Building Stronger Relationships Between Corrections and Treatment Texas
Building Stronger Relationships Between Corrections and Treatment Texas Corrections Association June 11, 2012 Stephen K. Valle, Sc.D., M.B.A., Core Faculty Lisa Talbot-Lundrigan, MA Core Faculty Goals and Objectives: We will explore the relationship between correctional and treatment staff and discuss ways of maximizing our partnership. Specifically we will: identify the shared goals of corrections and treatment; describe one public safety model of treatment; articulate common values of correctional and treatment agencies.
2 Collaboration is a mutually beneficial and well-defined relationship entered into by two or more organizations to achieve common goals. The relationship includes a commitment to: a definition of mutual relationships and goals; a jointly developed structure and shared responsibility; mutual authority and accountability for success. Source: Griffith (2000), as cited by NIJ, CRJ, CJI, (2009) 3 THE CHALLENGE FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ADDRESS THE DISEASE....
CHANGE THE BEHAVIOR 4 Corrections and Treatment So what are the shared goals in our work with offenders? 5 Similarities Between Corrections and Treatment Professionals Corrections Professional Treatment Professional Upholds community safety as an important value and works to reduce recidivism
Upholds community safety as an important value and works to reduce recidivism Provides services (such as linkage and case management) for offenders to maximize positive outcomes for the community, the victim and the offender Provides services (such as specialized treatment) for offenders to maximize positive outcomes for the community, the victim and the offender Believes in behavior change Believes in behavior change Sees offenders strengths and competencies Sees offenders strengths and
competencies Models pro-social behavior and confront anti-social behavior Models pro-social behavior and confront anti-social behavior Source: NIC, CRJ, CJI (2008) 6 Corrections and Treatment And, how are we different? What goals are NOT the same? 7
Differences Between Corrections and Treatment Professionals, Corrections Professional Treatment Professional NIC 2008 ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING Ethical decisions tend more to be uniform and consistent across all offenders, oriented by common conditions of supervision ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING Ethical decisions tend more to be individualized, taking into account contextual variables ACCOUNTABILITY (External/visible) Holds offender accountable to general and specific conditions of supervision (rules that apply to everyone in a particular sub-group, i.e. probationers or sex offenders)
Is accountable to the courts and community ACCOUNTABILITY(Internal/invisible) Holds offender (and sometimes family members) accountable to signed treatment plan, developed in collaboration with the offender and the referral source (usually the corrections professional) Is accountable to a referral source but extent of information sharing is determined by authorizations to release information Is accountable to ethics and licensing boards, and sometimes health insurance funders or contracting agencies INFORMATION SHARING Some criminal information is public information
Public information and controlled information, guided by local correctional policies Case information is entered into a state-wide system and available to criminal justice personnel throughout the state INFORMATION SHARING A & D and mental health information is confidential unless appropriate releases are signed Clinical records are generally kept in a locked file behind two locked doors Only information that needs to be shared should be shared (e.g. treatment compliance, clinical recommendations, discharge summary and discharge recommendations) Any other information that is shared should be
explicitly negotiated with the offender client Harm to self or others is not confidential 8 Differences Between Corrections and Treatment Professionals, NIC 2008 CASE PLAN Investigates and adjudicates based on assessment of criminogenic factors Individualized plan to address strengths and criminogenic factors TREATMENT PLAN Clinically assesses Individualized plan to address behaviors that interfere with adaptation, based on biopsychosocial assessment
DURATION OF INVOLVEMENT Broader and longer term Length of community supervision is determined by court, dependent on crime of conviction Number of contacts is determined by assessed risk to community DURATION OF INVOLVEMENT Limited to a specific episode of care (coordination of treatment services and other services needed to complete treatment plan) Length of and intensity of treatment is determined by client need and completion of treatment plan goals Medically/clinically determined discharge from services ABSTINENCE Represents the abstinence-based world
to the offender Ultimately conditions of supervision require offender to abstain from substances (even though most corrections professionals understand principles of harm reduction) HARM REDUCTION Treatment professionals let clients know that relapse happens and plan for how to handle it, even while helping the client adapt to living in an abstinencebased world 9 Differences Between Corrections and Treatment Professionals, NIC 2008 MONITORS COMPLIANCE Represents the courts authority to the offender Is an arbiter of right and wrong
