Cush wandering medicant philosophers either in groups or

Cush wandering medicant philosophers either in groups or

Cush wandering medicant philosophers either in groups or alone Gethin - renouncer tradition seemed to have 3 qualities 1 austerities eg going naked 2 cultivation of meditation dhana 3 philosophical views Shramana The background The Buddha Cush some were faithful to Vedic beliefs others rejected them Cush says revival of pre Aryan thoughts and practices yoga may have contributed to this movement Indus valley Aryan tribes arrival Ganges Plain Formation of Brahmin priesthood and control over worship etc Some of both influences is rejected is rejected by Siddarttha Gotama? Which is more important? Six mentioned in Buddhist texts by name athough there are others Eg Jains Nigantha Nataputa identified as Mahavira founder of Jainism- soul is imprisoned in a material body to be released through living with restraint The Buddha shared ideas The Buddha's alternative of with other Shramana ideas were.. Rebirth Quest for transcendental peace Karma Meditation Detachment Self discipline Hinduism has fuzzy edgesFlood Morality has an effect on experience Samsara and karma There is no soul Rejected extreme aseticism Brahmanism Cush says Ritual worship, use of Soma, sacrifices to Gods, polytheistic pantheon Buddhism Section 1 Foundations All rejected by the Buddha Considered himself and others in the class he was from as importanthe wasnt a Brahmin Nobility gained from action not birth People accepted from any caste -rejected the Vedas Rejected sacrifices and drugs The gods were not important as subject to the same laws of rebirth Cush says Caste Varna system Power of Brahmins/ possible that the warrior caste Ksatriya not subservient Vedic- holy books the Vedas Ling says Pre Aryan folk beliefs focused on a single God Brahma Cush says these beliefs coexisted with Buddhism The Dharma I have found is hard to see hard to understand; it is peaceful, sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the wise (early text in Gethin) Majjhima Nikaya Sakyas considered themselves to outrank the others and did not recognise the precedence of the Brahmins Carrithers

Buddhism has always coexisted with other beliefs and practices Cousins Gethin and Cush both cite different possible dates for the Buddha 566-486 BCE Gethin- In Bhism Nothing is permanent Buddha had previous lives as aa god as a Buddha goes beyond definitions of human or divine . All humans have potential to achieve this . I am chief of the world, Eldest am I in the world, Foremost am I in the world. This is the last birth. There is now no more coming to be Siddharthas words when born Jataka tales Key Terms Bodhisattva- Buddha to be Buddha enightened one one whose body is dharma whose body is brahma (god like spiritual) Arhats worthy ones followed the Buddha after his enlightenment and formed the Sangha (bhikkhus) monastic tradition Significant for the formation of the Sangha Monks and nuns (the patimokkha) Novices (10 precepts) Laity (5 or 8 precepts) If aimed to reach nibbana quickly ascetic practices which are noncompulsory. Buddha rejected asceticism and chose the middle way. Very significant as the inner self is affected by outer austerities therefore no soul as a separate entity To Nirvana my mind has gone, I have arrived at the extinction of evil desire Buddha Cush either take one version eg Pali version as historical or demythologise the later versions which would be subjective and provisional. Siddarttha Gotama son of a chieftain in Kapilavastu India Nepal border Tribal group Shakyas Gray in both Mahayana and Therevada the story links to teaching Began teaching with Deer park Sermon setting in motion the wheel of the law incl 4 Noble Truths Some stories of renunciation say it happened the night of his sons birth making it more dramatic. Symbolic meaning of detachment necessary for enlightenment. Rahula agrees need to see biog on a rational level 1 Foundations The Buddha Thus, he realised the triviality of the mundane life, which is bound to crumble, because if one is born one would undergo the process of ageing, sickness, death and all kinds of suffering The ascetics resolution to renounce the worldly life in quest of the truth infused greater happiness in his heart and inspired him to lead the life of an ascetic. Jataka tales A renunciate was

