CHAPTER 11 JACKSONIAN AMERICA Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
CHAPTER 11 JACKSONIAN AMERICA Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 194-198 ________________________________ From log cabin to mansion (The Hermitage, Nashville, TN) first president from a state west of the original thirteen Lawyer, judge, land speculator, politician, Indian fighter, and planter Championed the causes of the _____________people, became a symbol of age & of Americanism.
Gained national fame from his actions during the Battle of New Orleans in 1814 During his presidency, western lands open, industry & agriculture expanded at a rapid pace. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 194-198 Andrew Jackson He trusted ______________ opinion. This represented a shift toward ____________________ from the more
republican form of government. He used the powers of the presidency more than they had ever been used before. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Jackson and the Spoils System Jackson replaces hundreds of capable government workers with loyal followers ________________________: rewarded friends and followers with government positions This was a way to get rid of officials who might not support the new president or his views.
disadvantages produced inefficiency corruption aided the growth of political machines _________________________- organized groups of politicians who sought government control. pp. 194-198 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Results Jackson replaced less than 20% of the
workers. set a negative precedent for government job distribution Other presidents extended the spoils system. Congress abolished by the Civil Service Act of 1883 President James Garfield is assassinated in 1881 because of a disappointed job seeker pp. 194-198
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Jacksons _____________ Jackson had a formal cabinet, usually ignored. Kitchen Cabinet a group of close friends that served as his informal advisors pp. 194-198 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
pp. 194-198 Attitudes and Policies regarding Indians Jacksons policies toward the ________________were brutal. Indians viewed as foreign, not citizens of the U.S. Wanted the Indians to become civilized & live like the white man. Indians are not viewed as people created in Gods image causes lack of understanding wanted their land Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
Actions By 1830, his goals was to move the Indians off the land that the whites wanted. Jackson believed Indians were subjects of the U.S. signed treaties and sent them west _______________________: gave the military the power to move the Indians by force pp. 194-198
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Trouble in the South 1833: The __________, _____________, and Chickasaws had been moved to lands west of the Mississippi. ______________ in Georgia: refused to give up their lands pp. 194-198 Trouble in the South
The _________________were highly civilized. Wrote a constitution for their nation. 1829, _______________was discovered in Georgia, bringing more whites. GA legislature passed laws making any whites in Cherokee areas subject to GAs laws rather than Cherokee laws. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 194-198 ______________________________________
1831 the state of GA convicted a white missionary for living in Cherokee territory & not taking an oath of allegiance to the state. Samuel Worcester held that the state had no authority over Cherokee lands. The SC under John Marshall agreed with him. Jackson ignored the court saying, John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it. Worcester v. Georgia: The court ordered Georgia to release Worcester and ordered Jackson to send in troops to protect Cherokee lands. Involved Indians and states rights Treaty of _______________________: gave the U.S. government possession of the Cherokee lands
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America _______________________ 1838: the U.S. Army forced removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma. The Cherokees had aided Jackson in the Battle of _____________________, & received no help for him. pp. 194-198
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Trail of Tears ____________marches began in summer. Sickness Drought Heavy rains Winter/Freezing Around _______________ die pp. 194-198
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 194-198 The ____________________________ Sauk and Fox tribes (led by Black Hawk) were forced to relocate to Iowa. When they returned to Illinois to search for food, pioneers panic thinking its an attack, state militia responds. Black Hawk retreats to safety in Wisconsin, the army pursued & traps him. ____________________ Massacre: Militias killed most of Black Hawks army. Black Hawk escaped but eventually
surrendered. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 ____________________Crisis One of the most important issues during the Jackson presidency was the issue of states rights. Tariffs were used to raise money. Tariff Troubles -__________________tariff: a tariff designed to raise money
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 Reasons for Tariffs ________________ tariff: protected American businesses and manufacturers from foreign competition, but also raised the price of foreign goods Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
pp. 199-202 Factors affecting development of _________________ industry Most factories were located in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, & New Jersey abundant ___________ (energy source) available ______________ (money) abundant ____________ supply Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