for the offender Monitors conditions of supervision Holds offender accountable to rules that apply to everyone THERAPEUTIC NEUTRALITY Correctional treatment is still client centered Some of the power of the therapeutic relationship derives from the treatment provider maintaining reasonable neutrality about choices, good or bad, that offenders make. However, treatment providers are not neutral about violent or criminal behavior, harm to self or others
DETERMINES SANCTIONS Determines appropriate sanctions for non-compliance based on graduated sanctions MAY CONSULT ON CONSEQUENCES AT TIMES Must stay out of the business of consequencing 10 Perhaps we do not have different goals but rather have different roles in reaching the same goal. 11 The Accountability Training Program
Model An integrated, evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to offender change 12 Steps for Learning Accountability Awareness that our behavior has an effect on others All behavior has Consequences for self and others Recognize that, with awareness, behavior is a Choice Acceptance Owning ones role in the behavior and in the consequences
Accountability means taking empathic Action to change 2009, Dr. Steve Valle 13 The Formula for Recover y& Change Respect Accountability Accountability Recover y& Change
Communit y 14 Accountability Training Change Model Recidivism Reduction Pyramid M Y M W Saf U or e Ho N I k us T in g
M THE CHANGE PROCESS Pr oSo ci al Co nn ec C tio O ns P TY r
LI he BI Hig TAlf UN Se er O - ow C rs ACthe O ea ni ng f ul Recovery & Behavior Change RESPECT Others Self - Authority
2009, Dr. Steve Valle. 15 Core Philosophy of Accountability Training for Offender Change Programs (Paradigm) Grounded in public safety philosophy safety takes precedent over public health or mental health philosophies The common good of the group supersedes the rights/interests of the individual (the we before me principle) 16
Core Philosophy of Accountability Training for Offender Change Programs (Paradigm) The taxpayer is the primary client, not the offender. Accountability to society is foremost priority. Offenders change not because they see the light, but because they feel the heat 17 3 Assumptions of Accountability Training Programs That Drive Service Delivery 1. Offenders CAN change their addictive and criminal behaviors with appropriate
combination of sanctions and interventions/treatment 2. Implementation of EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICES DOES result in positive outcomes including reduction in recidivism, cost savings, decrease in drug misuse, and criminality 18 Assumptions of Accountability Training Programs That Drive Services (cont) 3. Motivation to change is not required motivation myth Offenders are motivated - but not necessarily to change
Whats in it for me conditional buy-in is good enough Commitment to ACT AS IF is key; velvet covered brick metaphor AT brings motivation to clients by applying therapeutic leverage factors as motivators to participate (the only failure is the failure to participate) Research shows that mandated or coerced treatment is effective (CASA Behind Bars II, February 2010;NIDA 2009) 11 19 Mandated Treatment Works Research has demonstrated that individuals who enter
treatment under legal pressure have outcomes as favorable as those who enter treatment voluntarily. Those under legal pressure tend to have higher attendance rates and to remain in treatment for longer periods, which has a positive impact on treatment outcomes. Findings suggest that people can learn from the 'teachable moment' offered by a judicial mandate, even though the initial motivation for treatment is external. Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment - NIDA, 2009 NIDA Notes, Research Findings, Vol.20, No.6, 2006
20 21 22 23 Stages of Change in Accountability Training For Justice Involved Clients (precedes pre-contemplation stage) Stage I: DEFIANCE Stage II: RESISTANCE ACCOUNTABILITY Stage IV:
COOPERATION Stage III: COMPLIANCE 2009, Dr. Steve Valle 24 Components of Effective Correctional Treatment The Synergistic Partnership of Treatment and Correctional Professionals 25 How Does Correctional Treatment Work? Structure Discipline Consistency Critical for model to be successful (inmates & staff)
Hymn Book Principle Essential for custody and treatment staff to be on the same page Consistency is key There is no I in TEAM The Therapeutic Community (TC) is the method for change, not the treatment specialist or the individual. Training is critical and on-going. 26 Every interaction is an opportunity for learning
In an integrated Program, both Criminal Justice Staff and Treatment Staff share the responsibility to: Reinforce pro-social thinking / attitudes / behaviors. Direct thinking towards less riskier / more healthier ways of thinking. Program Rules and Community Standards 12 Steps Problem-solving skills Thinking Report 27 Power of Role Models Supervising Agency Staff, Treatment Staff, and the relationship between all of us role model healthy behaviors for RSAT participants.