in social terms dead a walking corpse Williams He who sees dharma sees me and who sees me sees dharma Vakkali Sutra Life events Which is more important the history of the layers of truth found within the symbolism? Buddha achieved 4 jhanas (states of meditation):incl Super-knowledge, known as the heavenly eye. Highest super-knowledge, known as the knowledge of destruction of the outflows (aka. perfect wisdom). The 4 noble truths. The Buddha is then at peace, having broken through the karmic chain of existence and suffering, achieving nibbana. This symbolically coincided with sunrise at 6am. Shown by earth touching symbolism in images of the Buddha Symbolism or reality -Mara (bringer of death) temptation whilst meditating akin to devil Examples Buddhas life as hagiography mythic in quality eg birth and accounts in Jakata (birth ) tales Pali canon include a non- sexual conception, 10 month pregnancy and shining light, earth quake, his ability to walk from birth Examples of most likely events of historical Buddha? Birth and hedonistic upbringing The four passing sights Renunciation Asceticism Enlightenment His teaching career Gethin talks of the Buddha's story as an archetype not meant to be viewed historically but as a model for those who wish to be enlightened past and future Symbolic meaning behind elements of hagiography makes it hard to say what happened. The nature of the Buddha after death cessation of suffering and not confined to the cycle of samsara. Meditation under the Bodhi tree tree of awakening gains enlightenment nirvana and gains insight into truth dharma. the Tipitaka Paii rules for both - Monks and nuns (the patimokkha) Novices (10 3 baskets the monastic rules the Community relationships encourage precepts) Laity (5 or 8 precepts (8= on holy days ) discourses of teaching incl Dana generosity Sila good If aimed to reach nibbana quickly ascetic practices which are non- Dhammapada and the higher conduct Bhavana meditation compulsory. teaching created poss to stop heresy Parable of the elephant a person later Vinaya Pitaka (Basket of Discipline) develops the character with whom The four fold they associate Sangha- male and Theravedin code = 227 (311 for nuns) To be a part of the Sangha Gethin says that the relationship is one where they seem to be forced into a relationship btwn laity and monastic tradition Acc to Thanissaro Bhikkhu in its ideal sense, the Sangha consists of all people, lay or ordained, who have practiced the Dhamma to the point of gaining at least a glimpse of the Deathless. In a conventional sense, Sangha denotes the communities of ordained monks and nuns. female monastic bhikkus and bhikkuni also male and female laity Cush Theravada bhikkunis 11c died

out in sri lanka example of cultural differences some do wear robes etc but are lower novices Mula-Sarvastivadin code = 259 (366 for nuns) Dharmaguptaka code = 250 (348 for nuns) How important are the rules? Are the rules sexist? Are the rules inherently flawed due to being sexist? Roots Arhats worthy ones followed the Buddha after his enlightenment and formed the Sangha (bhikkhus) monastic tradition. Later division forest dwellers and village dwellers In Mahayana Buddhism, while "Buddha" = the historical Buddha, called Shakyamuni Buddha, "Buddha" also "Buddha-nature," the absolute, unconditioned nature of all things and "Buddha" may be a person who has awakened to enlightenment, "Buddha" might also refer to enlightenment itself (bodhi). Williams contends the dharma is more important than the Buddha as even if no historical Buddha the teachings still exist Zen teacher Aitken it refers to Shakyamuni, all those who have shaken the tree of enlightenment and the essence of Buddha in ourselves The parable of the elephant an elephant becomes bad Buddha rejected asceticism and chose the middle way. tempered when mean people move into his cage; a person develops the characteristic of who they interact Laity The Sangha "Taking refuge in the Buddha, we learn to transform anger into compassion; taking refuge in the Dharma, we learn to transform delusion into wisdom; taking refuge in the Sangha, we learn to transform desire into generosity." (Red Pine, The Heart Sutra: The Womb of Buddhas, p. 132) I take refuge in the Buddha. I take refuge in the Dharma. I take refuge in the Sangha. conventional sense must be ordained to be a part of ideal must have special insight acc to Thanissaro Bhikkhu not just any Buddhist The Dharma I have found is hard to see hard to understand; it is peaceful, sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the wise (early text in Gethin) Majjhima Nikaya What is the relationship between the laity and the monastic tradition? Monastic 1 Foundations The Three Refuges Taking refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha demonstrates an individuals reliance on these 3 principles and own potential to achieve enlightenment, this is called Buddha nature. The Buddha advised his followers to take refuge unto themselves, as taking refuge/dependence on anything else is unsatisfactory. In Theravada Buddhism, dharma (or dhamma in Pali) is a term for the factors of existence, or the transitory conditions that cause phenomena to come into being. In Mahayana, the word is sometimes used to mean "manifestation of reality" or "phenomenon." This sense can be found in the Heart Sutra, which refers to the voidness or emptiness (shunyata) of all dharmas. OBrien cites different meanings incl teachings for dharma the law of karma or ethical teachings The Dharma The 3 jewels / used refuges refers to a

