)e

_________ 7. Close Up _________ 8. Pepsodent) _________ 9. Plus Whit)e _________ 10. St)ripe _________

Ranking Scales Paired-comparison scale Comparative scale 12-19 Paired-Comparison Scale 12-20 Comparative Scale 12-21 Constant-Sum Scales

12-22 Ot)her Scaling Procedures 12-23 Balanced or Unbalanced How good an actress is Angelina Jolie? Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Poor Fair Good Very good

Excellent 12-24 Forced or Unforced Choices How good an actress is Angelina Jolie? Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good

No opinion Dont know 12-25 Number of Scale Points How good an actress is Angelina Jolie? Very bad Bad Neither good nor bad Good Very good Very bad Somewhat bad A little bad Neither good nor bad A little good

Somewhat good Very good 12-26 Simple Category Scale I plan to purchase a MindWriter laptop in the 12 months. Yes No 12-27 Multiple-Choice, Single-Response Scale What newspaper do you read most often for financial news? East City Gazette

West City Tribune Regional newspaper National newspaper 12-28 Other (Measurement and Scales )specify:_____________) Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Scale What sources did you use when designing your new home? Please check all that apply. Online planning services Magazines Independent contractor/builder Designer Architect Other (Measurement and Scales )specify:_____________) 12-29

Adapting Sematic Differential (Measurement and Scales )SD) Scales Convenience of Reaching the Store from Your Location Nearby ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Distant Short time required to reach store ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Long time required to reach store Difficult drive ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:

Easy Drive Difficult to find parking place ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Easy to find parking place Convenient to other stores I shop ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Inconvenient to other stores I shop Products offered Wide selection of different kinds of products

___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Limited selection of different kinds of products Fully stocked ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Understocked Undependable products ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Dependable products High quality

___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Low quality Numerous brands ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Few brands Unknown brands ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: 12-30 Well-known brands

Numerical Scale 12-31 Multiple Rating List Scales Please indicate how important or unimportant each service characteristic is: IMPORTANT Fast, reliable repair 7 Service at my location 7 Maintenance by manufacturer Knowledgeable technicians Notification of upgrades 7 Service contract after warranty

UNIMPORTANT 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 12-32 Graphic Rating Scales Graphic Rating Scales 12-33

.. Questionnaire Design (Measurement and Scales )use a double back translation procedure) English to Khmer Khmer to English (Measurement and Scales )can be adopted from previous scholars) (Measurement and Scales )develop new questionnaire items) (Measurement and Scales )Pilot Test) Valid the meaning of questionnaire items Reduce bias answers Delete questionnaire items

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