Creationism News April 2013 2013 4 Dedicated to

Creationism News  April 2013    2013  4 Dedicated to

Creationism News April 2013 2013 4 Dedicated to David Coppedge who sacrificed his career as the Head Systems Administrator for the Cassini Spacecraft in JPL to honor the Creator of the Universe. He also spent literally thousands of hours to make his excellent websites. The contents of this presentation were taken from David Coppedges website Pray for his fast recovery from cancer surgery. Pastor Chui [email protected] 01/27/20 1 North American Geology All Wrong

Researchers are stating that beliefs about the origin of western mountains in North America are all wrong. In Geologic History of North America Gets Overturned, Live Science described how thorough the overturning was: Its time to redraw the map of the world during the reign of the dinosaurs, two scientists say. The scientists, from Germany and Canada, dispute the existence of the Farallon Plate, long thought to give rise to the Rocky Mountains. Instead, they posit an archipelago, such as those in the South Pacific, instead of a continental margin. Finding stacked remnants is their justification for the overhaul. The new model is more complex in some ways, but also simpler, Nature News claimed in How the West Was Built. 01/27/20 2

North American Geology All Wrong [Mitchell] Mihalynuk said the new model will make waves, as it overturns 40 years of accepted wisdom about the evolution of western North America. It will take a while to turn people around. That intellectual ship has a lot of inertia, he said. But for Mihalynuk, this is one of those eureka moments. 01/27/20 3 North American Geology All Wrong

If they are right, 40 years of accepted wisdom was really never wise at all. While this new model makes perfect sense to some, will it make sense to geologists 40 years from now? Theres room for reconsideration. The paper in Nature by Sigloch and Mihalynuk lists four areas of uncertainty and a fudge factor to make the model work: This is accomplished by introducing an additional degree of freedom, an ad hoc, otherwise nonobservable, westward shift of the lithospheric shell relative to the lower mantle. 01/27/20 4 North American Geology All Wrong

In a Perspective article in Nature, Saskia Goes said, The tectonic history of western North America is a puzzle in which many of the pieces are mashed up or missing. Although she believes the new seismic image data alters the reconstruction of the pieces, she described the observational data as complex: The western margin of the North American continent, comprising the Cordilleran mountain chain that runs from Alaska to Mexico, consists of scores of continental jigsaw pieces of 01/27/20 5 different origins, sizes and ages. North American Geology All Wrong

Goes made it clear that the new model is not fixed in stone. Sigloch and Mihalynuk have incorporated several new pieces into the North American jigsaw, but others remain to be placed, she said. More modeling and interpretation will be required. The new pieces remain to be connected into a selfconsistent framework of plates with continuous and dynamically evolving boundaries, she added, implying that the model is not self-consistent yet. Her piece ended with 01/27/20 6 a number of remaining questions. North American Geology All Wrong

Nothing in historical geology is ever as clean cut as the popular media would lead you to believe. They give the impression of progress: the new model is superior to the old. Is it necessarily? When you are dealing with scores of jigsaw pieces without the box cover to show you what they are supposed to look like, and no human observer around to watch what really happened, there is ample room for another 01/27/20 7 overturn in the future. North American Geology All Wrong

There is also ample room for alternative theories with different assumptions or different ad hoc, non-observable fudge factors. Some philosophers even claim an infinite number of theories can explain the same observations. However stated, theories and models like this are always underdetermined by data. It means that a measure of divination is required to conjure an appropriate vision that suits the 01/27/20 8 preferences of the day. North American Geology All Wrong

Overhauls also remind us that the consensus is often wrong. Forty years of false belief is what these two upstart geologists have to allege by overturning the old model: forty years of accepted wisdom that was foolish in their view. The new accepted wisdom awaits future self-proclaimed wise men ready to upset the applecart all over again. 01/27/20 9 North American Geology All Wrong This is accomplished by introducing

an additional degree of freedom, an ad hoc, otherwise non-observable, westward shift of the lithospheric shell relative to the lower mantle. 01/27/20 10 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 11 Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies

Some of the most unlikely creatures are making headlines because of their potential for advancing technology. Hagfish clothing: Yuck! Hagfish, marine creatures without jaws, look like something out of a horror movie. When attacked, they disgorge gobs of sticky slime from glands on the sides of their bodies. You can see the goop in a photo on the BBC News, with its surprising headline, Hagfish slime: The clothing of the future? Strange as it seems, Canadian researchers see 01/27/20 12 wealth creation in the slime.

Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies When its fibers get stretched out, they become soft and silky, like lycra or nylon, but renewable. Scientists believe hagfish slime or similar proteins could be turned into tights or breathable athletic wear, or even bullet-proof vests. Other amazing facts: a four-foot hagfish can contain hundreds of kilometers of slime threads. The silky threads bear resemblance to spider silk, even though the creatures are unrelated. A hagfish fossil said to be 330 million years old already had the 01/27/20 13 slime-making technology.

Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies Wet gecko adhesion: Previous biomimetics entries (8/27/02 , 12/06/06, 8/16/12) have described gecko toes amazing adhesive properties. Now, according to National Geographic, the next challenge is understanding how the toes continue to adhere when weteven underwater (cf.10/18/10). Researchers at the University of Akron, publishing in PNAS, are taking up the challenge. Its all theory at this stage, but they feel, Our findings provide insight into how geckos may function in wet environments and also have significant implications for the development of a synthetic gecko mimic that retains adhesion in water. A press release from the university described how they harnessed geckos to tease out the secrets of their clingy wet feet. 01/27/20

14 Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies Dragonfly copter: Festo, the company that developed the SmartBird flying robot that resembles a seagull (see 3/28/11), now has a robotic four-wing helicopter called the Bionic Opter that resembles a dragonfly (see press release with video clip). Its lightweight, highly integrated, and has 13 degrees of freedom for complex flight maneuvers. Substantially larger than the insect, it is operated by a wireless remote control. Festo claims it has mastered the highly complex flight characteristics of the dragonfly, but theirs cannot yet lay eggs and hatch babies. Just like its model in nature, this ultralight flying object can fly in all directions, hover in mid-air and glide without beating

01/27/20 15 its wings. Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies Speaking of dragonflies, they are becoming popular subjects for wildlife watchers, Live Science says. A blog post from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servic e described how these insects (neither dragons nor flies) are garnering a swelling fan base You might call dragonflies the stunt pilors [sic] of the insect world. They wear flashy colors, dart at speeds of up to 30 miles per hour, boast ancestors that predate 01/27/20

16 dinosaurs and they even mate in mid-air. Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies Dragonflies are harmless to humans and are also conveniently active in the daytime, making them attractive subjects for watching, with their jewel-like wings and bright colors. Dragonfly festivals are popping up across the country and a crop of new field guides are making the rounds around American towns and cities, the blog said. National wildlife refuges, like 4 listed in the blog, are excellent places for viewing them. More interesting facts: dragonflies have almost 360 vision, they keep mosquitoes at bay, and they are

indicators of clean water. 01/27/20 17 Of Hagfish, Geckos and Dragonflies Biomimetic Briefs: From ear to smartphone app ( Medical Xpress); from jellyfish to seafloor mapper ( Live Science); from squid beak to medical implants ( PhysOrg). Whats not to love about the biomimetics revolution? Its turning peoples attention back to the wonderful designs in nature; its promising advances in technology to improve our lives; and its 100% Darwin-free. Turn your kid onto dragonflies. Take a nature walk where they are likely to be

found. Teachable moment: explain to him or her that if something works, it isnt by accident. Numerous technical constraints have to be satisfied for flight. When the flight is superb, as with dragonflies, you know the technical design is even more superb. Then wow the kids with the fact that 01/27/20 18 some fossil dragonflies had wingspans over two feet! Gloria Deo 01/27/20 19 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System

Planetary origin theories come across as popular and charismatic, till some little moon pops off and says, Yoohoo! Remember me? Io, Io; Its Not So Long Ago Jupiters volcanic moon Io is a pain in the astronomical dating game. Imagine if similar-sized Earths moon were carrying on like that; it would be a fireworks show every night, keeping scientists awake wondering how it stays active. Planetary modelers have had a hard time figuring out Ios heat source (and how long it could last) since Voyager revealed the eruptions in 1979; and no, tidal flexing is not sufficient. Now, some NASA and ESA scientists say the volcanoes are all wrong the volcanoes are in the wrong places from where models say they should be.

01/27/20 20 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System A press release from NASA Goddard opens with a dramatic image from the New Horizons flyby in 2007, showing a huge plume at Ios north pole in action. If the tidal flexing models worked, the expected volcanic action should be 30 to 60 degrees east of where it actually is. We found a systematic eastward offset between observed and predicted volcano locations that cant be reconciled with any existing solid body tidal heating models, Christopher Hamilton (U of Maryland) said.

01/27/20 21 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Possibilities to explain the offset include a faster than expected rotation for Io, an interior structure that permits magma to travel significant distances from where the most heating occurs to the points where it is able erupt on the surface, or a missing component in existing tidal heating models, like fluid tides from an underground magma ocean, according to the team.