statement made to become part of the Sangha before saying the precepts link to ethical action Acc to Thanissaro Bhikkhu D is divided into three levels: the words of his teachings, the act of putting those teachings into practice, and the attainment of Awakening as the result of that practice Gethin says Spiro post war Burma divided dharma into apotropaic( magical practices practice here The image of Buddha began to How the Buddha is regarded depends on and now amulets etc) be used 1 c BC prior to this the group Theravada a human no longer kammatic (actions would have symbol only. Image here whose teachings embodied in the involving merit and Acc to Thanissaro Bhikkhu To is for concentration rebirth generosity and dharma demand for self reliance Buddha take refuge in the Buddha ethics) and nibbanic provides a map. May appear selfish means, not taking refuge in Gethin talks of the Buddha's (aiming at nirvana incl saving oneself however the sense of him as a person,..: placing story as an archetype not meditation) but that in oneself would stop someone achieving trust in the belief that he did meant to be viewed many senses from the nibbana. awaken to the truth, that he historically but as a model for start the elements were did so by developing qualities those who wish to be together in the Mahayanamixed the Buddha is available as enlightened past and future that we too can develop and today in Shakyamunibeginning in a heavenly or spiritual modern Buddhism form together with other Bodhisattvas or Buddha whatever you find Buddha that exist in multiple other Significant not because of blind faith but because come and find out for yourself it is bad worlds/ realms. Bodhisattva gains out for yourself Buddha as an example to Buddhists; the enlightenment not for oneself but for reject and if it is good retain importance of self-reliance and the idea of ehipassiko / benefit of others unlike arhat - advised at start to arhats ehipayika (come and try), cited in Saddhatissa, H. The Buddha When the notion of an Atman, Self or Soul cease, the notion of 'mine' also ceases and one becomes free from the idea of I and mine Nagarjuna This idea marked Buddhism different to other renouncing groups at the time of the Buddha. Rejecting the Hindu Upanishads. Assumption is there is an I that is unchanging.

The Buddha does not claim that there is definitely not a self, only that the self we tend to identify with is not fixed. Instead, we consist in a process. The teaching of impermanence which we have already examined points out that we are always changing, and this also implies that there is no fixed part of ourselves which remains unchanged. If nothing remains unchanged, there is nothing which can contain a fixed or final identity. There are various aspects of our bodies and There is no such thing as a minds which we may identify with and believe permanent, intrinsic or to be our true selves, but the Buddhist teaching independent essence. is that we should avoid attachment to the idea Everything is empty (sunyata) of any of these as really ourselves Skandhas or khandhas inpermanent categories conditions of human Anatta means existence Rejecting Body (rupa) eternalism and of selfhood. Language gives Feelings/Sensations (vedana) annilationism the illusion of selfhood and something unchanging Perceptions (samjna) Motivations/intentions (sankhara) Consciousness (vijnana) Impermanence is a basic feature of all conditioned phenomena Malathera Nyantioka Impermanent are all component things, They arise and cease, that is their nature: They come into being and pass away Buddha passed away, the king deity Sakka uttered Anatta Section 2 Insight Gethin cites Steven Collins who says there are several reasons for rejecting the idea of the self in early texts 1 we cannot control these 2 we change and it is painful to it we should not hold on to a self 3 in any situation are we in the same as experience or separate from experience therefore myself is just a label King Milindas Questions Monk Nagasena meets king says he isn't really Nagasena king says he is talking nonsense then Nagasena asks how the kings arrived -on a chariot but where is it its just bits that go together The Chariot parable All conditioned things are impermanent. All conditioned things are inherently lacking. All realities are devoid of an abiding self Dhammapada 3 Marks of Existence Anicca Central to Buddhism by viewing reality as it truly is (Right View), enlightenment may be attained The nature of anicca as a big idea in the cosmos and as a subtle moment to moment idea examples of both Impermanence forms an important component of dukkha, either because things changing is directly painful to us or because things we enjoy come to an end. Impermanence may also contribute to a sense that life is meaningless or to existential suffering if we think that the only things that can give life meaning must be permanent. Ultimately, then, the only solution to impermanence is to find meaning and purpose in what is permanent, that is nirvana. The basic mistake we make as regards impermanence, then, is not simply to put our faith in things that are impermanent, but to put our faith in impermanent things even when there is a permanent alternative. This 'permanence' may just consist in a different attitude to what is impermanent, though exactly how it should be interpreted is a matter of debate Dukkha The teaching of the three characteristics of conditioned existence (the three lakshanas or 'marks') is a teaching of early Buddhism which is accepted by all Buddhist schools Robert Ellis Harvey refers to dukkha as frustration suffering is inherent in the fabric of life Dukkha-dukkha (pain of pain) = painful experiences e.g. pain, illness, old age, death, bereavement Viparinama-dukkha (pain of alteration) = suffering caused by change e.g. frustration that nothing abides no moment, no feeling, no thought, no person Sankhara-dukkha (pain of formation) = suffering caused by thinking that anything has independent existence e.g. our ego can become invested in something (something that by its very nature will pass away) The five aggregates are anicca, impermanent; whatever is impermanent, that is dukkha, unsatisfactory; whatever is dukkha, that is without self. What is without self, that is not mine, that I am not, that is not my self. Thus should it be seen by perfect wisdom as it really is. Who sees by perfect wisdom, as it really is, his mind, not grasping, is detached from taints; he is liberated. Sutta Nipata 22:45 Criticisms of the doctrine of impermanence

