Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry CHEM 109 For Students
Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry CHEM 109 For Students of Health Colleges Credit hrs.: (2+1) King Saud University College of Science, Chemistry Department CHAPTER 6: Carbohydrates 1 Carbohydrates o The word carbohydrate can be expressed as hydrates of carbon because
molecular formulas of these compounds. o Example; Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6, which might be written as C6(H2O)6. polyhydroxyald ehydes polyhydroxyke tones o Carbohydrates are usually classified according to monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides. their
structure The term saccharide comes from Latin (saccharum, sugar) and refers to the sweet taste of some simple carbohydrates. as 2 Carbohydrates o The three classes of carbohydrates are related to each other through hydrolysis. o Monosaccharides (or simple sugars) are carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. o Oligosaccharides (from the Greek oligos, few) contain at least two and
generally no more than a few linked monosaccharide units. They may be called disaccharides, trisaccharides, and so on, depending on the number of units, which may be the same or different. Example; Maltose is a disaccharide made of two glucose units. Sucrose is made of two different monosaccharide units: glucose and fructose. o Polysaccharides contain many monosaccharide units - sometimes hundreds or even thousands. o Example; Starch and cellulose, contain linked units of the same monosaccharide, glucose. 3 Monosaccharides o Glyceraldehyde is the simplest aldose, and dihydroxyacetone is the simplest
ketose. o Each is related to glycerol in that each has a carbonyl group in place of one of the hydroxyl groups. o Monosaccharides are classified according to: The number of carbon atoms present (triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose, and so on). 4 Monosaccharides 5 Monosaccharides
Chirality in Monosaccharides; Fischer Projection Formulas and D,L-Sugars o He used a small capital d to represent the configuration of D-glyceraldehyde, with the hydroxyl group on the right. L-glyceraldehyde, with the hydroxyl group on the left. 6 Monosaccharides o Stereogenic centers are mostly carbon atoms (asymmetric carbon) that bind four different groups. o Stereoisomers = 2n (n = number of stereogenic centers). o Each of those stereoisomers has its enantiomer (mirror image) (2 pairs of o enantiomers).
Diastereomers are stereoisomers that differ from the particular pair of enantiomers. o Diastereomers differ in their properties. Enantiom ers Diastereo mers 7 Monosaccharides o Epimers; A special name is given to diastereomers that differ in configuration at only one stereogenic center.
o Examples; D-glucose and Dmannose are epimers (at C-2). D-glucose and Dgalactose are epimers (at C-4). 8 The Cyclic Hemiacetal Structures of
Monosaccharides o Monosaccharides exist mainly in cyclic, hemiacetal forms and not in the acyclic aldo- or keto-forms. Manipulation of the Fischer projection formula of D-glucose to bring the C-5 hydroxyl group in position for cyclization to the hemiacetal form. 9 Haworth Projection o The carbons are arranged clockwise numerically, with C-1 at the right. o Substituents attached to the ring lie above or below the plane. Carbons 1 through 5 are part of the ring structure, but carbon 6 (the -CH2OH group) is a
substituent on the ring. C-1 is special. C-1 is the hemiacetal carbon (it carries a hydroxyl group, and it is also connected to C-5 by an ether linkage). C-2, C-3, and C-4 are secondary alcohol carbons. C-6 is a primary alcohol carbon. Hydroxyl groups on the right in the Fischer projection are down in the Haworth projection (and conversely. hydroxyl groups on the left in the Fischer projection are up in the Haworth projection). 10 Anomeric Carbons; Mutarotation o Anomeric carbon; The hemiacetal carbon, the carbon that forms the new stereogenic center.
o Anomers; Two monosaccharides that differ only in configuration at the anomeric center are (a special kind of epimers). o Anomers are called or , depending on the position of the hydroxyl group. o For monosaccharides in the D-series, the hydroxyl group is down in the anomer and up in the anomer. 11 Conformations of Pyranoses; Chair Conformation o At the anomeric carbon (C-1), where the hydroxyl group may be axial (in the anomer) or equatorial (in the anomer). 12
Reactions of Monosacchari 1) Reduction of Monosaccharides des o The carbonyl group of aldoses and ketoses can be reduced by various reagents to give polyols, called alditols. o Example; Catalytic hydrogenation or reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) converts D-glucose to D-glucitol (sorbitol). o Sorbitol is used commercially as a sweetener and sugar substitute. 13 2) Oxidation of Monosaccharides Reactions of
Monosacchari des 2.1. With Mild Oxidizing Agents o Mild oxidizing agents as - Tollens reagent (Ag+ in aqueous ammonia), - Fehlings reagent (Cu2+ complexed with tartrate ion), - Benedicts reagent (Cu2+ complexed with citrate ion). o These aldehyde groups can be easily oxidized to acids which are called acids. that reacts with Ag+ or Cu2+ is called a reducing sugar o aldonic A carbohydrate o Example; D-glucose is easily oxidized to D-gluconic acid.
