Psychological Foundations Emotion and Motivation What is Motivation?
Psychological Foundations Emotion and Motivation What is Motivation? The wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal Motivation: Instinct Drives Behavior William James (a) theorized that behavior was
driven by a number of instincts, which aid survival An instinct is a species-specific pattern of behavior that is not learned such as sucking (b) Motivation: Drive Theory Deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs that direct behavior to meet the need and bring the system back to homeostasis. We form habits. There is an optimal level of arousal that we all
try to maintain Yerkes-Dodson law Self-efficacy and Social Motives According to Bandura self-efficacy, peoples belief in their capability to complete a task, will determine what we do and the future goals that we set for ourselves Social motives for behavior include needs for achievement, affiliation, and intimacy
Motivation: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs In some versions of Maslows hierarchy of needs the cognitive and aesthetic needs are also included between esteem and selfactualization Others include another tier at the top of the pyramid for selftranscendence
What Motivates Eating? Hunger and eating are regulated by a complex interplay of hunger and satiety signals that are integrated in the brain.
What Motivates Eating? Metabolism and Set Point A persons metabolic rate is the amount of energy that is expended in a given period of time, and there is tremendous individual variability in our metabolic rates The set-point theory asserts that each individual has an ideal body weight, or set point, which is resistant to change This set-point is genetically predetermined and
efforts to move our weight significantly from the set-point are resisted by compensatory changes in energy intake and/or expenditure Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an individual maintaining body weight that is well below average through starvation and/or excessive exercise. People with anorexia have distorted body image. Negative health outcomes include: bone loss, heart failure,
kidney failure, amenorrhea, reduced function of the gonads, and in extreme cases, death. Binge eating disorder is characterized by binge eating and associated distress. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating followed by purging. It is associated with kidney failure, heart failure, tooth decay, anxiety, depression, and substance abuse Physiological Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior and Motivation
The medial preoptic area, an area of the hypothalamus, is involved in the ability to engage in sexual behavior, but it does not affect sexual motivation. In contrast, the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are
involved in motivation for sexual behavior, but they do not affect the Sexual Behavior: Kinsey Results of Kinseys research: Women are as interested and experienced in sex as men Both males and females masturbate without adverse health consequences Homosexual acts are fairly common
The Kinsey scale categorizes an individuals sexual orientation to same-sexed individuals (homosexual), opposite-sexed individuals (heterosexual), or both (bisexual) Sexual Behavior: Masters and Johnson This graph illustrates the different phases of the sexual response cycle as described by Masters and Johnson.
Sexual Orientation Heterosexual emotional and erotic attractions to opposite-sexed individuals Homosexual: emotional and erotic attractions to same-sexed individuals Bisexual: emotional and erotic attractions to both same-sexed individuals and opposite-sexed individuals Data suggest that people are born with their sexual orientation and it cannot be changed
Gender Identity Gender identity refers to ones sense of being male or female. Generally, our gender identities correspond to our chromosomal and phenotypic sex, but this is not always the case Gender dysphoria is a diagnostic category in DSM-5 for individuals who do not identify as the gender associated with their biological sex. It must persist for 6 months and cause distress Transgender hormone therapy is the use of hormones to make ones body look more like the
gender one identifies with In some cultures there are more than two gender Components of Emotion Emotion is a subjective state of being that we often describe as our feelings. The components of emotion are physiological arousal, psychological appraisal, and subjective experiences. Four
Theorie s of Emotio n Biology of Emotions: The Limbic System Hypothalamus plays a role in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system Thalamus serves as a
sensory relay center Amygdala plays a role in processing emotional information and sending that information on to cortical structures The hippocampus integrates emotional experience with cognition Biology of Emotions: Inside the
Amygdala Basolateral complex is critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory Central nucleus involved in attention has connections with the hypothalamus and various brainstem areas
to regulate the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems Expressing and Recognizing Emotion A cultural display rule is a culturally specific standard governing the type and frequency of displays of emotions that are acceptable The facial feedback hypothesis asserts that facial expressions are capable of influencing our
emotions. Body language is the expression of emotion in terms of body position or movement Universal Emotions and Facial Expressions There are seven universal emotions associated with distinct facial expressions Practice Question
How does the facial feedback hypothesis support or challenge the four theories of emotion? Quick Review What are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? What are basic theories of motivation, including concepts such as instincts, drive reduction, and self-efficacy? What is Maslows hierarchy of needs? How are hunger and eating regulated? What are the health consequences of anorexia
and bulimia nervosa? What biological mechanisms regulate sexual behavior and motivation? More Quick Review What are the contributions of Alfred Kinseys and William Masters and Virginia Johnsons research? What are the variations sexual orientation and gender identity? Compare and contrast the Cannon-Bard, JamesLange, Schachter-Singer two-factor, and other
theories of emotion. What role do limbic structures play in emotional processing? How are emotions recognized and expressed?
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