On the one hand there are those who deny that all things except nirvana are impermanent. On the other are those who accept this point but deny that the recognition of impermanence is a positive move. Those who would disagree that all things are impermanent would include most theists. They would claim that God is permanent and that there may also be other spiritual things that are permanent, such as the soul. Those with a materialist view are more likely to accept that all material things constantly change, but they may see the point of life as consisting in struggling against this rather than accepting it. For example, human ingenuity may be able to design more durable objects or even cheat human death. http://www.clear-vision.org/Schools/Students/Ages-17-18/Nature-of-Reality/three-marks.aspx Examples The breath changes and you change. 1 The most common type of meditation is Breath Nothing stays the same, yet there is Awareness. The exact method varies greatly constancy. The breath from teacher to teacher but the basic idea is to reminds us that we are use ones breath in order to create a focussed, here and alive: let it be your anchor to the calm, mind. present moment. 2 A Kasina refers to a smallish disc that one Elana Rosenbaum, Guided Meditation: focusses on as a meditation. There are 10 Awareness of Kasinas, such as the Earth & Fire Kasinas Breathing A02 not distinctly Buddhist Hindu roots may not be simply religious but social therapeutic Samatha has a range of meanings but is commonly thought of as concentration. It is an essential ingredient for training the mind toward liberation. We all have some ability to concentrate and some people have a natural aptitude but there is usually always a need to strengthen this factor. In the search for truth we need to develop sharp eyes, a sharp mind; this is the ability to concentrate Samatha Calm Bhavana What is it? What is it not? The more general term for meditation in Buddhism, however, is bhvna, which means cultivation or literally making become. The literal meaning is quite appropriate, for meditation is the principle Buddhist strategy for making oneself what one wishes to be. Keown A02 may not be simply religious but social therapeutic - used for anxiety and depression is this meditation n or something else Susan Blackmore psychologist supports the consistency of Buddhist psychology esp their responses to stress and change There is a broad similarity between Northern and Eastern Buddhism meditation paths. Begins with traditional calm practices with the foundations of mindfulness, so as to attain access concentration. Then insight into the three marks might be achieved. Full realisation only comes, however, when even knowledge of nonduality is seen as empty, and there is a liberating insight into emptiness. This is The Path of Seeing, which makes a person a Holy Bodhisattva. Keown Two types https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B03Atq33_KQ Examples 1 One might analyse ones body and mind khandha by khandha The idea is that one comes round to the idea of no inherent self This is designed to affect ones everyday actions so that they are more self-aware and open to the feelings of others 2 Death Awareness meditation might involve visualising images to do with dead things but such meditations can have a harmful effect if they are not balanced with more positive meditations. Therefore the guidance of a teacher or Sangha, with whom you can talk about your experiences is generally highly recommended Vipassana is a way of selftransformation through selfobservation. It focuses on the deep interconnection between mind and body, which can be experienced directly by disciplined attention to the physical sensations that form the life of the body, and that continuously interconnect and condition the life of Why meditate?

the mind. 3 Meditation Prof Marsha Linehan and Dr Sheldon Kopp influenced by Buddhist psychology and mindfulness Kopp esp attachment and letting go and need to turn to oneself for peace Vipassana Insight 5 reasons It is part of the 8 fold path It is the way to achieve enlightenment It helps to clear the mind, reduce stress, anxiety, anger, and hatred (therefore bringing you better karma) It suggests that the answer to lifes problems have to come from your own mind, rather than relying on divine intervention. The Buddha did it The world is afflicted by death and decay. But the wise do not grieve, having realized the nature of the world. The Buddha Many of us try to do so many things at once that there is no space for serenity. We wonder why we are unhappy, why we feel alienated. We just need to remember to practice relaxing into our life, in all its joys and sorrows, and to relinquish the need to know whats going to happen next. Michele McDonald, Finding Patience Another Samatha practice Brahma Vihara 4 Measureless states Jhanas levels of trance Increasing focus and depth Joy Contentment Utter peacefulness Infinity of space Infinity of consciousness No-thingness Neither perception nor non-perception Cessation (from Anguttara Nikaya 9.36) Keown - Gain ESP or psychic powers at the 4th level Problems with meditation? Lit. Ultimate Abode Usually translated as The Four Measureless States, These meditations aim at generating altruistic thoughts 1. Metta Bhavana Loving Kindness ( Thinking thoughts of love towards others) 2. Karuna Bhavana- Compassion ( generating Before meditating, we pay thoughts of helping others) homage to whats traditionally 3. Mudita Bhavana- Joy ( Thinking joyously about known as the three jewels [the Buddha, dharma, and sangha], the good qualities of others) which buttress our practice . . . We 4. Upekkha Bhavana Equanimity ( generating arent meant to go at it alone. thoughts of how we are all Elizabeth Zach, Health Care for All Beings Is it the only way? 3 Meditation Om mane padme hum Chant which covers the Six Perfections and/or the entirety of Buddhist teachings, often repeated with a mala Used in Mahayana temple-worship also. The five hindrances Sensory desire - the particular type of wanting that seeks for happiness through the five senses of sight, sound, smell, taste and physical feeling. Ill-will - all kinds of thought related to wanting to reject; feelings of hostility, resentment, hatred and bitterness. Sloth-and-torpor - heaviness of body and dullness of mind which drag one down into disabling inertia and thick depression. Restlessness-and-worry -the inability to calm the mind. Doubt- lack of conviction or trust. Each can have an antidote! Actually, very few Asian Buddhists meditate since most are lay people who are more concerned about Karmic merit. So