Provides opportunities to show authority figures in a positive manner. Effective use of authority firm, fair and consistent. Program Participants must act within the standards of the program if they want to stay however the Choice is always Theirs. 28 Drama Triangle of Cops, Cons and Counselors
Correctional Officer vs. Prison Guard COPS COUNSELORS (persecutor) (rescuer) CONS (victim) 29 Drama Triangle of Cops, Cons and Counselors Correctional Officer vs. Prison Guard COPS COUNSELORS (persecutor) (rescuer) Blames
Criticizes Oppresses Dehumanizes CONS (victim) 30 Drama Triangle of Cops, Cons and Counselors Correctional Officer vs. Prison Guard COPS COUNSELORS (persecutor) (rescuer) Enable Blames
(Correctional Officers) (Treatment Staff) Firm Fair Consistent CONS (Community Members) 32 33 Shared Expectations Among Staff ALL staff follow consistent rules and schedules every day and every shift
Orderly entrance to groups, chow, morning inspections Guidelines should be agreed upon and followed by all staff ALL staff model the behaviors that RSAT community members are taught. Listen and respond respectively even when holding community member accountable for unacceptable behaviors 34 Shared Expectations Among Staff
ALL staff will emphasize praise for positive efforts rather than punishment for mistakes. Address inappropriate behavior as much as possible within the program as opposed to disciplining community members out of the program. ALL staff will combine efforts to address inappropriate behaviors. 35 Shared Expectations Among Staff
ALL staff will be able and willing to run a community meeting or other appropriate program service. Confrontation should focus on negative behavior and attitudes and not on the individual. Professional staff will refrain from the use of coarse language and outbursts of anger. 36 Shared Expectations Among Staff Both Treatment and Correctional Staff are
expected to know: Program Standards Program Philosophy Program Benchmarks Program Objectives 37 Shared Expectations Among Staff
Both Treatment and Correctional Staff are expected to attend and participate in relevant program activities: Daily Meetings Officer Meetings Weekly Meetings Community Meetings 38
Shared Expectations Among Staff Both Officers and Treatment Staff are involved in: Learning Experiences for RSAT Participants (disciplinary decisions) 30-Day Reviews which includes when participants are ready to move on to the next step of the program Accessing client assessment
Attending weekly treatment / clinical meetings Regular Clinical Supervision 39 Shared Expectations Among Staff Both Officers and Treatment Staff are involved in: Cross-Training to the Greatest Extent Possible. In an ideal scenario: Officers trained in the implementation of assessment instruments, MI techniques, Accountability Training, addiction related trainings Treatment staff attend week-long therapeutic community / officer training and other security training sessions
40 Example of Staff Rules (developed by RSAT custody / treatment staff) Staff will not intentionally set up an inmate. Staff will not refer to inmates sarcastically. Staff will emphasize praise for positive efforts rather than punishment for mistakes. Address bad behavior as much as possible within the Unit as
opposed to lugging / disciplining inmates out of the Unit. Treatment staff and Correctional / Probation/ Parole Officers should combine efforts to address bad behavior. Avoid public humiliation. Confrontation should focus on negative behavior and attitudes, not on the individual. Staff will establish a base of respect. Staff are capable and willing to run a community meeting.
Staff refrains from the use of coarse language and outbursts of anger. 41 Techniques to develop collaborative RSAT Team Maintain offices in close proximity to one another within the same Unit. Frequent daily communication with one another. Eat lunch with each other.
