Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance
Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) Training Dillard Research Associates and Alaska Education & Early Development January 22, 2015 1 Objectives of Training To understand the components of a PLAAFP page
for Alaska IEPs To practice writing PLAAFPs that are aligned to the Essential Elements (and/or nodes, as appropriate) 2 What is a PLAAFP? A comprehensive statement describing the students current performance in relation to the enrolled grade-level content standards. Presents a clear picture of a students strengths and needs, as
determined through evaluation. Identifies how the students disability affects the students involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. Is based on student data which reflect current academic achievement and functional performance. 3 Assessment Curriculum
(EEs, nodes) 5 PLAAFP in the IEP PRESENT LEVELS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE (PLAAFP) Address all identified educational needs from the ESER and Include results of most recent state/district-wide assessments. For students turning 16 or older, include a statement of current secondary transition progress. STATEMENT OF EFFECT Describe how the disability affects the students involvement and progress in the general education curriculum or for a preschool student, participation in appropriate activities.
6 Academic Achievement Academic achievement generally refers to a childs performance in academic areas (e.g. reading, language arts, math, etc.); or For preschool children, age-appropriate developmental levels. 7
Functional Performance Functional performance generally refers to skills or activities that may not be considered academic or related to a childs academic achievement. Functional is often used in the context of routine activities of everyday living and are varied depending on the individual needs of the child. Functional performance can impact educational achievement. 8
What does a PLAAFP Do? Serves as a foundation for an IEP Is the basis for determining: Measurable annual goals Accommodations Supplementary aids and services Program supports 9
Process of Developing Standards-based IEP Goals 10 Developing the PLAAFP The IEP team must include specific information addressing: The present level of academic performance. The students most recent performance on State or district-wide assessments. The present level of developmental and functional performance
How the students disability affects involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. The students preferences, needs, interests, and the results of age-appropriate transition assessments. 11 Data Sources to Develop PLAAFP Results from Alaska Alternate Assessment(s) Formative assessments or progress monitoring results such as formative, district, or school assessments
Classroom assessments and work samples Behavior data Parent and student input AT devices and related services information (including Speech, OT, PT, etc.) 12 Present Levels Must be: Measurable use terms that are observable, specific, and based on evidence. Understandable use clear language that can be understood
by all members of the IEP team 13 Components of PLAAFP Strengths Needs Impact statement 14
Component 1 - Strengths Strengths must be specific to the knowledge/skills that are needed to learn the grade level standards. Strengths may include: Skills related to the standard(s) Students response to learning strategies Successful interventions or accommodations 15 Component 2 - Needs
Needs should focus on the skill sets the student requires to access and make progress in the general education curriculum. The students needs will inform the IEP team which measurable annual goals to develop as well as the supports, services, and accommodations. If the strength is well defined in the present levels, it will define the need and form the basis for the measurable annual goal. 16
Component 2 - Needs Needs should focus on the skill sets the student requires to access and make progress in the general education curriculum. The students needs will inform the IEP team which measurable annual goals to develop as well as the supports, services, and accommodations. If the strength is well defined in the present levels, it will define the need and form the basis for the measurable annual goal. 17
Impact Statement: Answer the question of how the childs disability affects (impacts) his/her involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Discuss learner characteristics and examine how the characteristics affect student learning. Do not use students exceptionality to explain how the disability affects involvement/progress in the general curriculum. 20
Sample Impact Statement Anns disability in the area of auditory processing and auditory memory causes her to have difficulty processing problems and remembering information presented orally. This impacts her ability to follow multi-step directions, comprehension, and recalling complex concepts. This also impacts her academic success in all instructional settings with oral presentations, reading, written language, and math, and to a lesser degree, science and social studies. What areas are affected due to the disability? How does the students disability impact the students
involvement in the general education curriculum? What academic areas are impacted due to the disability? 21 Sample Impact Statements Elis tendency to reverse numbers will impact his ability to accurately write numbers and will also impact computation/problem solving in mathematics. Samanthas difficulties with reasoning skills affect drawing inferences from literary and informational passages and impact all other academic areas.
22 Unacceptable Impact Statements What is missing? Lisa has difficulty organizing her materials and beginning assignments because she has an attention deficit disorder. Ethans learning disability impacts his phonemic awareness.
23 Review: Steps to Develop PLAAFP 1. Review the AK Standards and Essential Elements for English language arts and mathematics. 2. Review various data sources to determine the students strengths and needs. 3. Determine what the priorities are for the student in relation to the grade level standards. 4. After the strengths and priorities needs have been
identified, now you can write the Present Levels statement for each relevant area. 24 Alaska State Standards Reading 25 Sample 4th Grade Reading PLAAFP Strengths
Sally can identify 1-2 details from text read to her. She can identify the main idea from content-area passages. She can verbally explain events in chronological order. She can compare and contrast events from text using a Venn diagram. Needs However, Sally is unable to write a complete summary and will often add her opinion. She has difficulty identifying authors evidence or purpose in text read, she only states what she likes in the text. In addition, Sally can not determine the cause or effect of a situation.