instead they are more likely to focus on devotional practices that build up karmic merit In Mahayana ,use of images these deities may simply symbolise aspects of our enlightened mind. So, for example, when you focus on Avalokiteshvara you are engaging with the principle of enlightenment that he represents in this case Compassion Mantra: Edward Conze translates mantra as Spell This gave Western observers the impression that Mahayana Buddhism was all about magic! Conze was right to use the word spell but in todays Harry Potter age it would be entirely inappropriate to use this word since most people no longer remember what a spell refers to in traditional witchcraft Therefore, mind protection would be more appropriate since mantra it is derived from the word for mind Eg. Om Mani Padme Hum is the mantra of Avalokiteshvara. This might translate as Hail to the Jewel in the Lotus But the Nembutsu of Amitabha and even the Daimoku of Nichiren Buddhism can be regarded as mantras Rinzai Zen methods Zazen Sitting Meditation Samu physical movement or work Koans riddling non-sensical questions/statements Mondos riddling stories Upaya is an explicitly important concept in Mahayana although it is implicitly found in Theravada. It refers to the notion that normal ethical behaviour can be circumvented if it helps someone progress further spiritually Eg. Zen masters, like Linji, where known to strike their students suddenly or throw holy statues in the toilet if it somehow helped to provoke moments of Satori. However, such actions are only for enlightened people. If one has not perfected Wisdom & Compassion then ones actions cannot be considered Upaya as there is no certainty of the outcome Actions that are not to do with progress to enlightenment are not Upaya. The bodhisattva ideal However innumerable sentient beings are; I vow to save them A Bodhisattva vow Harvey- pain is not identified as mine as an arhat not self passing phenomenon Significance The goal for most Mahayana Buddhists is no longer to become an arhat and reach Nirvana, but to become a bodhisattva and eventually a Buddha in order to save others as well as oneself this is seeking enlightenment not for their own sake but for the sake of all others It is possible that help/ merit can be gained from beings further advanced on this path. Mahayana Buddhists speak of bodhisattvas as heavenly beings with the power to help those who call on them. GRAY Adaptions to idea of arhat present in Maha. 1. Bodhisattva path 2. Buddhology Trikaya 3. Sutras incl lotus, heart, PL 4. Karuna in addition to prajana 5. Devotion to bodhisattvas 6. Merit passed on 7. laity have potential for enl 8. Sunyata emptyness 9. Buddha nature latent in all Tathagatagarbha According to some Mahayana scriptures Shakyamuni Buddha, the Buddha of our world system, is available in a glorious, heavenly or spiritual form, like the other Buddha's or bodhisattvas The Mahayana universe or multiverse is even larger than the cosmology of the Theravada Buddhists. In addition to this world-system, with its three realms of sense-desire, form and formlessness, there are other world-systems, in which may dwell other Buddhas than the Shakyamuni Buddha of this world system A person becomes a Bodhisattva by perfecting attributes in their lives. There are six of these to focus on called the six perfections: 1. Generosity to be charitable and generous in all that is done 2. Morality to live with good morals and ethical behaviour 3. Patience to practice being patient in all things 4. Energy to cultivate the energy and perseverance needed to keep going even when things get difficult (resilience) 5. Meditation to develop concentration and awareness 6. Wisdom to obtain wisdom and understanding Snelling 4 Brahma viharas Metta Bhavana Loving Kindness ( Thinking thoughts of love towards others)- Daliai Lama my religion is kindness Karuna Bhavana- Compassion ( generating thoughts of helping others) motivating factor of a bodhisattva