01/27/20 22 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Each of those possibilities seems a stretch, except for the admission something might be missing in their models. Another possibility is that their starting assumptions are wrong. None of the discussion dealt with how this heating could persist for 4.5 billion years a time period so long, Io would have disgorged its entire mass 40 times over by now (CEH 09/27/2002, Science), in addition to losing mass to a torus around Jupiter at the rate of a ton a secondthat would amount to 145 quadrillion tons over 4.5 billion years. And if Io has a magma ocean and magnetic field, as the article

said scientists are tending to believe, keeping that ocean liquified for billions of years is another serious 01/27/20 23 issue. Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System The article tried to distract attention from these problems by briefly titillating onlookers with thoughts of life at Europa or Enceladus. But when pressed, the scientists tried another tack: pride in ignorance: The unexpected eastward offset of the volcano locations is a clue that something is missing in our understanding of Io, says Hamilton. In a way, thats

our most important result. Our understanding of tidal heat production and its relationship to surface volcanism is incomplete. The interpretation for why we have the offset and other statistical patterns we observed is open, but I think weve enabled a lot of new questions, which is good. 01/27/20 24 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Readers who had faith in scientific understanding may be taken aback by this statement. Here, after over 30 years of knowledge of Ios volcanism, and centuries of understanding about planetary motion

and the behavior of heat, more questions have emerged than answers. Live Science discussed this mystery with its surprising conclusions that the Volcanoes on Jupiters Moon Io Are All Wrong. Correction: the volcanoes are what they are. Its only the scientific interpretation that could possibly be all wrong. Much of the mystery is resolved instantly if Io is not that old. 01/27/20 25 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Deep trouble at Enceladus Another embarrassing erupter is Saturns little moon Enceladus. It has one thousandth the mass of Io and is subject to far less tidal friction. Universe Today leaked something that

was revealed at the Lunar and Planetary Science conference in Houston last month. It appears that the salty water jets blasting out of the moons south pole reach all the way to an interior ocean. Scientists think that the ocean lies under 10 kilometers of ice. 01/27/20 26 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Where the jets are getting their supply of liquid water has been a question scientists have puzzled over for years. Is friction caused

by tidal stresses heating the insides of the stripes, which melts the ice and shoots it upwards? Or do the fissures actually extend all the way down through Enceladus crust to a subsurface ocean of liquid water, and through tidal pressure pull vapor and ice up to the surface? Researchers are now confident that the latter 01/27/20 27 is the case. Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System No longer can researchers assume, therefore, that the

eruptions are a near-surface phenomenon. The heat source reaches deep into the moon, implying melting on a vaster scale that requires even more heat. In a presentation at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference titled How the Jets, Heat and Tidal Stresses across the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus Are Related (see the PDF here) Cassini scientists note that the amount of heating due to tidal stress seen along Enceladus tiger stripes isnt nearly enough to cause the full spectrum of heating observed, and the hot spots that have been seen dont correlate with the type of heating caused by shear friction. 01/27/20 28 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System

The heat must be carried upwards along with the pressurized water vapor from the subsurface sea, warming the areas around individual vents as well as serving to keep their channels open. You dont say. How long has that been going on? They didnt say. 01/27/20 29 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System

Color Divination Keeps the Faith Meanwhile, other planetary scientists found a new story line to keep the Saturn system old. A JPL press release turned public attention to a homey analogy. Saturn Is Like an Antiques Shop, Cassini Suggests; Moons and Rings Date Back to Solar Systems Birth. Perhaps so, if that birth were recent; but no, they mean billions of years. Apparently they dont want to devalue 01/27/20 30 their antiques. Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Gianrico Filacchione from Italy did some divination with colors on the rings and moons and concluded that the

Saturn system is old. One myth can lead to another. Since the little F-ring shepherd moon Prometheus has a similar color to the rings, Bonnie Buratti added to the story. Scientists had been wondering whether ring particles could have stuck together to form moons since the dominant theory was that the rings basically came from satellites being broken up, she said, preparing the reader for a dramatic turnaround. The coloring gives us some solid proof that it can work the other way around, too. Solid proof has a nice-sounding ring of certainty to it. If it can work the other way around, why, then, it must have. 01/27/20 31 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System

The press release conveniently left out any discussion of how long the Enceladus eruption affair has been going on. The handlers of these aberrant moons know their job: mitigate the bad news by controlling the focus of attention. 01/27/20 32 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System Divination, distraction, domination. Thats how the scientific guild maintains its grab on public trust. Divination: One cannot look at color and come up with an age. The article even said that the deposits from the geyser spray and dust

from asteroids is only skin deep. Does that sound like its been going on for billions of years? Distraction: Lets not talk about the age of these things; lets talk about life! If theres water going out of this moon, maybe it produced the ingredients for life or could support life. Domination: Just state the party line boldly and repeatedly. That should be enough to keep the peasants from doubting the experts understanding of how things came to be. After all, theyre scientists the knowers of the culture. It would be very upsetting for the knowers not to know. 01/27/20 33 Bimbo Eruptions in the Solar System

Note to secularists: Our criticisms here are not with the observational data. We love observational data; more power to the champion observers and data collectors of the Cassini team. The criticisms are directed at interpretations that violate the evidence: interpretations that insist on billions of years of undirected natural processes producing planets, life, and human brains possessing the audacity to imagine their own undesigned brains being capable of assessing true knowledge. 01/27/20 34 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 35 Laughing Matters Why is it that scientists need to investigate the evolutionary origins of anything humans do? An article on PhysOrg, The Origins of Laughter, begins, We know the benefits of laughter on health. But why do we laugh? What are the evolutionary origins of laughter and humour? Steven Lgar has asked these

questions and has made them the subject of his masters thesis, which he recently submitted to the Universit de Montrals Department of Anthropology. Science provides few answers to these questions other than in psychology and neuroscience. From the perspective of anthropology, laughter and humour are often overlooked. However, it is a serious subject, says the recent graduate. 01/27/20 36 Laughing Matters Before chuckling at the idea of laughter as a serious subject, lets see what Steve came up with. Its not enough to say, laughter and humour exist in all cultures and times. Nor is it enough to describe the different kinds of laughter, or say, sense of humour

varies considerably from one individual to another. Whats Darwin got to do with it? 01/27/20 37 Laughing Matters What then is the primary function of laughter and humour? Communication principally, says Lgar. But it was not until the evolution of language that verbal humour could be involved in the process of socialization. Such humour is impossible if we have little mastery of language. 01/27/20

38 Laughing Matters Steve is still not there. If language was designed, humor has a function and makes sense. How could language or humor arise by unguided natural processes? To distinguish the origin of laughter from intelligent design, Steve needs to describe its origin by natural selection without reference to purpose or function. 01/27/20 39 Laughing Matters

The article is accompanied by a photo of a capuchin monkey appearing to make a laughing face. As in case of the vocalizations of apes in response to tickling, the primary function of laughter was to communicate an intention to play or indicate a desire to continue play in progress. The evolution of laughter and humour was marked by three distinct adaptations: acquisition of a theory of mind; language evolution; and recognition of incongruities 01/27/20 40 in symbolic representations. Laughing Matters

As if by magic, we suddenly see three distinct adaptations. Where did they come from? Theory of mind refers to the ability to ascribe intentions to another. If monkeys can do that, why do we have to believe they got it by evolution? Maybe they were designed to do that. Language evolution is a classic case of question begging. One cannot answer the question, How did language evolve? by saying, By language evolution. And symbolic representation is a distinctly human quality. Steves answer is filled with intention, function and communication that are hallmarks of design, 01/27/20 41 not evolution. Laughing Matters

To reach this conclusion, the researcher analyzed five evolutionary theories about laughter and humour: social manipulation, socialization, sexual selection, honest signalling, and emotional contagion. The researcher extracted predictions he then compared to empirical work from various disciplines, including ethnology, psychology, and neurobiology. 01/27/20 42 Laughing Matters In conclusion, he proposed an evolutionary

scenario that reconciles the various theories discussed. In the 3,000 publications listed in a recent bibliographic guide on the psychology of laughter and humour, the words Darwin and evolution appear only four and two times, respectively, while the concept of natural selection is completely absent, says Lgar. The transcultural recurrence of laughter and humour and the facial expressions with which they are associated nevertheless suggest a certain genetic determination. 01/27/20 43 Laughing Matters

All of the highlighted words above imply intelligent design: analyzing, comparing, concluding, proposing, suggesting. They refer to immaterial things like theories, concepts and disciplines. By his own admission, the 3,000 publications he searched for the origin of laughter did not use natural selection at all. Should he not have concluded that laughter emerged by a nonDarwinian process? The article detoured into two types of laughter, and suggested they had different evolutionary histories. That doubles the problem for Steve. 01/27/20 44 Laughing Matters

In the end, his research into the origin of laughter devolved into a mere opinion: In his opinion, it is likely that the capacity for humour was influenced by the effect of sexual selection. As such, the expression of humour functioned during human evolution as an indicator of fitness. Once developed, verbal humour gradually gained in sophistication and complexity, which illustrates its remarkable cultural variability today. 01/27/20 45

Laughing Matters Steve did not explain how likely his opinion was, how humor developed, or to what extent sexual selection influenced laughter. Did Neanderthal men tell dumb blonde jokes in the cave? Did Homo erectus women laugh at the mens dangling participles? How, exactly, did this indicate fitness? Was it by the other sexs ability to take a joke? Its not known whether the thesis advisor wrote A or LOL on Steves paper. 01/27/20 46

Laughing Matters You have to admit that evolutionists are funny. Read our evolutionary humor page and see if you evolve more sophistication and complexity. We intelligently designed it to do that. 01/27/20 47 Laughing Matters For more funnies in evolutionary anthropology,

see 9/08/12, Evolution Funnies; 7/08/12, Eats Shoots and Leaves; and 6/10/12, Myth Busters: Flubs in Evolutionary Anthropology. For more on the evolution of laughter, see 6/08/09 Tickle Me Darwin;5/02/06, The Evolution of Slapstick; and 11/22/05, On the Origin of Hee-Hees by Natural Selection. The Dream Dream Dream song at the end of the 1/30/13 entry makes a nice encore to this story. 01/27/20 48 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 49 The Hunt for Selection in the Genes One might think that 154 years after Darwins book about it, natural selection would be empirically obvious. The journal Nature went on a search for it in DNA. Nature s piece, Evolutionary Genomics: Detecting Selectio n

begins with hopes and worries: Advances in population genetics and genome sequencing have made it possible to identify anonymous fragments of DNA that have undergone selection. This yields some evolutionary answers, 01/27/20 50 and a panoply of puzzles. The Hunt for Selection in the Genes Two things must be clarified before detecting natural selection. One is that artificial selection has nothing to do with it. Artificial selection is intelligently designed for a purpose; natural selection, by contrast, is unguided and purposeless. Even survival fails as a purpose; its only a consequence of selection, not a goal of selection. The

other is that natural selection is more than variation. To differentiate itself from creationism, natural selection has to overcome small changes within a population that creationists willingly acknowledge help an organism adapt. Evolutionists need to demonstrate innovation, an undirected change providing new functional information. A mutation that produces more of the same effects, like a change in enzyme production, does not qualify. 01/27/20 51 The Hunt for Selection in the Genes With that in mind, what did the Nature article find in its selection hunt? The authors acknowledged the awesome power of artificial selection directed by the mind of man, such as in dog breeding, but claimed that dogs and humans have been