Factors affecting development of ________________ industry South had few factories (based on agriculture) ____________________ ____________________ Few immigrants pp. 199-202 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202
The _________________________________ 1828 Congress levied a higher tariff. As cotton prices dropped, production costs rose, which Southerners blamed on the high tariff. South had to buy manufactured goods from the North or foreign countries. Southerners depended on profits from their crops to pay for goods. The high tariff forced the South to buy American-made products, it increased their costs & decreased their trade with foreign countries. South begins farming more cotton, meaning more slaves. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
The Defense of ___________________ Political tensions rise due to economic problems & the existence of slavery. _______________ (Jacksons V.P.) Leading defender of states rights promoted the idea of nullifying tariffs He said states could declare a federal law unconstitutional. (states would not have to enforce federal laws) pp. 199-202
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America __________________________(1830) the South and West unite: The South supported a cheap land policy in exchange for western support of tariff reform. Northerners feared that their workers would move away to the free lands. pp. 199-202 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
pp. 199-202 Webster vs. Hayne (1830) Tariff reform is brought up for a Senate debate. _________________, SC: defended the concept of nullification and states rights He noted that the states had voluntarily joined the union. _______ Amendment: the states or the people kept all powers not given to the national gov. Hayne argued the Constitution didnt give the gov. the power to pass laws hurting one group or region of the country while helping another.
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 Webster vs. Hayne (1830) ________________, MA: attacked nullification point by point, carefully defending the Constitution and the federal union. Argued that the people, rather than the states had established the Union. Believed that _________________would end the Union.
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 ______________________ Clash April 13,1830, the Democrats host a dinner in honor of the partys founder, Thomas Jefferson. During a toast, President Jackson rose, looked straight at Calhoun and said, Our Federal Union: it must & shall be preserved! Growing tensions b/t Jackson & Calhoun
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 Calhoun and Jackson Clash ____________________, wife of Jacksons Secretary of War, had a bad reputation in Washington D.C. (possibly adultery) Calhouns wife & other ladies snubbed Mrs. Eaton in public & refused to be near her. Jackson was offended by Calhouns behavior toward Peggy Eaton. (remembers how is wife was treated) Jackson came to her defense. Calhoun resigned the vice-presidency, and
_________________succeeded him. ________________________led the fight for states rights in the Senate. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 A Time of Crisis ____________________ gained some support in the South and West because it was a bit lower than the 1828 tariff retained high tariffs on textiles and iron
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America A Time of Crisis South Carolina issued the ___________________________: nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and threatened to ______________(leave the Union) if the government used force Jackson sends a warship to Charleston and says he personally take the field and hang John C. Calhoun. pp. 199-202
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 A Time of Crisis Congress passes the ________________: granted Jackson the right to use force (army & navy) to enforce laws SC called for a national convention, not one state responded. Jackson did want to lower the tariff & simplify gov. involvement. _____________________________:
would gradually lower the tariff Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 199-202 A Time of Crisis _________________ talked with Calhoun & worked out a compromise. Its approved by Congress South Carolina withdrew its nullification of the tariff. Jackson & Clay kept the Union together but the
question of states rights remained unsettled. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America The ___________________ The key issue in the election of 1832 ______________- for the bank _______________________against the bank The banks charter would expire in 1836. pp. 203-204
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 203-204 Jacksons Clash with Biddle _____________________ president of the Bank of the United States wanted the Bank to be rechartered; therefore he gave loans to Jackson supporters Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
pp. 203-204 Jacksons Clash with Biddle ______________________ disliked banks and thought that the federal government had too much power viewed National Bank as _____________________ used the jealousies of the state banks and others opposed to the Bank to kill its re-charter __________________________ Henry Clay runs against Jackson
Clay wanted to save the bank Clay introduces a bill for the Banks renewal, ______ years ahead of schedule. The bill passed Congress, but Jackson vetoed it. _________________ wins reelection with 219 electoral votes. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 203-204 Jackson and the ________________ In an effort to kill the National Bank, Jackson