Mudita Bhavana- Joy ( Thinking joyously about the good qualities of others) Upekkha Bhavana Equanimity Added later there are 4 more that lead to being a bodhisattva 7. skill-in-means - upaya 8. The vow 9. Power 10. Knowledge Faith an devotion to the bodhisattva similarity with bhakti cults of Hinduism . Snelling A02 Everyone has the buddha nature and therefore the potential to reach enlightenment The bodhisattva path is a universal one and in principal open to all The bodhisattva ideal may seem impossibly difficult The path takes several aeons of lifetimes Requires complete dedication Each stage of the path requires the qualities and actions to be perfect In the Lotus Sutra it is presented as a path suitable only for spiritually mature people 28 Patriarchs between Shakyamuni and Bodhidharma Began a line of Chan maters Bodhi dharma began by meditating against a wall for 9 yrs legs dropped off told emperor that gifts of wealth even if the y are spent on the sangha have no karmic merit Cut eyelids off to stop him dozing off I husan introduced eccentric methods beating shouting riddles koans Also began to embrace martial arts So, far away from the origins? Key ideas incl non dual nature of reality mind only Tathagatagarbha (Buddha-nature) we are already enlightened. We just have to realise it Experiential over intellectual cos intellectual means attachment to ideas world views etc Words and concepts cannot describe enlightenment Karmic merit is of no use in the path to enlightenment. Emphasis on meditation. Morality therefore a result of enlightenment, not part of the path towards it. The Flower sermon Attiudes to scripture The Buddha silently holds up a flower The only person to understand the gesture is Kashyapa The truth (Dharma) cannot really be conveyed using ordinary (samsaric) words and concepts but must be experienced directly. Direct transmission of knowledge between master and disciple the role of the guru is pivotal in helping students gain experience of enlightenment ZazenThe main Soto practice is Zazen. Soto monks might spend up to 6 hours (altogether) a day meditating. Other concentration practices (Samu) are practiced as well such as Tea ceremony, poetry, and gardening. Haiku- poetry Enzo circle symbolizes absolute Koans- use riddles as a part of Satori- means enlightenment practice of Japanese ink The circle may be open or closed . wabimeditation not for an catching on and is a sabi, the beauty of imperfection. circle is intellectual answer but for classic example of closed= perfection. // to Plato's perfect breaking down experience to religious experience form Usually, a person draws the ens in intuition and non duality. May fits with James PINT one fluid, expressive stroke. go though doubt and death of vision on emptiness Once the ens is drawn, one does not the ego to reach special insight and Buddhahood change it. It evidences the character of its creator and the context of its creation in a brief, continuous period of time Kamakura period Samurai and upheaval Itsim 4 Zen Buddhism Direct transmission outside the scriptures Without depending on words and letters

Pointing directly to the human mind seeing the innate nature one becomes a Buddha Bodhidharma It is said that whenever students would ask him a question, Zen master Joju would answer, Go drink tea. One in All, all in one If only this is realised No more worry about being perfect When mind and each believing mind are not divided And divided are each believing Mind and Mind this is were words fail: For it is not of the past, present and future. Patriarch Seng tsan in onze No need to seek enlightenment, just be enlightened Zazen and Enlightenment are one Shikantaza nothing but sitting Huineng, meditation is the embodiment (ti) of wisdom, and wisdom is the functioning (yong) of meditation. The body is like a bodhi tree the mind is like a clear mirror at all times we must seek to polish it and not let the dust collect Illiterate 6th partiarch added 2 verses The bodhi tree is originally not a tree the mirror has no stand buddha nature is always clean and pure where is the room for dust The mind is the bodhi tree the body is the mirror stand the mirror is originally clean and pure where can it be stained by dust Dust =karma cravings is illusion shows you havent understood if y ou strive to remove it Buddhism and Western Inculturation : Secular Buddhism Ten Theses of Secular Dharma S Batchelor 1. A secular Buddhist is one wh o is committed to the practice of the dharma for the sake of this world alone. 2. The practice of the dharma consists of four tasks: to embrace suffering, to let go of reactivity, to behold the ceasing of reactivity, and to cultivate an integrated way of life. 3. All human beings, irrespective of gender, race, sexual orientation, disability, nationality, and religion, can practice these four tasks. Each person, in each moment, has the potential to be more awake, responsive, and free. 4. The practice of the dharma is as much concerned with how one speaks, acts, and works in the public realm as with how one performs spiritual exercises in private. 5. The dharma serves the needs of people at specific times and places. Each form the dharma assumes is a transient human creation, contingent upon the historical, cultural, social, and economic conditions that generated it. 6. The practitioner honors the dharma teaching that have been passed down through different traditions while seeking to enact them creatively in ways appropriate to the world as it is now. 7. The community of practitioners is formed of autonomous persons who mutually support each other in the cultivation of their paths. In this network of like-minded individuals, members respect the equality of all members while honoring the specific knowledge and expertise each person brings. 8. A practitioner is committed to an ethics of care, founded on empathy, compassion, and love for all creatures who have evolved on this earth. 9. Practitioners seek to understand and diminish the structural violence of societies and institutions as well as the roots of violence that are present in themselves. 10. A practitioner of the dharma aspires to nurture a culture of awakening that finds its inspiration in Buddhist and non-Buddhist, religious and secular sources alike. Stephen Batchelor The only thing I might add is that since I left the monastic communities, my interest has really gone to what I call early Buddhism, to try to sort of get back to what the Buddha was doing before it became Buddhism. Stephen Batchelor Ten Theses of Secular Dharma 1. The dharma is concerned with this world- means rejecting PL and other visions of enlightenment 2. 4 NT become 4 tasks 3. Secular view of equality of potential for enlightenment 4. 8 fold Path and other aspects are as much about the public as well as private, political as well as personal 5. View of the dharma as being repackaged for each culture etc 6. Respect for idea but interpreted through the modern paradigm. 7. Part of community respect for individual 8. Socially engaged Buddhism 9. Secular view of equality 10. Respect for all approaches Mrs Bola dont quote me This secular approach to the dharma is, for me, a radical way of reforming Buddhism, much in the way that Luther and Calvin and others sought to reform Christianity. And I do think we are at a time where Buddhism, if it is to really survive as a force for good, a force for