partners in natural selection for 10,000 years in a case of parallel evolution. They praised a recent paper in population genetics that promises to revolutionize evolutionary biology, by challenging us to detect traits affected by evolution on the basis of genotype rather than an organisms characteristics, or phenotype. Then they praised two other papers that rise to this challenge and show how hypotheses about an adaptive human genotype can be tested in controlled experiments. Sounds impressive. But is this something new? Whats gone on in the past 154 years of research on natural selection? It must not have been very 01/27/20 52 revolutionary. The Hunt for Selection in the Genes Together, the three papers are a wonderful intersection between

genomics, population science and experimental genetics a synergy that has tremendous potential for teaching us more about how and why organisms evolve. 01/27/20 53 The Hunt for Selection in the Genes Unfortunately, the evidence cited in the first paper concerns genetic changes found between wolves and domestic dogs. Even the staunchest creationists put those two animals within the same created kind. The genetic changes, moreover, were in the more of the same category enhanced ability to digest starch,

presumably from crumbs dropped from the dog owners tables. Nevertheless, the authors were ecstatic that dogs and humans both produce more starch-digesting enzymes: the same molecular mechanism has acted on similar genes in different species exposed to the same dietary pressure a striking example of parallel evolution. 01/27/20 54 The Hunt for Selection in the Genes The other two papers merely found evidence of selective sweeps without tying the changes to phenotypic change. Even when causal relationships seem obvious, caution is warranted, the authors warned, noting a case with ambiguous results. Is detection of natural selection in human populations

even possible? Classical genetic studies are the optimal way to establish causal relationships, but in many cases these are impossible because the appropriate populations do not exist. The third paper invented a model organism to tease out evidence of natural selection. Its researchers concluded that a mutation in East Asians produces thicker hair and more sweat glands; they verified that effect in mice (see 2/19/13, last section). But thats another example of more of the same variation; people already had sweat glands and hair, and so did mice. 01/27/20 55 The Hunt for Selection in the Genes

Remarkably, this article, poised to showcase the power of natural selection, ended with ignorance: Kamberov and colleagues study is an exceptional example of experimental genetics, but does it provide, as the authors suggest, a general framework for assessing candidate adaptive mutations? Genetically altered mice are a powerful experimental tool, but the extent to which recent positive selection in humans acts on pathways and amino-acid residues that have been conserved across mammalian evolution is uncertain. More importantly, it is often not clear how to investigate positively selected genomic regions for which the target gene, let alone its action, is unknown. And so a major challenge for population genomics remains the construction of meaningful null hypotheses. As Charles Darwin, the best known evolutionary biologist, once said, It is always advisable to perceive clearly our ignorance. 01/27/20 56

The Hunt for Selection in the Genes So even though the paper they praised was an exceptional example of looking for natural selection, the authors of this article worried its conclusions are uncertain. Worse, (more importantly), its not even clear how to look for selection in genomic regions where the action is unknown. How does a researcher compare the findings with a null hypothesis a baseline hypothesis that posits no effect from the cause-when meaningful null hypotheses are lacking? 01/27/20 57

The Hunt for Selection in the Genes Thats why the summary of this triumphantly-titled article spoke of some evolutionary answers, and a panoply of puzzles. Even the answers, though, wouldnt impress a creationist: no clear evidence of positive selection toward new functional information was presented. One can only hope the authors of all these papers are following Darwins advice to perceive clearly their ignorance. 01/27/20 58

The Hunt for Selection in the Genes And they call creationists ignoramuses. OK, show us, Darwinites. Darwin believed people have bacteria ancestors. All the advances beyond bacteria for every species on earthbe they wings, eyes, or brainsare supposed to be the result of natural selection. Yet here it is, 154 years after the Origin, and evolutionists still cannot show any example in the genes bigger than starch digestion in dogs, or thicker hair and more sweat glands in certain humans (all interfertile members of the same species, Homo sapiens). The authors admit the studies are unclear. Its appalling that the sole theory allowed to be presented in public school science classes is ignorant, not only of examples, but of ways to test them. What hath evolutionary theory wrought? A panoply of puzzles! Schools are teaching 01/27/20

59 ignorance! The Hunt for Selection in the Genes If evolutionists do not perceive clearly their ignorance, those of us who do perceive it need to hold it up to their faces. We can quote Darwin for support: It is always advisable to perceive clearly [y]our ignorance. 01/27/20 60 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 61 Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology

Fudging and finagling often underlie the confident-sounding claims of cosmologists. Finagles Rules prescribe ways to ameliorate Murphys Law in science. They are needed because, according to Finagle, The perversity of the Universe tends towards a maximum. Here are the rules: 1. To study a subject, understand it thoroughly before you start. 2. Always keep a record of data it indicates that you have been working. 3. Draw your curves first, then plot your data. 4. If in doubt, make it sound convincing. 5. Experiments should be reproducible they should fail in the same way. 01/27/20 62 6. Do not believe in miracles, rely on them. Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology

The case of the impossible star: A Methuselah star older than the universe was reported on That, of course, is impossible, so what did astronomers do? In order to keep current theory intact, they worked the puzzle from both ends. They increased the age of the universe, and worked to decrease the estimated age of the star from 16 billion years down to a more reasonable level, by altering theory to let it burn faster. But the new estimate is still paradoxical, because the star has to be significantly younger than the big bang to allow time for gas to condense into galaxies. In the end, the astronomers estimated that HD 140283 was born 14.5 billion years ago, plus or minus 800 million years, the article ends. Further observations could help bring the Methuselah stars age down even further, making it unequivocally younger than the universe, researchers said. Is that further observations, or 01/27/20 63 further finagling?

Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology The case of the unwelcome supernova: Type-Ia supernovas are the standard candles of cosmology, critical links for determining distance and age of the universe. An upstart new type of Type-Ia has been found, potentially blurring the calibration. Called Type-Iax, it is 1/100th fainter and less energetic than classical Type-Ia supernovae, Science Daily said, and may account for a third of all Type-Ia supernovae. Couldnt that call into question earlier estimates, making some supernova events look farther away than they were? The article didnt say. What it did say was not particularly encouraging for standard theory. Researchers arent sure what triggers a Type Iax, for one thing. What one astronomer said was even more disconcerting: The closer we look, the more ways we find for stars to explode. Maybe thats why Space.coms headline read, Whoa! Mini-Supernovas Discovered.

01/27/20 64 Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology The case of the anomalous good fit: Most of the science news media gave excited headlines about how a new map of the cosmic background radiation made from Planck Telescope data confirms standard cosmology (Science Now; see Finagle Rule #4). The Planck telescope, three times more sensitive than its predecessor WMAP, backs sudden inflation after the big bang, according to Nature News. They were less excited, and more worried, about the anomaly in the data, the so-called axis of evil. Planck seems to have confirmed the presence of a preferred direction in

space a violation of the so-called Copernican Principle that expects every direction to look the same: 01/27/20 65 Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology The asymmetry defines a preferred direction in space, which is an extremely strange result, says Efstathiou. This rules out some models of inflation, but does not undermine the idea itself, he adds. It does, however, raise tantalizing hints that there may yet be new physics to be discovered in Plancks data. 01/27/20

66 Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology Not only that, Planck found a cold spot that covers a large area. discussed how the new map makes the universe older than thought by about 100 million years, based on its calculated value of the Hubble constant. The new truth to be told in textbooks is 13.82 billion years, not 13.7, meaning that space and time are expanding slightly slower than scientists thought. The phrase than thought appears again in New Scientist: The universe is almost perfect, 80 million years older than we thought, and maybe a little bit evil. New Scientist suggested the anomaly might represent a bump from a neighboring universe born from eternal inflation putting a bruise on ours a speculative notion far beyond experimental

confirmation. At best, Efstathiou said, There is less stuff 01/27/20 67 that we dont understand, by a tiny amount. Using Finagles Rules in Cosmology If you dont know how much you dont understand, then you dont know how much you do understand. Suppose you dont understand 99.99% of reality. Improving that to 99.98% (a tiny amount) is hardly cause for rejoicing. A bad sign is when you have to conclude, based on your favored notions, that the stuff of stars and galaxies is perverse or evil. Since gas cannot be evil, the evil must reside in the minds of the theorists who fudge and finagle the data, or invent new physics, to keep their presumably righteous theories intact. When you hear a cosmologist worrying about

an extremely strange result, ask whether it is the evidence, or the astronomer, that deserves the 01/27/20 68 adjective. Gloria Deo 01/27/20 69 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs

A new record for soft tissue in a dinosaur fossil was reported in Nature: collagen in dinosaur eggs from the early Jurassic. The Nature paper is all over the news, but not all the science reporters are mentioning the most damaging admission to long ages: the preservation of organic material in fossil sauropod eggs from China, said to be 190197 million years old from the early Jurassic 100 million years older than the previous record. The Nature paper by Reisz et al. states, This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate. Heres how Chris Palmer 01/27/20 70 reported it in Nature News: Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs

But it is not just the age of the fossils that is notable, the researchers say. Spectroscopic analysis of bone-tissue samples from the Chinese nesting site revealed the oldest organic material ever seen in a terrestrial vertebrate. That was surprising because the fossilized femur bones were delicate and porous, which made them vulnerable to the corrosive effects of weathering and groundwater, says Reisz. That suggests to us that other dinosaur fossils might have organic remains, he says. We just havent looked at them in the right ways. 01/27/20

71 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs The organic material is thought to be collagen. The researchers reported organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins, within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces. They mentioned Schweitzers controversial reports of dinosaur soft tissue and corroborated them by their own methodology: 01/27/20

72 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs The embryonic bones were also studied using synchrotron radiation-Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy. In contrast to previous studies of organic residues based on extracts obtained by decalcifying samples of bone, our approach targeted particular tissues in situ (Fig. 5). This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins, within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces (Fig. 5a, b).

01/27/20 73 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs This is indicated by the multiple amide peaks revealed by both infrared (1,5001,700 cm1 strong band from amide I and II, and 1,2001,300 cm1 weak band from amide III) and Raman spectroscopy (amide A peak at 3,264 cm1) (Supplementary Figs 6.1 and 6.2). Previous reports of preserved dinosaur organic compounds, or dinosaurian soft tissues, have been controversial because it was difficult to rule out bacterial biofilms or some other form of contamination as a possible source of the organics. Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue (Fig.