Impact Statement Sallys inability to understand key components of reading literature affects her progress in the 4th grade general education curriculum. 26 PLAAFP Phrase Examples Vague Verb Phrases Specific Verb Phrases
Received a math score of 90 Can count to 25 Knows his letters Can verbally identify 23/26 letters Can add
Using a calculator, solves double-digit addition problems Expressive language is at 27 Communicates wants and needs in 23 word sentences Can read Can locate 2 -3 details in a reading selection
Knows fractions Can reduce equivalent fractions Can measure Can use various types of measurement tools such as rulers, weights, and volume (liters) 27
How can you improve this PLAAFP Statement? Rosie has improved in math since last year. She can add and subtract and identify most money. She has limited budgeting experience. She can estimate two-digit numbers but not more than that. 28 One way
Rosie met her previous IEP goals. Rosie can add and subtract single digit numbers with 90% accuracy. Rosie can add double digit numbers with 50% accuracy and is unable to subtract double digit numbers that require regrouping. She can identify coins and small bills (penny, nickel, dime, quarter, one, and five dollar bills) but she cannot make change. Rosie can estimate two-digit numbers but not more than that. The fourth grade benchmark for math requires the following computation: Add, subtract, multiply (threedigit by two-digit factors), and divide (two-digit dividends by one-digit divisors) to solve problems. 29
Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Levels It is critical that the PLAAFP and annual goals include both the instructional AND grade levels. Why? 1. Instructional level alone does not meet the criteria of the general education curriculum. 2. Grade level alone does not meet the criteria of an IEP based on identified skill deficits. 30
Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Levels The two levels together (instructional and grade) allow the student to make progress in the general education curriculum, while also addressing skill deficits (needs). It is necessary to use grade level (particularly for outcome measures) in order to determine if IEP content is appropriate. 31
Present Levels: The End Result Instructional Level and Grade Level The information then translates into content for goals and specially designed instruction in order for the student to work toward mastery in the general education curriculum. The Essential Elements (and nodes where available) help bridge the gap between instructional level and grade level, demonstrating the linkage between the two. 32
Questions to Consider After Writing Your PLAAFP 1. Are your current PLAAFP statements related to the desired outcome for this student? 2. Do the PLAAFP statements reflect what the student knows in relation to the curriculum or standards expectations? 3. Are the PLAAFP statements stated in measurable terms? 33
Example of PLAAFP Performance on the AKAA (Unofficial Report) On the 2013-14 Alternate Assessment (AKAA) Reading 4th grade, Jacob scored 70% (74 of 91 points) on the Reading assessment. On the Math AKAA, he scored 83% (40/48 points). On the Writing AKAA, he scored 78% (78/100 points). Do you know what Jacobs instructional goals should be from this report? See DRA_IEP_PLAAFP_USR.pdf (yellow) 34
PLAAFP Example if Detailed Info is not Available on AKAA Results On the 2013-14 10th grade AKAA STUDENT received the following results: Reading - Proficient, Math - Proficient, Writing Below Proficient (add classroom data regarding skills instructed and current performance). See DRA_IEP_PLAAFP_ISR.pdf (green) 35 PLAAFP Example Reading & Math
Reading - Currently, given a 4th grade reading passage, Jacob reads 24 words correctly with 12 errors in 1 minute. Math - Currently, given two-digit whole numbers, Jacob adds 4 number problems correctly in one minute. 36 Example of a Complete th PLAAFP 10 Grade See DRA_IEP_PLAAFP_Sample.pdf (buff color)
37 PLAAFP Example Writing Writing - Currently, when given a pencil and paper, Holly is not able to write her name. Using a Tablet (iPad) and a text application, she is able to write 3 of the 10 letters in her name correctly in 5 minutes. 38
Review and Reflect: Writing PLAAFP Statements Accurately describe performance in academic areas related to the students enrolled grade level state standards. Include a direct relationship between evaluation/assessment data and PLAAFP statements. Use objective, measurable terms. Ensure scores (if used) are self-explanatory or include an explanation of the score. 39
Process of Developing Standards-based IEP Goals 40 Data/Gap Analysis 41 What is a Gap Analysis?
A gap analysis is used to measure the difference between the students current levels of performance and grade-level content standard expectations. 42 Balancing Exposure with Instruction 43
What is Data Analysis? Data analysis is the process of: Gathering data about the student Making comparisons against baseline performance The goal is to highlight useful: Information Suggestions and conclusions Supporting decision making 44
Examine Student Data Compile and review a variety of data. Those on the IEP team who are most familiar with the data and its meaning for the student should present to others. Examination includes an analysis of: Why the data are indicative of student performance. What the data indicate about student learning. How the data can be utilized to determine future needs. 45
Questions to Consider Has the student been taught content linked to the grade-level standards? Has the student been provided appropriate instructional scaffolding aimed toward grade-level expectations? Was assistive technology considered? For a student with print disabilities: Was the student provided core and supplemental materials in an accessible format? 46
Develop Goals and Objectives Identify the gap between the students PLAAFP and the Essential Elements and/or Nodes, or Alaska State Standards 47 Review and Reflect PLAAFP the cornerstone or foundation for developing measurable annual goals and have components: 1.
Developed by identifying students strengths in relation to enrolled grade level standards. 2. Identify students area(s) of need to be the springboard for developing measurable annual goals. 3. Impact statement which addresses the students disability and
access to the general education curriculum. 48 Reflect and Plan Identify One new concept you learned One concept you will use in writing IEPs One concept you will share with a colleague 49
Contacts Please submit any additional questions or comments to one of us at the following email addresses. Thank you for your attention today! Kim Sherman, Dillard Research Associates [email protected] Dan Farley, Dillard Research Associates [email protected]
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