wisdom, for compassion in our world, has to rethink its fundamental ideas in a very radical way. This may be foolhardy as it is, its what Im trying to do. Buddhism and Western Inculturation Knitter As some theologians have commented, if were convinced that the starting point for our individual lives, or for the human project in general, is marked original sin rather than original blessing, its going to be all the more difficult to move on. To put it bluntly but also imploringly: we Christians need more silence in our services and liturgies. Just how this might be realized, just how we If Mystery is the goal and content of all religious experience, then Silence is a necessary means of letting Mystery speak. for Jesus the Spirit-filled prophet, the focus of his life and relationships was the Reign of God. That meant that he was not as his followers have often beenchurch-centered. His primary concern was not to increase membership of his own movement or community. Rather, it was to transform people's hearts so as to transform their society. His focus here is on what he calls the big stuff: What does it really mean for Christians to profess belief in an almighty God the Father personally active in the world, or in Jesus, his onlybegotten Son who saved humanity through his death and bodily resurrection, or in eternal life, heaven and hell?... Mr. Knitters response, based on his long interaction with Buddhist teachers, was to pass over to Buddhisms approach to each of these problems and then pass back to Christian tradition to see if he could retrieve or re-imagine aspects of it with this Buddhist flashlight. Perhaps I could have come onto these insights without Buddhism, he said Wednesday. Yet even in those cases he often expresses these insights in language that will be debated, like God as InterBeing or Connecting Spirit. When his comparison between Jesus the Christ and Gautama the Buddha leads him to conclude that both are unique saviors but not sole or final ones, he is treading, as he well knows, in a theological minefield. One can predict that this book will receive instant condemnation from people who feel their duty is to protect Christian doctrine from wandering off course. One can also predict that those condemnations will, in turn, make others hesitant to voice more nuanced, thoughtful criticism out of fear of piling on. Although he argues for a kind of religious double-belonging, he does not hesitate to ask whether this is ultimately a kind of promiscuity or, as one of his students put it, spiritual sleeping around. Will his double-belonging resonate sufficiently within his own faith community that he can continue to consider himself a Buddhist Christian? Or if not, as he explained this week, will he feel obliged to recognize himself as a Christian Buddhist? . review From urban dharma Buddhism and social activism Thich Nhat Hanh Thich Nhat Hanh is a world renowned Zen master, writer, poet, scholar, and peacemaker. He is the author of more than one hundred books including bestsellers Peace Is Every Step, The Miracle of Mindfulness, Living Buddha, Living Christ and Anger. February 1964, he established the Order of Interbeing, Vietnam War - teachings of the Buddha needed to combat the hatred,/violence,small number of followers involved in social work /committed to the principles of Socially Engaged Buddhism incl 14 Precepts or, Mindfulness Trainings. Founded the School of Youth for Social Service, to establish schools and health clinics and to rebuild villages t 1969, led Buddhist Peace Delegation to Paris Peace Talks and founded Unified Buddhist Church (UBC) in France. 1975 UBC first est the Sweet Potatoes Meditation Centre 1982 Plum Village was set up. Southern France meditation centre Every year, Plum Village thousands attend retreats. A sangha 150 monks, nuns and lay-practitioners live permanently Thich Nhat Hanh's teaching is notable for its emphasis on joy, engagement in the world, and integrating the practice of mindfulness into daily life. To be mindful is to become aware of what is going on in our bodies, our minds, and the world around us. Nhat Hanh warns: "Do not think that the knowledge you presently possess is changeless, absolute truth. Avoid being narrow-minded and bound to present views. Find ways to be with those who are suffering by all means, including personal contact and visits, images, sound. By such means awaken yourself and others to the reality of suffering in the world If we are peaceful, if we are happy, we can smile, and everyone in our family, our entire society, will benefit from our peace. Thich Nhat Hanh Meditation can help us embrace our worries, our fear, our anger; and that is very healing. We let our own natural capacity of healing do the work. Thich Nhat Hanh When we have peace, then we have a chance to save the planet. But if we are not united in peace, if we do not practice mindful consumption, we cannot save our planet. Thich Nhat Hanh We often think of peace as the absence of war, that if powerful countries would reduce their weapon arsenals, we could have peace. But if we look deeply into the weapons, we see our own minds- our own prejudices, fears and ignorance. Even if we transport all the bombs to the moon, the roots of war and the roots of bombs are still there, in our hearts and minds, and sooner or later we will make new bombs. To work for peace is to uproot war from ourselves and from the hearts of men and women. To prepare for war, to give millions of men and women the opportunity to practice killing day and night in their hearts, is to plant millions of seeds of violence, anger, frustration, and fear that will be passed on for generations to come. Thich Nhat Hanh, Living Buddha, Living Christ "If we are peaceful, if we are happy, we can smile, and everyone in our family, our entire society, will benefit from our peace."