5a), which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts. 01/27/20 74 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs References in that quote were to Schweitzers 2005 and 2007 papers. The Supplementary Material indicated that mathematical manipulation was necessary to see the amide peaks: The original FT-IR amides peaks from the organic residues of Dawa (Lufeng) embryonic limb bone were convoluted, and provided relatively little detailed information (Fig.5, main document),

showing a big unresolved hump around 1600 cm1. Deconvolution is a mathematically based process to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data. The deconvoluted peaks shown above match well known secondary structures of protein. Thus, it can be concluded that complex proteins were preserved in our specimen. A table after this statement shows that they identified typical secondary structures of protein, such as alpha helices, beta sheets, and side chains i.e., actual protein structures, not just amino acid building blocks of protein. 01/27/20 75 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs

Science Now said the researchers suspect the presence of organic remains, but maintained some caution on the grounds that its hard to rule out contamination. Still, if the evidence holds up, the find could finally tip the scale in favor of soft tissue preservation, the article said. The BBC News and New Scientist didnt mention the organic remains, but Science Daily did, based on a press release from the University of Toronto where Robert Reisz works. He said, To find remnants of proteins in the embryos is really remarkable, particularly since these specimens are over 100 million years older than other fossils containing similar organic material. Live Science briefly mentioned the soft tissue, and added an Image Album about the story. 01/27/20 76 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs

National Geographic completely ignored the soft tissue evidence, but did add this detail: the eggshells were found crushed, and the bones were sorted and concentrated. Reisz presumes they were buried in a flood: It became inundated, the embryos were smothered by sediment and water, and [they] basically rotted and fell apart, he said. The original paper described what the site looked like: completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development with calcium carbonate nodules often surrounding tightly packed appendicular skeletal elements. What does this imply? The paper continues, 01/27/20 77 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs

We interpret the bone bed as a para-autochthonous assemblage, formed by low-energy flooding and slow inundation of a colonial nesting site. The host sediment is a heavily bioturbated, massive siltstone, throughout which are dispersed isolated skeletal elements, eggshell fragments and the small, fossil-rich nodules of calcium carbonate. There are no preserved nest structures or uncrushed eggs. It would seem that vulnerable, porous bones buried underwater in silt subject to bioturbation would have difficulty preserving the dinosaurs protein parts for 197 million years. It would also seem that a low-energy local flood by a riverbank would not leave massive siltstone filled with bone fragments. 01/27/20

78 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs Interesting that the Brits at BBC & New Scientist (as well as NG) ignored the most important part of the story, the soft tissue, as if trying to protect their national hero Charlie from embarrassment. The other articles simply assumed that soft tissue can last almost 200 million years! Why isnt anyone seeing the obvious? Chris Palmer admitted that the eggs were vulnerable to the corrosive effects of weathering and groundwater, making it unbelievable that up to 197 million years passed without obliterating the proteins. Who are you going to believe, evolutionary scientists or your own eyes? 01/27/20

79 Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs Notice also that Reisz suggested soft tissue would likely be found in other dinosaur fossils. Why havent they all been looking? Evolutionary theory often dictates what scientists look for and what they expect to see. Thank goodness Reisz & team made an effort to find the protein signal, even if they didnt dwell on the implications for geological dates. This is a hot topic for creation research. Unfortunately, when they try, they are often severely criticized for (1) poor technique or (2) agenda-driven bias (example to be forthcoming). As if those problems never occur in the secular

01/27/20 80 world. Intact Protein Remnants Found in Dinosaur Eggs Multiple reports now from different parts of the world are making a watertight case for soft tissue in dinosaur bones. Critics of the reports are not necessarily driven by respect for the evidence, but by fear of what it means to evolutionary geology, evolutionary dating and the whole evolution industry. 01/27/20 81

Gloria Deo 01/27/20 82 Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It A professor of science education has a radical idea: teach science through argumentation, because thats the way scientists do it.

If you were bored in science class having to learn a bunch of facts, you might have perked up if your teacher taught it the way Jonathan Osborne recommends: argue a position from available evidence. PhysOrg introduced its article by saying, Teaching students how to argue based on available evidence engages them in the scientific process and provides a better idea of how science actually works. 01/27/20 83 Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It

Earth orbits the sun. Microorganisms cause infectious disease. Plants use carbon dioxide to grow. Most of us know these scientific truths from our earliest school days. Theyre accepted facts. But astronomers, microbiologists and botanists once fought for these concepts using arguments based on evidence. Science, it seems, arrives at its tenets through argument. Science education should follow suit, says Stanford education Professor Jonathan Osborne. Teachers should help students learn to argue a position from available evidence, he says, helping them learn why we know what we know. 01/27/20 84 Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It

In short, Osborne wants students to think about evidence, not just be told conclusions. In science, people argue for their ideas, in terms of the evidence that they have, he said. There should be more opportunities to look at why some ideas are wrong, as well as what the right ideas are. The concept of justification for right ideas is lacking in science education, Osborne believes. His recommendations were published in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 50:3, March 2013. The only hard part is training science teachers to change their ways. The article led to a flurry of argumentation in the comments about what constitutes a legitimate scientific theory. Osborne was mentioned in our 5/21/2012 entry where he promoted

collaborative discourse in the science class. 01/27/20 85 Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It Osbornes ideas are good, but he doesnt go far enough. Indoctrination into a consensus is still possible under his model, if the concepts of evidence and justification are not unpacked. This is another good time to remind readers of the course on Philosophy of Science offered by The Teaching Comp any , where you can see how difficult it is to justify even the simplest of scientific truths. Another worthwhile

course (though flawed when it discusses intelligent design) is Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They K now It 01/27/20 86 . (Reader tip: these go on sale for 70% off from time Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It Its not clear from the article if Osborne understands the problems with peer review and consensus. Does he have a Popperian view of science, or a Kuhnian view? How about the view of Feyerabend, Cartwright, or van Fraasen? Lakatos or Polanyi? What is even meant by science these days, when it covers everything from sociology to string

theory? Students should learn not just to argue evidence, but to argue philosophy of science. They cant study science without knowing what it is. Yes, normal science includes argumentation, but it can also include social pressure. Students need to know that scientific institutions, made up of fallible people who dont know everything, can enforce conformity within popular paradigms, which regulate what questions are important and what is meant by 01/27/20 87 evidence. Students Need to Argue Science, Not Memorize It Dead ideologies can be dangerous. Positivism and scientism still parade through high schools, like zombies, without students realizing theyre dead. Let them learn to beware the

zombie science teachers who say, Scientists now know. 01/27/20 88 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 89 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities

Grammar test: A Science Daily entry tells the upshot in the headline: Young Children Have Grammar and Chimpanzees Dont. Scientists at University of Pennsylvania believe they have shown that children as young as 2 understand basic grammar rules when they first learn to speak and are not simply imitating adults. For instance, children tend to get the definite article the and the indefinite article a correct every time when referring to objects. They also exhibit more extensive diversity of abstract grammatical concepts. Chimpanzees, by contrast, just dont get it. The famous 1970s ape Nim Chimpsky never grasped rules like those in a 2year-olds grammar. To the researchers, This suggests that true language learning is so far a uniquely human trait, and that it is present very early in development. An article on PhysOrg, though, claimed that chimpanzees have metacognition, the ability to think about thinking. This was based on how they responded to a touch screen to find a hidden reward. None of them, however, were found mumbling, I think, therefore I am. 01/27/20 90 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities

Math test: Another headline tells all, this time from Medical Xpress: Despite what you may think, your brain is a mathematical genius. Researchers at the Salk Institute were impressed that the brain appears to run an algorithm called the Gabor Transform when confronting a change of environment. The brain picks out the salient signals in both time and space, and learns to ignore others, in order to extract the maximum amount of useful information. Confronted with precision on the time channel and not the location channel, or vice versa, how does an information theorist decide the best compromise? Nobelist Dennis Gabor, who invented holography in 1971, came up with a mathematical theorem, known as a Gabor Filter that helps obtain the most precise measurements possible for both qualities. A Salk researcher said that our brains employ a similar strategy.

01/27/20 91 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities Music test: Several science sites reported on Canadian research that identified how the brain learns to like (in the Facebook sense) a new piece of music and file it in the favorites folder. A part of the brain called the nucleus accumbens lights up on fMRI scans when tested on various human subjects. Science Now, Live Science and Medical Xpress discussed how this shows that different human brains appear to have the same responses to a new music experience. Another Live Science article

explained how this shows music is a universal language for humans. That article quoted a neuroscientist opining, without evidence, Evolutionarily, music is something people came together to do. None of the articles mentioned if animals have a similar response. 01/27/20 92 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities Your brains janitors: Some things go on in your brain without your knowledge, and good thing: Science Daily described how your brain does spring cleaning. All brains have stem cells lying in wait to be called on, ready to become nerve cells or brain cells whenever and wherever you need them most. To keep them in

readiness, a process in the brain clears out garbage within the cells, and keeps them in their stem-cell state, researchers at University of Michigan Medical School found. Even stem cells can generate waste. Through a well-known process called autophagy (eat myself), stem cells periodically clean house to maintain their readiness. The study was conducted on mice. 01/27/20 93 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities The fly, the mouse, the human: Another article on Medical Xpress claims that human, mouse and fruit fly brains have some strikingly similar characteristics.