withheld funds and instead deposited tax revenue in state banks (pet banks). The Secretary of the Treasury feared an economic panic & refused. Jackson went through ____ secretaries before he found one that would follow his orders. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 203-204 Jackson and the Pet Banks Biddle responded by calling in loans owed by state
banks, which caused many state banks to ______________. To counteract the bank failures, Biddle began lending money which caused massive ______________. Western ________________ increases ____________ became freely available to almost anyone who wanted it. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 203-204 Jackson and the Pet Banks
_______________________: gave money to state governments to be used on internal improvements in order to stimulate the economy ($37 million) The number of state banks increased from 330 to ________ by 1837. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 203-204 The Specie Circular Jackson requested the Treasury to issue Specie
Circular. required ________ or _______ to be used in the purchase of government lands (people distrusted paper money). _______________- an increase in the money supply that caused corresponding rise in prices. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America The Jacksonian Legacy defended the Union on certain issues, deferred to the states on others
Vetoed ______ bills while President, increasing the power of the ____________ Branch. pp. 205-209 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209 The ___________________________ ______________: new political party Issues
Supported the National Bank, a protective tariff, and internal improvements More openly concerned with religion and morals Wanted to outlaw alcohol. Protestants, not Catholics and Episcopalians Viewed slavery as sinful Wanted to restore the proper constitutional balance of power. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America Whig Candidates Hugh L. White _______________________
Daniel Webster Whig strategy was to send the election to the House of Representatives Democrats: nominated ___________________ (VP of Jackson) pp. 205-209 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209
The _____________________Years faced an economic depression Asked Congress to end all contact with banks (Central & Pet) 9 states defaulted (did not repay the money they owed) proposed an independent treasury system that would consist of a number of federal vaults and depositories and did not rely on private banking. (backed by gold & silver) Congress adopted Van Burens plan in 1840 1st POTUS not born a British subject. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America
pp. 205-209 The Van Buren Years made changes to the Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall died, and Jackson had appointed _______________ to his position. Jackson and Van Buren appointed 6 associate justices between them. greatest impact of this court came in the late 1850s when it supported states rights Whigs feared the Democratic court would reverse all Marshalls nationalist decisions.
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209 The _______________________ candidates Democrats: Martin Van Buren Whigs: William Henry Harrison campaign The Whigs portrayed Harrison as a common man. Campaign slogan was: ___________________& Tyler Too
Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209 The __________________________ Careless comment by a Democrat helped the Whigs if Harrison was given a log cabin & a barrel of hard cider, he would retire on a pension. This portrays Harrison as a common man. Van Buren is labeled a snob. Whigs played up Harrisons victory at Tippecanoe & served cider to voters.
Harrison gave the longest inaugural speech. (1 hr 40 min. He came down with pneumonia) William Henry Harrison was the first President to die in office. He served the shortest term in office (four weeks). VP ______________becomes POTUS. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209
Tyler Too 1st V.P. to become POTUS after the death of his predecessor. conflict with his party Henry Clay believed Tyler should govern through a ________________ committee. Tyler didnt always go along with his partys policies. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209
The Man Without a Party ______________ took over the Whig program in Congress (abolished the independent treasury system) The ________________ of 1841 log cabin bill: allowed squatters to buy western lands when they came up for public sale. (monies go to the states only if tariff stays under 20%) National debt increased, forced Tyler to sign a bill raising the tariff. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209
The Man Without a Party Whigs began calling Tyler his accidency All the Whigs in his cabinet resigned except ____________________. Clay submitted a bill to create a new national bank, vetoed by Tyler Tyler was expelled from the party after vetoing a bill to establish a new national bank. Chapter 11 Jacksonian America The ____________________ Treaty
Problems with Britain arise over the border with Canada. Treaty determined the United States northern border with Canada between Minnesota and Maine Webster resigns after its ratified, joining the other Whigs pp. 205-209 Chapter 11 Jacksonian America pp. 205-209
The End of Tylers Term Tylers final project was adding ______________ to the Union. Believed annexing Texas before the election of 1844 would help him get reelected. Democrat __________________ won the election of 1844. ____________________- a President during the time between the election and leaving office. Doesnt have as much support & political power. Texas would be added by a joint resolution.
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