o With the copper reagents, the blue solution gives a red precipitate of cuprous oxide, Cu2O. 14 2) Oxidation of Monosaccharides Reactions of Monosacchari des 2.2. With Strong Oxidizing Agents o Stronger oxidizing agents, such as aqueous nitric acid. o The aldehyde group and the primary alcohol group can be oxidized, producing dicarboxylic acids called aldaric acids.
o Example; D-glucose gives D-glucaric acid. 15 Disaccharides o The most common oligosaccharides are disaccharides. o In a disaccharide, two monosaccharides are linked by a glycosidic bond between the anomeric carbon of one monosaccharide unit and a hydroxyl group on the other unit. 16 Maltose
o o o o Disaccharid es Maltose is the disaccharide obtained by the partial hydrolysis of starch. Further hydrolysis of maltose gives only D-glucose. Maltose consist of two linked glucose units. It turns out that the anomeric carbon of the left unit is linked to the C-4 hydroxyl group of the unit at the right as an acetal (glycoside). o The configuration at the anomeric carbon of the left unit is .
17 Cellibiose Disaccharid es o Cellobiose is the disaccharide obtained by the partial hydrolysis of cellulose. o Further hydrolysis of cellobiose gives only D-glucose. o Cellobiose must therefore be an isomer of maltose. o In fact, cellobiose differs from maltose only in having the configuration at C-1 of the left glucose unit. 18
Lactose Disaccharid es o Lactose is the major sugar in human and cows milk (4% to 8% lactose). o Hydrolysis of lactose gives equimolar amounts of D-galactose and D-glucose. o The anomeric carbon of the galactose unit has the configuration at C-1 and is linked to the hydroxyl group at C-4 of the glucose unit. 19 Sucrose
Disaccharid es o The most important commercial disaccharide is sucrose, ordinary table sugar. o Sucrose occurs in all photosynthetic plants, where it functions as an energy source. o It is obtained commercially from sugar cane and sugar beets, in which it constitutes 14% to 20% of the plant juices. o Sucrose is very water soluble (2 grams per milliliter at room temperature) because it is polar due to the presence of eight hydroxyl groups on its surface. 20 o Polysaccharides o Polysaccharides contain many linked monosaccharides and vary in chain
length and molecular weight. o Most polysaccharides give a single monosaccharide on complete hydrolysis. o The monosaccharide units may be linked linearly, or the chains may be branched. 21 Starch Polysacchari des 22 Starch
Polysacchari des o Starch is the energy-storing carbohydrate of plants. o It is a major component of cereals, potatoes, corn, and rice. o Starch is made up of glucose units joined mainly by 1,4--glycosidic bonds, although the chains may have a number of branches attached through 1,6- glycosidic bonds. o Partial hydrolysis of starch gives maltose, and complete hydrolysis gives only D-glucose. o Starch can be separated by various techniques into two fractions: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which constitutes about 20% of starch, the glucose units (50 to 300) are in a continuous chain, with 1,4 linkages.
23 Amylopectin is highly branched. Although each molecule may contain 300 to 5000 Glycogen Polysacchari des o Glycogen is the energy-storing carbohydrate of animals. o Like starch, it is made of 1,4- and 1,6-linked glucose units. o Glycogen has a higher molecular weight than starch (perhaps 100,000 glucose units), and its structure is even more branched than that of amylopectin, with a branch every 8 to 12 glucose units. o Glycogen is produced from glucose that is absorbed from the intestines into the
blood; transported to the liver, muscles, and elsewhere; and then polymerized enzymatically. o Glycogen helps maintain the glucose balance in the body by removing and storing excess glucose from ingested food and later supplying it to the blood when various cells need it for energy. 24 Cellulose Polysacchari des o Cellulose is an unbranched polymer of glucose joined by 1,4--glycosidic bonds. o It consists of linear chains of cellobiose units.
o These linear molecules, containing an average of 5000 glucose units, aggregate to give fibrils bound together by hydrogen bonds between hydroxyls on adjacent chains. o Cellulose fibers having considerable physical strength are built up from these fibrils, wound spirally in opposite directions around a central axis. 25
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