"There is no way to happiness - happiness is the way". Engaged Buddhism and environmentalism Illustrating how the language of awakening and liberation may be projected from individual to the environment, Joanna Macy makes the connection: Far from the escapism that is often imputed to the Buddhist path, this liberation, this awakening puts one into the world with a livelier, more caring sense of social engagement. Macy So when you say environment, or preservation of environment, it is related with many things. Ultimately the decision must come from to0he human heart, isn't that right? So I think the key point is genuine sense of universal responsibility which is based on love, compassion and clear awareness. 14 DL Authored by Zen teacher Dr. David Tetsuun Loy and senior Theravadin teacher Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi with scientific input from Dr. John Stanley, the statement pulls no punches: Eminent biologists and U.N. reports concur that business-as-usual will drive half of all species on Earth to extinction within this century. Collectively, we are violating the first preceptdo not harm living beingson the largest possible scale. engaged Buddhist monks in Thailand have faced arrest for "ordaining" trees in the rainforests to protect them from clearcutting by international timber cartels.: Darlington From the evidence of the Buddha's discourses, or suttas in the Digha Nikaya, it is clear that early Buddhists were very much concerned with the creation of social conditions favorable to the individual cultivation of Buddhist values. An outstanding example of this, in later times, is the remarkable "welfare state" created by the Buddhist emperor, Asoka (B.C. 274-236). Walpola Rahula stated the situation perhaps at its strongest when he wrote that "Buddhism arose in India as a spiritual force against social injustices, against degrading superstitious rites, ceremonies and sacrifices; it denounced the tyranny of the caste system and advocated the equality of all men; it emancipated woman http://urbandharma.org/udharm and gave her complete spiritual freedom." (Rahula, 1978). a8/greening.html Buddhist responses to the issue of gender equality Doctrinally Buddhism is egalitarian Whosoever has such a vehicle whether man or woman shall indeed by means of that vehicle attain nirvana. Samyutta- Nikaya Also no god so no discussion about the male female deity But patriarchy took over the sangha as the rules were different for men and women (women did join the sangha very early) Barnes 8 chief rules included nuns could not reprimand monks or teach them Lacking misogyny as the struggle is against oneself But men had the power There was single group of renunciants at the time of the Buddha Falk Early female arhats were visible 71 contemporaries - poetry found in the Therigatha Laity at the time and the Buddha the rules for living were the same Barnes Assertion that samsara was feminine Falk Contempt for women is universal in the ascetic ideal Altekar Barnes questions if there was a contempt for women. Esp as renunciants were required to live in close contact with laity and rely on them Another important organisation linked to Engaged Buddhism is the Sakyadhita which promotes the rights of women and combats gender injustices Jataka tales adopted by Theravada assumed that a Buddha would never have female rebirths Female nuns only had female rebirths Some schools have rebirth stories as female incl Gautama. Mahayana schools do have stories of ideas and used female forms as Bodhisattvas Negative view of women in sutras infrequent. Where it is the view of a devil woman being to blame is corrected and attributed to the mind. Schuster Mara and his daughters in the enlightenment narrative demonstrates worldliness. Worldliness is both male and female. Barnes But women not allowed to have power real or imagined no female gods in early Buddhism. Barnes Lotus sutra is the first literature where women can be Buddhas Other sutras suggest female rebirth is a result of bad karma maleness is a visible demonstration of moral and spiritual superiority. Barnes Prajnaparamita Sutra suggest all characteristics are illusory Buddha is not really male Davids Mahayana sutras such as the Lotus Sutra, c12, records 6000 bhikkhuni /arhantis receiving predictions of bodhisattvahood and future buddhahood by Gautama . Dialogue between Manjushri (Mahayana) vs Sariputa non (Mahayana) about the 8 yr old daughter of a dragon king who lives under the sea. One version in front of Buddha hands him a jewel says she will be enlightened even faster and changes into male bodhisattva and Buddha before their eyes. Zen emphasis on satori and not about gender at all. More about woman perceived as a woman becoming a Buddha. Other interpretations that means that gender is an empty concept and only going beyond it can enlightenment be gained. ..a dramatic demonstration of emptiness Barnes

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