Al Hirth, a psychologist at Kings College London deduced this from studies of what happens when analogous parts of the brains are disrupted. A photo of the three brains side by side shows dramatic differences in size, like between a pinhead and a cantelope. The researchers found, despite the major differences between species, their respective constitutions and specifications derive from similar genetic programmes. Hirth believes this shows common ancestry, but he was just speculating: 01/27/20 94 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities

Dr Hirth from Kings College London Institute of Psychiatry says: Flies, crabs, mice, humans: all experience hunger, need sleep and have a preference for a comfortable temperature so we speculated there must be a similar mechanism regulating these behaviours. We were amazed to find just how deep the similarities go, despite the differences in size and appearance of these species and their brains. Dr. Hirth did not, however, find mice or fruit flies doing research to figure out how the human brain works. Furthermore, no fossil remains of the common ancestor exist, the article admitted. 01/27/20 95 Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities

When you see a sentence start with Evolutionarily, prepare for a myth. Evolutionary psychologists and neuroscientists err when they use similarity as evidence for evolution. They fail to consider the evidence for common design. The Creator knew that a fruit fly, a mouse, and a human all need to eat, sleep, and maintain body temperature; thats why they have similar mechanisms. Animals showcase intelligent causes in their origin; humans, uniquely, use their own intelligence to research other animals to try to understand them. We dont see monkeys or mice building functional MRI machines and microscopes for the purpose of research. We dont see chimpanzees using 01/27/20 96

grammar or creating music libraries of favorites. Human and Animal Brains: Uniquenesses and Similarities Theres enough similarity between humans and animals to show a common Creator. Theres enough uniqueness in humans to show we alone are capable of using intelligence for abstract reasoning, the enjoyment of music, the creation of music, reasoning about reality, and thinking about thinking about thinking. These abilities require a tool a brain yet reach beyond the tools into intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual realms. These traits are common to all humans. The simplest explanation for this is that first human pair was endowed with these abilities from the beginning. The simplest account for it is the Genesis account, at which time humans were impressed with the image of God. Is there anything about the scientific articles in this entry that

contradicts that account? No. Are there findings that support it? Think about it, and thereby help establish the point. 01/27/20 97 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 98 Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

A shocking percentage of male anthropologists sexually abuse their female students, a new report says. Science Insider broke the story: Survey Finds Sexual Harassment in Anthropology. Previously afraid to speak up out of fear for their careers, women responded to an anonymous survey that shows sexual abuse, up to and including rape, is rampant by their superiors: 01/27/20 99 Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

Fieldwork is a rite of passage for anthropologists. It gives the initiate firsthand knowledge of a culture, along with a feeling of camaraderie with colleagues, often in remote and rugged locations. But for women there is also a dark side a risk of sexual harassment and rape, according to a survey of fieldwork experiences released today. Anthropologist Kathryn Clancy, who authored the study, found a disturbingly high incidence of physical sexual harassment among respondents: More than 20% of female bioanthropologists who took part said that they had experienced physical sexual harassment or unwanted sexual contact. Most of these victims are female, and most of the perpetrators were colleagues of superior professional status, sometimes the victims own fieldwork 01/27/20 100 mentor. Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

Clancy was stimulated to look into abuse when a traumatized colleague of hers shared her story of having been raped by her mentor but was told to keep quiet for the sake of her career. Clancy provided a place where students could tell their horror stories anonymously. Wanting more rigorous data, she launched an online survey and was shocked: over 20% of 98 women, and 1 of 23 men, reported sexual harassment and unwanted physical contact. The incidents primarily involved fellow field workers, rarely members of the cultures being studied. Two thirds of the women reported 01/27/20 101 unwelcome sexual remarks. Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

The president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists expressed shock and dismay: The president of AAPA, Lorena Madrigal, provided Science with an official statement in reaction to the survey results. I am shocked, angry, disillusioned, and sad about the events these women recount. I just thought this did not happen anymore, and I am still in shock to hear that it does. 01/27/20 102 Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

Clancy has expanded her online survey ( available here) to other disciplines that involve field work. PhysOrg said 19% of respondents had been sexually assaulted; some of them volunteered the information they had been raped. Clancy was outraged that the NSF and NIH provide more safety protocols for lab procedures than they do for the lives and reputations of field workers. 01/27/20 103 Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

Do you see why science requires morality? Imagine senior anthropologists, leading their postdocs to study cultures in distant lands, ostensibly to mentor them into the science of anthropology, only to abuse them and pressure them to keep quiet. Weve heard a lot about abuse by Catholic priests and high school teachers. Maybe abuse by scientists will be the next scandal. 01/27/20 104 Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job Science, like any other human activity, is

mediated by fallen souls. Dont expect scientists to be untainted, especially those who arrogate themselves to speak with authority on complex human behavior (6/10/2012) Group junkets away from scrutiny are a perfect setup for moral turpitude to manifest itself. The NSF throws money at anthropology projects, assuming the scientists will behave themselves. Maybe they should fund a study on the sociology of anthropology, its moral 01/27/20 105 practices and taboos. Anthropologists Abuse Students on the Job

But what are they going to say? Judge rape as wrong? What distinguishes the sexual practices of anthropologists from those of native tribes? If the behavior evolved, its what evolution produced, neither right or wrong. Whats the difference between the antics of a paleoanthropologist in a South African cave with a postdoc, and the sexual promiscuity of the presumed ape-people whose bones he speculates about? The moment the NSF or NIH ascribes moral outrage to sexual abuse on the job, they leave their materialist worldview and point to moral absolutes. Those who presume to speak with unbiased authority of science cannot extricate themselves from the human race. Scientist, analyze thyself. 01/27/20 106 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 107 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Lucy was the darling of the 1980s, but with Australopithecus sediba taking center stage, her fans are not happy. Science gave Lee Berger, Sedis agent ( 4/10/2010), prominent coverage in a special issue on April 12, with six papers about the south African rising star, Australopithecus sediba, that made him famous. In the Introduction piece, though, Berger didnt seem confident about what show it belongs

to: 01/27/20 108 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement This examination of a large number of associated, often complete and undistorted elements gives us a glimpse of a hominin species that appears to be mosaic in its anatomy and that presents a suite of functional complexes that are different from both those predicted for other australopiths and those of early Homo. Such clear insight into the anatomy of an early hominin species will clearly have implications for

interpreting the evolutionary processes that affected the mode and tempo of hominin evolution and the interpretation of the anatomy of less well-preserved species. Whats clearly clear from the glimpse, in other words, is not the interpretation of this fossil, but rather the implications that evolutionists prior interpretations need revision. 01/27/20 109 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Ann Gibbons in a related piece on Science made it clear Berger is trying to take Lucy down. This suggests, as Berger has argued for years, that the South African species may knock the queen of australopithecines, Lucy a member of Au. afarensisoff her longheld perch as the most likely ancestor

of Homo. National Geographic is not happy about this doubt-casting on its cover girl. Brian Switek began with her theme jingle, 01/27/20 110 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Everybody knows Lucy. For nearly four decades, this famous partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, dated to 3.2 million years ago, has been an ambassador for our prehistoric past, and her species has stood as the most likely immediate ancestor of our own genusHomo.

How dare Lee Berger smite the reputation of the reigning superstar: 01/27/20 111 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement But in a spate of new studies, paleoanthropologist Lee Berger, of the University of the Witwatersrand, and a team of collaborators have put forward a controversial claim that another hominin

Australopithecus sedibamight be even closer to the origin of our lineage, possibly bumping Lucy from the critical evolutionary junction she has occupied for so long. This is intolerable. It must not go unchallenged: 01/27/20 112 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Together, the papers on the teeth, jaw, limbs, and spine of Australopithecus sediba highlight the fact that this early human possessed a strange mixture of traits seen in both early australopithecines and Homo. These

findings make the fossils a significant point of contention among those devoted to understanding where and when our genus evolved. 01/27/20 113 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement With sediba possessing features that seem pieced together from Au. africanus and even Homo habilis, hopes for a reconciliation seem grim. This pigeon-toed rising star does not make a better presentation: No other known hominin walked like this, hinting that the way humans walk isnt the

outcome of an ever-improving evolutionary trajectory, but one result out of several possible alternatives that evolved among our ancient relatives. 01/27/20 114 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement NG doesnt seem impressed with Bergers attempted compromise. He thought sedibas feet represented a compromise locomotion of a hominin that had features of the foot that are adaptive for both upright walking and tree climbing. Switek claims there is still an

enduring controversy among all the handlers. 01/27/20 115 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Because of all these varied skeletal clues, Australopithecus sediba is said to possess a mosaic of traits that mix the archaic and the derived. But are the ways that Australopithecus sediba resembles early Homo species true indicators of a close evolutionary relationshipor are they traits that evolved independently in both lineages? Few scientists believe this question has even begun to be settled. Berger himself has

more confidence. 01/27/20 116 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Berger laughs off Lucys handlers for their nostalgia for previous scenarios. His bones are more informative, he contends, than the 1970-era trove with fragmentary and disassociated record of a small number of bits and pieces, many of which have simply been cobbled together into the basket we call early Homo. Thems fightin words. But then, Berger tried to knock out the previous designated replacement. He called Ardi, the Ethiopian

jawbone (10/02/09, 6/22/2010) shockingly bad, in a transparent attempt to bolster the glimpse that sediba gives into the origin of Homo. Switek retorted with a swipe of his own: Most other researchers, however, concur that the Ethiopian jaw is indeed Homo and that the trail of our own genus significantly precedes the Malapa [location of Au. sediba] finds. Berger, not on the bandwagon, is undeterred.117 01/27/20 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Berger doubts that the new papers will convince those who disagree with him, but affirms that across the body, head to toe, sediba has a remarkable number of shared derived characters with definitive members of the

genus Homo, including H. erectus, Neanderthals, and humans, thus underscoring a possible evolutionary connection. Lucy has been waiting in the wings all this time. She never makes a reappearance while Berger, Switek and the other handlers fight it out. John Hawks comes in to offer his confusions, saying little is known of early genus Homo species, and the story could be more complicated, while he cautions the handlers about interpreting more fragmentary human remains found elsewhere. Another agent is simply gobsmacked by it all: 118 01/27/20 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History paleoanthropologist Rick Potts

is uncertain of how Australopithecus sediba might be relevant to the origin of Homo, especially since the earliest Homo fossils are hundreds of thousands of years older, but notes that the combination of features in Australopithecus sediba is astonishing. 01/27/20 119 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement

Under the spell of astonishment, Potts dreams up a Darwinian vision. Au. sediba, he prophesies, represents the highly experimental nature of evolution in the several hundred thousand years around the time of the origin of Homo. Coming out of the trance, he admits he doesnt know whether its the whole picture or the bits and pieces that carry more meaning. We need more debates, he thinks. Switek gives Potts the last word. The hominin is so curious in its totality, Potts says, it might lead to some rethinking of how we classify fossil humans and place them in our evolutionary tree. But then again, it might not. 01/27/20 120 Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement

We hope you enjoyed this rerun of I Love Lucy. Switek was unable to rescue the darling of TV documentaries from the surprise ratings of African Idol. National Geographic had invested so much public capital in Lucy shows after Don Johanson, with his flair for P.R., whisked her anatomy to superstar status. Now, NG is left with the prospect of a bad R.O.I., but Johanson couldnt care less. He laughed his way to the bank years ago. Maybe he is secretly mentoring Berger on how to play the game. Read Potts last line carefully. He said there might be some rethinking of of how we classify fossil humans and place them in our evolutionary tree. 01/27/20 121 Thats a key line.

Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement The bones dont classify or interpret themselves. They are useless without their handlers. The shamans of secular culture decide where they fit into the secular creation myth. Using their tools of divination, they place them into the tree vision Father Charlie sketched in his scriptures. Without help, the unwashed masses might just look at the bones as being nothing more than extinct ape bones. To crystallize the vision in the public mind, the handlers wow them with computer animation, send out superstars like Lucy to be an ambassador for our prehistoric past, and teach them spirituals to memorize. 01/27/20 122

Divorce Spats Between Lucy and Designated Replacement Dry Bones The lemur bone connected to the ape bone, The ape bone connected to the Lucy bone, [alternate

version: Africanus bone] The Lucy [or Africanus] bone connected to the Sediba bone, The Sediba bone connected to the Habilis bone, The Habilis bone connected to the Erectus bone, The Erectus bone connected to the Neanderthal bone, The Neanderthal bone connected to the Sapiens bone, 01/27/20 123 Now hear ye the word of Darwin! Gloria Deo 01/27/20 124

Titans Methane Still Puzzles Scientists The methane in Titans atmosphere should be long gone, and may be disappearing soon, planetologists say. A JPL press release states that the stability of Titans scattered polar lakes suggests that ethane, not methane, is the primary constituent. If so, it means that methane in the atmosphere cannot last much longer. Ethane evaporates slower than methane. In the nearly nine years of observations of Titans surface, the lakes havent changed much. This suggests that

heavier hydrocarbons, end products of dissociation of 01/27/20 125 methane by the solar wind, predominate in the lakes. Titans Methane Still Puzzles Scientists The lakes are also not getting filled quickly, and scientists havent seen more than the occasional outburst of hydrocarbon rain at the moon over the missions eight-plus years in the Saturn system. This indicates that on Titan, the methane that is constantly being lost by breaking down to form ethane and other heavier molecules is not being replaced by fresh methane from the interior. The team suggests that the current load of methane at Titan may have come from some kind of gigantic outburst from the interior eons ago possibly after a

huge impact. They think Titans methane could run out in tens of millions of years. 01/27/20 126 Titans Methane Still Puzzles Scientists The gigantic outburst is purely speculative. There is no evidence Titan has a reservoir of methane in its interior, nor that it could erupt onto the surface. It would seem more reasonable to believe that Titans current methane budget is a remnant of its primordial methane. 01/27/20 127 Titans Methane Still Puzzles Scientists

It should be noted that scientists in the 1990s predicted Cassini-Huygens would find a global ocean of ethane on the surface from half a kilometer to several kilometers deep. If methane photolysis to ethane were occurring continuously for billions of years, it should have accumulated those vast quantities of ethane on the surface. Instead, the Huygens probe landed on relatively dry sand. 01/27/20 128 Titans Methane Still Puzzles Scientists

This is just an update on a story we have been following for years (1/17/02, 4/25/03,10/28/04, 7/24/06, 7/31/08, 12/18/08. 4/09/11, 6/15/12, 12/23/12, 1/18/13). As you can see, the problem for old-Titan believers has not been solved. If anything, it keeps getting worse. (Note: 10 million years would represent less than 1/400th the assumed age of the solar system.) The burden of proof should be on those who believe Titan is billions of years old, because the evidence clearly indicates otherwise. This means everyone should, by default, speak of Titan as a young world. 01/27/20 129 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 130 Wood You Cellulose for Starch? Cellulose is the most abundant biomolecule, but how its made still baffles scientists. Soon, though, you may be able to eat it. Two stories in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) talked about cellulose: one, about how its made, and the other, about we might remake it into food.

01/27/20 131 Wood You Cellulose for Starch? Baffling Molecular Machine The first paper in PNAS is trying to tease out the structure of cellulose synthase (CESA), a complex enzyme that puts together the ingredients into the strong stacks of microfibrils that make wood sturdy and hard to digest. The team of 7 researchers said, A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. The enzyme is composed of over 500 amino acids. Even this paper doesnt have the structure all worked out. Cellulose is natures most abundant renewable biomaterial and

an important resource for production of biofuels that represent alternatives to fossil fuels, the press release said, without revealing the details of how it works. 01/27/20 132 Wood You Cellulose for Starch? A press release from North Carolina State University where one of the researchers works shows it to look like a ring that braids the microfibrils. Lecture notes from the University of Kentucky show the machine climbing a microtubule as it removes the fructose from sucrose, weaving the microfibrils of glucose into a stiff tapestry. Box 1 of a paper from Trends in Plant Science (2012) says that 36 proteins are involved with CESA, adding, many proteins regulate the synthesis of cellulose, either via a direct interaction or indirectly Mutations in any of these genes also lead to reduced cellulose content or crystallinity and cell

expansion defects of roots and hypocotyls. With the structure becoming better known, the enzymes processivity (method of operation) is bound to be interesting. The research team studied CESA within cotton fibers. What cotton-picker or cottonspinner of centuries past would have thought that in his or her hands was a molecular machine that would defy the 01/27/20 133 understanding of 21st century scientists? Wood You Cellulose for Starch? Swords to Plowshares The second paper in PNAS describes a way to convert cellulose into starch. Cellulose, consisting primarily of glucose in chains, has proven indigestible except by bacteria within the stomachs of some herbivores. Cellulose and starch (made of

glucose) have the same basic structure, differing only in the linkages between molecules. Finding a way to turn that abundant biomolecule into food would be valuable to feed a growing world population. A team at Virginia Tech found a way to do it using 5 non-natural enzymes derived from 01/27/20 134 fungi, yeast and plant material. Wood You Cellulose for Starch? The process yielded 30% of amylose, a linear form of starch, with the remainder available for biofuel. Its environmentally friendly, according to Science Daily; it doesnt require heat, chemicals or expensive equipment, and can be upscaled for commercial production. And because the enzymes can be recycled with magnetism, it doesnt generate any waste. The

abstract stated, Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma. Earlier this month, PhysOrg reported on attempts to turn xylan, the worlds second most abundant biomolecule, into biofuels. Its more challenging because of the pentose structure of its sugars gets in the way of extracting the hexose sugars in cellulose that are more easily fermented. The article spoke of this Department of Energy initiative in Biblical terms, likening it 01/27/20 135 to turning swords to plowshares. Wood You Cellulose for Starch? Like the old motivational speech Acres of Diamonds emphasized, people are surrounded by treasures if they just knew

how to find them and use them. Here is more good Darwin-free science that can actually increase our understanding (and wonder) of the natural world, and at the same time, turn that understanding into technologies that can help humanity. 01/27/20 136 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 137 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish

The coelacanth genome has been sequenced. Does it show evidence for evolution? Only to those with a good imagination. The genome was published in Nature this week. Science Now put the problem with coelacanth into perspective: The coelacanth isnt called a living fossil for nothing. The 2-meter-long, 90 kg fish was thought to have gone extinct 70 million years agountil a fisherman caught one in 1938and the animal looks a lot like its fossil ancestors dating back 300 million years. Now, the first

analysis of the coelacanths genome reveals why the fish may have changed so little over the ages. It also may help explain how fish like it moved onto land long ago. 138 01/27/20 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish It may, but then again, it may not. Thats the challenge facing evolutionists. Why hasnt this fish changed under the inexorable power of natural selection for 300 million years? Why hasnt it moved onto land? Why does it still lurk in deep underwater caves, not using those lobed fins for walking? So whats the reason the coelacanth hasnt evolved in

300 million years? Answer: The coelacanth genes changed at a markedly slower rate than those from other animals, Science Now said, without explaining why this fish escaped a natural law of evolution. Must be some new kind of law: 01/27/20 139 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish The slow rate at which the fishs genes change demonstrates that some animals evolve more gradually than others. The coelacanth looks primitive, but looks are difficult

to quantify, whereas DNA sequences are not, Ahlberg says. The fact that their proteins evolve slowly underscores that there is a real phenomenon going on here. A real phenomenon, like creation? Like stasis? Like falsification of evolution? Yes, there is a real phenomenon there. As for how this genome might explain how fish moved onto land, the scientists 01/27/20 140 brought in mighty mouse: Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish The authors located a fragment of DNA within the coelacanths genome that is also found in land

vertebrates but not in fish without lobed fins, such as tuna, tilapia, and sharks. Because researchers cannot study live coelacanths in the laboratory, they inserted the fragment into a mouse embryo in order to learn what it does. The fragment activated a network of genes that forms bones in wrists, ankles, fingers and toes. Although its not yet clear what the DNA fragments function is within coelacanths, the authors suggest that it was key to forming the ends of limbs that helped a fishlike animal crawl out of the water. 01/27/20 141 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish

But the genes are HOX genes, upstream switches that control downstream development. They are not going to switch on a radius, ulna, wrist, or digits if the downstream genes arent there for them. These same HOX genes didnt help the coelacanth develop limbs or crawl out of the water for 300 million years. So where is the purported fishlike animal where it did happen? The researchers dont know what these genes do in coelacanths. If they did nothing, wouldnt selection purge them instead of maintaining them for no good purpose? Its not clear how this experiment helps the 01/27/20 142 evolutionary story. Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish

Chris Woolston, writing for Nature about the genome, quoted one of the researchers (Chris Amemiya) saying, The coelacanth is a cornerstone for our attempt to understand tetrapod evolution. Woolston concurred that coelacanth is a living fossil, but he didnt add anything new to the evolutionary tale, except to debunk an old one: Ending one long-standing argument, analysis of the coelacanth genome clearly shows that it is not the closest living fishy relative to tetrapods, Amemiya says: that honour belongs to the lungfish. However, he adds, the lungfish genome is unlikely to be sequenced any time soon because it is much larger 01/27/20 143 and more complicated than that of the coelacanth.

Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish How that helps the evolutionary story is also unclear: a more complicated, larger genome is ancestral to tetrapod genes? Why would that be? Woolston described how slow the genome evolution has been between two separated populations of the fish: Scientists already had hints of the coelacanths sluggish evolution. In a 2012 study, researchers in Japan and Tanzania compared the DNA of the African and Indonesian coelacanths. Specifically, they looked at HOX genes, which help to guide embryonic development. Even though the two species separated, by one estimate, perhaps 6 million years ago, their genes are remarkably similar. For these particular

genes, the difference between the two species of coelacanth was about 11 times smaller than that between the HOX genes of humans and chimps, two species that 01/27/20 parted ways perhaps 6 million to 8 million years ago. 144 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish The paper says they are 99.73% similar. To explain this non-evolution, one of the researchers offered this idea: It is impossible to say for sure, but the slow rate of coelacanth evolution could be due to a lack of natural-selection pressure, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh said. Natural selection is not really a pressure, though. Its only like a bumper in a pinball game, not one of the paddles operated by the mind of the player. Woolston said that transposable

elements, a form of non-coding DNA, have moved around, but Amemiya quickly added that their role in evolution is speculative and its significance is not clear. 01/27/20 145 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish So even though the genome paper said that coelacanth DNA is a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution, very little evidence supporting tetrapod evolution was offered. The slowly evolving coelacanth was a major subsection of the paper. Their last sentence provided only wishful thinking: Further study of

these changes between tetrapods and the coelacanth may provide important insights into how a complex organism like a vertebrate can markedly change its way of life. 01/27/20 146 Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish That was the 7th use of may in the paper, along with 5 instances of suggest. Evidence for positive selection was also put off into the future: A closer examination of gene families that show either unusually high or low levels of directional selection indicative of adaptation in the

coelacanth may provide information on which selective pressures acted, and which pressures did not act, to shape this evolutionary relict. By evolutionary relict, they really mean something that didnt evolve for 01/27/20 147 300 million years. Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish Nevertheless, the news media jumped onto the meme that the coelacanth genome might provide insight into evolution. The BBC News said, The work also shed light on how the fish was related to the first land-based animals (but it wasnt related, the researchers had

admitted). PhysOrg had a clever way to spin-doctor the anti-evolutionary evidence: it said the genome provided Unexpected insights from a fish with a 300-million-yearold fossil record. National Geographic focused on the notion that this fish evolved more slowly than other animals. Live Science used the power of suggestion in its headline, Fish DNA Makes Limbs Sprout in Mice, even though the HOX genes studied are far upstream of limb formation and have nothing to do with arm bones, wrists 01/27/20 148 and fingers in a fish. Coelacanth: Making the Most of an Unevolved Fish None of the media recognized that the evidence contradicts evolutionary theory, even though the coelacanth, with its lobed fins, had been promoted as Exhibit A for

evolution by Darwinists before one was found swimming in the Atlantic in 1938. If lies and misdirection were physical crimes, evolutionists would be convicted of terrorist bombings. 01/27/20 149 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 150

Whats New in the Primordial Soup? The bubbling froth percolates with ideas about how life emerged, each new notion trying to outdo the last in vacuity. Feel the power: Wham! goes the meteorite. From this, we are told by Science Daily, life got a helping hand to spring out of lifeless rock. While it is generally accepted that some important ingredients for life came from meteorites bombarding the early Earth, scientists have not been able to explain how that inanimate rock transformed into the building blocks of life, reads the teasing caption, leading us to the University of Leeds, where the power behind the primordial soup has been discovered, according to 01/27/20

151 the headline. Whats New in the Primordial Soup? With bated breath, readers learn that a chemical, similar to one now found in all living cells and vital for generating the energy that makes something alive, (i.e., phosphorus) could have been created when meteorites containing phosphorus minerals landed in hot, acidic pools of liquids around volcanoes, which were likely to have been common across the early Earth. That alleviates The mystery of how living organisms sprung out of lifeless rock [that] has long puzzled scientists. Life surely would have taken that phosphorus to make ATP, right? 01/27/20

152 Whats New in the Primordial Soup? Replace the fantasy with a bigger one: Evolutionists have this yearning for a universal tree of life that would unite all organisms in a Darwinian banner, Live Science explains, but we may need to abandon that fantasy for a time before Darwinism when multiple organisms emerged, giving birth to life in a collective state. Sounds politically correct for the far left, but we dont know the political leanings of the ideas advocate, Professor Nigel Goldenfeld (U of Illinois). I like to think of early life as being more like an undifferentiated slime mold, Goldenfeld said. Such a communal form of life would have no meaningful family tree, because it is the community that varies in descent, not individual organismal lineages. If the probability for a chance emergence of one viable cell is astronomically small, Goldenfeld did not explain

01/27/20 153 how to get many separate ones all sharing together. Whats New in the Primordial Soup? What is it? Before finding how life emerged, evolutionists need to know what it is. Its hard to define, said. Astrobiologist Chris McKay doesnt worry about definitions; anything made of complex, organic molecules interests him. Like ricin? tailpipe soot? 01/27/20 154 Whats New in the Primordial Soup?

The search for what is it: The new UK Centre for Astrobiology launched this month, asking Is there life out there? Already 40,000 students are excited about this new initiative, the BBC News says. As is typical, the article points to Earth life and its tenacity for surviving extreme environments as evidence for life out there, but since no extraterrestrial life has been found, astrobiologists have to consider a negative answer. The discovery of many lifeless planets across the Universe, the discovery that the Earth might be unique as a place for life, would be an astonishing discovery in itself, said professor Charles Cockrell. It would be a very lonely discovery, but it would be an astonishing discovery. Clearly he was not speaking for the many theists, who expect an afterlife with their Maker and the redeemed to be anything but lonely. 01/27/20

155 Whats New in the Primordial Soup? Life older than Earth: Taking Moores Law from transistors to genes and doing the math, two geneticists decided that life is older than the Earth, according to Live Science. This, of course, implies panspermia brought life to our planet, displacing the problem of lifes origin even further from empirical study. One of them is 99% sure its true that life did not start on Earth but reserves that 1% to prove him wrong. 01/27/20

156 Whats New in the Primordial Soup? Hope in the dead salty soup: A photo of the salty Dead Sea adorns a story in Science Daily about a Florida astrobiologist who blabs that 10 amino acids could have folded into protein-like structures in a high salt environment. See picture of the Blaber on PhysOrg. His notion, however, contradicts the RNA World hypothesis popular among other astrobiologists. The headline brags, How Life May Have First Emerged On Earth. 01/27/20 157

Whats New in the Primordial Soup? Bleached Martians: Hopes for life on Mars have been pretty much bleached by the discovery of pesky perchlorates all over the surface, from the poles to Gale Crater where rover Curiosity now rolls (see Science Magazine article by Richard Kerr). New Scientist quoted the rover chief saying, The odds of rolling up to a rock on Mars and finding organics are vanishingly small, but were still going to try. Your tax dollars at work. 01/27/20 158 Whats New in the Primordial Soup?

Astrobiological enthusiasm is rising with the news that Kepler found several more Earth-like planets around other stars (see BBC News). But another consideration is the number of factors that must be satisfied for life, as explained in the documentary The Privileged Planet. Could those come together by chance? Science Daily took a closer look at one curious example of fine-tuning: the requirements for carbon and oxygen. Now a team of physicists, including one from North Carolina State University, is looking at the conditions necessary to the formation of those two elements in the universe, the article began. Theyve found that when it comes to supporting life, the universe leaves very little margin for error. They found that more than a 2 or 3 percent change in the light quark mass would lead to problems with the abundance of either carbon or oxygen in the universe.159 01/27/20

Whats New in the Primordial Soup? have, may have, and possibly is a must. The government is an equal-opportunity employer that does not discriminate on the basis of ev Astrobiology (n.): government welfare for storytellers. Requirements: know some scientific jargon and possess the ability to look busy. Mastery of the words emerged, could have, might have, may have, and possibly is a must. The government is an equalopportunity employer that does not discriminate on the basis of evidence, observation, or logic. Darwin card accepted; applicants may sign up for one, but absence of a current Darwin card may trigger a background check. Prior possession of intelligent design beliefs is grounds for expulsion. This rule is enforced in order to foster the culture of storytelling astrobiologists have come to expect.

01/27/20 160 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 161 Biomimetics Roundup Heres a quick rundown of news on new technologies emerging from the study of plants, animals, and cells. Toxin sponges: PhysOrg reported on biomimetic nanospongers made of absorbent

material wrapped in red blood cell membranes that can drift in the bloodstream as decoys to absorb bacterial toxins and snake venom. Instead of poking holes in live blood cells, the toxins poke them into the sponges harmlessly, which are then eliminated by the liver. 01/27/20 162 Biomimetics Roundup Nano-cellulose: Promising one of the most important potential agricultural transformations ever, a researcher has engineered algae to manufacture nano-cellulose, a

wonder material can become the raw material for sustainable production of biofuels and many other products. While producing the nanocellulose, the algae mop carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. See PhysOrg. Nano-fabrication: Need to form precise shapes on graphene at billionths of a meter? Use DNA as a template, reported PhysOrg on efforts at MIT to perfect the technology. It might be used to fashion nano-circuits such as electronic chips made of graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with unique electronic properties. 01/27/20 163 Biomimetics Roundup From parasite to patch: A surgical patch more

effective than sutures or staples has been developed by inspiration from a parasite, reported Science Now. By mimicking a technique used by an intestinal parasite of fish, namely a spiny-headed worm that embeds itself into the fishs intestine, researchers created a flexible patch studded with microneedles that holds skin grafts in place more strongly than surgical staples do. Its 3 times stronger than surgical staples, PhysOrg 01/27/20 164 said. Biomimetics Roundup No hit; new use for road apples: Believe it or not, scientists have found a useful

enzyme in horse feces that might help world biofuel production. Science Daily said that a horse pile houses a fungus that can convert cellulose to sugars, promising a potential treasure trove of enzymes for solving this problem and reducing the cost of biofuels. Who would a thunk as they heard that plunk. 01/27/20 165 Biomimetics Roundup Bat wing and a pinch of inspiration: Inventor of a robotic bat wing said it all: Bats are just really amazing, spectacular flyers, Joseph Bahlman

said for Live Science. Their wings are extremely dynamic, so much more dynamic than birds or insects. If you look at the wings of a bat, theyre just like our hands, they have all these joints that let their wings adapt into lots of different shapes, giving them a tremendous range of aerodynamic forces and maneuverabilities. They fly much better than anything weve engineered. I would love to figure out how that works and then duplicate it. 01/27/20 166 Biomimetics Roundup

Where you bean, amigo: Efforts to control pesky bedbugs have been largely unsuccessful, frustrating many a homeowner and hotel client. Now, scientists are building synthetic traps inspired by an age-old remedy formerly used in Bulgaria and Serbia where kidney-bean leaves were strewn on the floor next to beds to trap the bugs. Thats right; bean leaves successfully trap the critters, reported Nature, Live Science and the BBC News. Tiny hairs impale the bugs feet, leaving them helpless to die. The synthetic versions dont work as well yet, but scientists have their inspiration for a pesticide-free solution. Plants exhibit extraordinary abilities to entrap insects, a researcher said. Nature is a hard act to follow, said another. The only mention of evolution, in the bean-leaf bedbug story, was not particularly helpful to Darwinism: There is absolutely no evolutionary history between bean plants and bedbugs, so this entrapment effect on bedbugs specifically is purely coincidental. 01/27/20 167