Attend Training together. Plan Program Activities together, especially rule changes, procedural changes, etc. 42 Techniques to develop collaborative RSAT Team Programmatic / participant decisions are ALWAYS made collaboratively NEVER unilaterally (security decisions excluded) Treatment staff follow / participate in same procedures / rituals as RSAT community members
/ officers Sir, yes Sir Addressing colleagues by Title (Officer Smith, Ms. Jones) Stand when an Officer enters Follow same schedule whenever possible 43 Potential Pitfalls Breakdown of communication between Correctional/Probation/Parole Officers and Treatment staff
Lack of Cross Training & Regular Meetings Arguments between staff on the Unit Relaxation of rules / decorum between staff while on Unit Negative core beliefs of staff toward each other / community members Lack of support from administration 44
People involved in the justice system have many needs deserving treatment, but not all of these needs are associated with criminal behavior. - Andrews & Bonta (2006) 45 Burnout The Challenge of Continuing to Work Effectively in the Criminal Justice System 46 Burnout is More Likely In a time when counseling and criminal justices staff
are being asked to: Carry Heavier Caseloads / Inmate Ratios Work with Fewer Staff Members / Officers Treat Needier Clients (Co-occurring issues, trauma issues, multi-systemic issues) Implement Evidence-Based techniques and Measure Performance (Treatment and Criminal Justice) Accept less pay/less frequent increase in pay 47 Predictors of Burnout Correctional Officers Substance Abuse Treatment Staff Ambiguous Work Assignment Heavy Caseloads
Role Conflict (Morgan et. al, 2002) Isolation from Peers Negative Inmates Contact (Dignam, 1986; Lindquist & Whitehead, 1986) Low pay/program funding Poor Relationship with Peers Inability to Detach No Sense of Purpose Increased Number of Performance Standards Lack of Clinical Supervision Sources: Morgan, VanHaveren, Pearson (2002); Deighton et. al. (2007) 48
The Burnout Cycle In CJ Programs Officer Poorly Defined Role Lack of Support Negative Interactions with Inmates Depersonalized Relationship with Inmates Counselor Administratio n Heavy, Demanding Caseload Inadequate Supervision Inadequate Self-Care
Lack of Unified Leadership Inadequate Staffing Poorly Defined Job Descriptions Poor Communication with Employees and Among Managers 49 Burnout: What is It? Burnout is a predictable but avoidable condition associated with work in the helping professions. Burnout is characterized by: Lack of Enthusiasm Withdrawal Frequent Absenteeism Blunting of Empathy and Callousness Dehumanizing of Clients
Fatigue 50 Burnout: What is It? Negativity Powerlessness Hopelessness Lack of Confidence in Skills/Avoidance Somatic symptoms including headaches, GI distress, elevated blood pressure, insomnia Distress in Personal Life Decrease in Healthy Self-Care Increase in Maladaptive Coping Behaviors, including Substance Use Relapse to Addiction 51 Burnout: Its Impact Clients feel devalued, avoided
Co-Workers may feel concern, a desire to intervene, resentment, a heavier burden to compensate. The entire staff and program may catch the negativity, cynicism and indifference of a burned-out staff member over time without intervention. 52 There MUST be not just COMMUNICATION between Correctional Officers and Treatment Staff but POSITIVE COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS as well. 53 54 CJ Systems Role in Addressing Treatment Issues
Recognize that immediacy is a key component of the treatment process (Hora, Schma & Rosentahl (1999) Notre Dame Law Review) Detox is only the first stage of treatment and by itself does little to change long-term substance abuse Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical Proper assessment is primarily the responsibility of service providers but all supervising / court officers
should be concerned Drug Courts: The Second Decade, NIJ, 2006 55 CJ Systems Role in Addressing Treatment Issues Drug / Alcohol use during treatment must be monitored continuously, as lapses during treatment do occur Treatment / service plans must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure that it meets the clients changing needs Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment NIDA, 2009
56 CJ Systems Role in Addressing Treatment Issues Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her substance abuse. Criminal justice involved clients report that interactions with the Judge are one of the most important influences on the experience they have while in treatment. Ensure family involvement whenever possible during the treatment process.
Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment NIDA, 2009 57
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