Biomimetics Roundup These are all new biomimetics ventures, not previously reported, indicating that the field continues to grow and branch out into more and more areas. These Darwin-free projects are bringing science back to its old design-theoretic, peoplesympathetic roots. Take Joseph Bahlmans attitude (bat wing story) and run with it. 01/27/20 168 Gloria Deo

01/27/20 169 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories When you see a science headline in the form How the . got its . prepare for a laugh. Now, even some evolutionists are laughing. How the Daffodil Got Its Trumpet: Thats the literal headline on Science Daily. Answer: its not a modified petal, as previously thought. (Since it looks like a petal, its easy to see

why this was believed for so long.) Instead, the daffodil took a stamen, the male pollenproducing organ, and twisted it into a trumpet. 01/27/20 170 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How the Rhinoceros Beetle Got Its Horns: Kipling could hardly be more creative than the plot told by Live Science. Since it was found that the horns dont interfere with the bugs flight, the bugs were free to develop their horns into elaborate ornaments to attract mates. Because the horns dont impair the beetles ability to fly, they might be unconstrained by natural selection, a grad student at U of Montana

said, working on his storytelling skills, armed with the creative powers of Darwins stuff happens law (9/15/2008). Heres his youthful attempt: the beetle said, Mate with me! Im so healthy I can support a totally useless appendage! 01/27/20 171 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How the Hippie Used Flower Power: Helen Pilcher wove an elaborate tale on New Scientist trying to explain How flower power paved the way for our evolution. The upshot: flowering plants attracted bugs. Bugs attracted hominids, inspiring them to develop hands for swatting them, teeth for munching

them, and binocular vision for seeing them. The primates evolved grabbing hands and feet, and digits with nails and sensitive pads that helped them to move around these fine branches and manipulate the food there. Did they evolve those things on purpose? 01/27/20 172 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How One Insect Got Its Wings: Switch on a fruit fly gene, get a wing. Its simple, according to Science Daily. The events could be responsible for this big

event in evolutionary history, when the insect got its wing. This must be the truth. Switch off that gene, and the fly doesnt get a wing. Does that mean its no longer a fly? 01/27/20 173 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How the Tarsier Got Its Bulging Eyes: The better to see you with, my darling. Those bulging eyes shed light on evolution of human vision, according to PhysOrg. This just-so story replaces an earlier prevailing view about the origin of tricolor visionthe notion that it evolved only after

they started getting up with the sun, a shift that gave rise to anthropoid (higher) primates, which, in turn, gave rise to the human lineage. But isnt it odd that tarsiers, which are only active at night, have such good daytime-adapted color vision? Thus the new story: These contradictory lines of evidence led the authors to suggest that early tarsiers were instead adapted to dim light levels, such as twilight or bright moonlight, the story goes. These light conditions were dark enough to favor large eyes but still bright 01/27/20 174 enough to support trichromatic color vision. Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How the Killer Cells Made Humans What They Are

Today: Natural killer cells were vital to human evolution, according to a just-so story published by Medical Xpress. The photo of Laetoli footprints adds to the mystery. Once upon a time, genetic bottlenecks threatened human ancestors migrating out of Africa. Two professors suggest that modern humans mated with archaic humans such as Neanderthals, which reintroduced receptor diversity and thus improved the survival rates of individuals carrying genes from these genetically divergent parents. 01/27/20 175 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories How the Fish Got Its Butt Fin: An unusual anal fin on a

fossil fish has the science media speculating, working up the just-so story to explain it. According to Live Science, one storyteller said, Rather than gradual acquisition of complex characteristics, maybe there was a bit more experimentation and odd acquisitions. Science Daily, promising new insight into evolution in its headline, got into full Kipling mode with this quote: Its not clear why the fins are positioned so far back on the fish, or what advantage they might have provided. However, they do show that our early vertebrate ancestors tried out lots of different body plans before settling on two arms and two legs. If they hadnt then our bodies would have looked very different! And that, children, is how a fossil fin on a 01/27/20 176 fishs butt shed more light on our evolution. Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories

Laugh Out Loud Considering the recklessness of many adaptationist stories that misuse evolution, a festival is being scheduled at MIT to laugh at evolutionary just-so stories. Called the BAH! Festival (Bad AdHoc Hypotheses), the event was sold out and promises to be an ongoing event. A cartoon on the festival page illustrates the problem: an evolutionists suggests that babies are shaped like footballs and need to be burped because early human ancestors punted them like footballs from village to village. According to the website, The Festival of Bad Ad Hoc Hypotheses (BAH!) is a celebration of well-argued and thoroughly researched but completely incorrect evolutionary theory. Live Science calls it Survival of the Funniest. Seven lectures will amuse listeners with internally coherent, even convincing but ultimately hilariously absurd explanations of evolutionary adaptation and ludicrous conclusions supported by careful evolutionary 01/27/20 177

explanations. Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories Pure satire, the festival is intended, first of all, to make people laugh. But, like most good satire, the event also pokes fun at a real issue, in this case, the misuse of evolutionary theory. The major criticism for evolutionary theorists is hyperadaptationism, over-the-top evolutionary ideas that try to explain too many of an organisms features as adaptations.

Taking part in the festival shows an awareness of the issue and the ability to joke about it and understand it, . 01/27/20 178 Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories Case in point: the aquatic ape hypothesis (a proposed period of sea-going humanity) was used to explain human hairlessness, taste for seafood and

enjoyment of swimming. Clearly, its crazy a festival organizer said, even though it was presented in all seriousness and offered as the best contender for a phenomenon lacking a good story (see 9/22/09, #7). Isnt it great that evolutionists are starting to laugh at themselves? Help them out! LOL(laugh out loud) and wish them LOL (lots of luck). If winners of the BAH! Festival are announced, we will 01/27/20 179 try to inform you here. Weekend Entertainment: Evolutionary Just-So Stories BAH BAH quack cheap, have you any fool? Yes sir, yes sir at the BAH Festival.

One for the Master (Darwin), One for the dame (science teacher) One for the little boy Who learns it in the lane. BAH humbug, cant take it any more; Gone to Seattle to get the true score. 01/27/20 180 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 181

SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is like a detective story without a body. All those new planets, but no signalat least not one that most scientists will accept. SETI has fallen on hard times. News reports seem to waver between optimism and pessimism, with the pessimists gaining ground. said no signals have come from the trove of new earthlike exoplanets (cf. 2/08/13). Another article suggested that scientists might have to conclude we are alone, or that life is rare in the universe. When it comes to life across the cosmos, the universe might just be an awful waste of space after all, Miriam Kramer

01/27/20 182 wrote. SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She But this month, more earthlike planets were found by the Kepler space telescope. Optimists are optimizing at Astrobiology Magazine, asking Are the Newly Discovered Planets Ideal SETI Targets? All they can do is think about it and speculate, because technology to detect life optically is not far enough along. Both optimists and pessimists exchanged ideas in a meeting reported by Astrobiology Magazine, part of its Great Exoplanet Debate series. A candidate planet must not only be the right size in the habitable zone; it has to have a breathable atmosphere, the

01/27/20 183 pessimists say. SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She Mike Wall at takes the new Kepler planet count as justification for revving up SETI. Time Right for Next Phase in Search for Alien Life, he headlined. Astrobiologists usually are quick to point out that alien life does not necessarily imply intelligent life. Many would be happy to find bacteria. Perhaps thats why PhysOrg reported that some SETI Institute scientists, with NASA dollars, are going to work on the next generation of planet finders: NASA doubles down on exoplanets and SETI institute will be part of the search.

01/27/20 184 SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She Live Science put the I back in SETI with a catalog of 13 Ways to Hunt Intelligent Aliens. In addition to standard radio SETI, theres optical SETI, looking for artifacts on earth or in the solar system (including alien footprints on the moon), looking for tinkering with our DNA, focused searches on the best candidate stars, hunting for life that consumes its asteroids, shows green lifestyles, or presents non-natural shapes against stars, and more. Maybe dolphins are aliens. Maybe we should wait for them to invade us. Still, the opening line is pessimistic: Really. Where are all the aliens? We should have been probed, exterminated, assimilated, infected, invaded or abducted by now, shouldnt we? Thats the old Fermi paradox. Some of the speculations get ridiculous. Maybe aliens have put us on

their Do not call list. Its a hard sell, reporter Ian ONeill confesses, but SETI is one of the most profound things we, 01/27/20 185 as a species, can do. SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She Nigel Henbest at New Scientist calls SETI a detective story without a body. Reviewing a book by Paul Murdin titled Are We Being Watched?, Henbest thinks the first resort remains the best: good old radio SETI. Combing the radio sky for signals of intelligent origin would provide the thrill that would come from answering the provocative question in the title.

01/27/20 186 SETI, Said He, Isnt Ready, Said She Want to find out if you are being watched? Want to solve the Fermi paradox? Want to engage in the most profound thing we, as a species can do? Want a method that is scientifically tractable? Want to ensure that the universe is not a waste of space? Want a thrill that would come from answering a profound question? Want verifiable answers, not idle speculation? Want a non-question-begging, non-self-refuting approach? Want assurance that the answer is real? Then read the artifact left by Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence. Start with the first

chapter and verse, Genesis 1:1, and continue on to 01/27/20 187 the grand finale. Gloria Deo 01/27/20 188 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem Finding that some stars emit circularly polarized light will not help explain why life uses only lefthanded amino acids.

Periodically, another attempt is made to explain the one-handedness of lifes amino acids. The problem for materialists, explained in our online book chapter 3, is that only 100%-pure onehanded proteins will work, but the probability of getting pure one-handedness (homochirality) by chance is vanishingly small (chapter 4). The latest article addressing this problem 01/27/20 189 on PhysOrg admits it: Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem Life on Earth is made of left-handed amino acids (L-amino acids). The question of why organisms

on Earth consist of L-amino acids instead of Damino acids or consist of D-sugar instead of Lsugar is still an unresolved riddle. In other words, a major mystery of life on Earth is that organisms are exclusively made up of lefthanded amino acids. Therefore, the effort to solve this problem is one of the biggest in research into the origins of life, a subject that remains enveloped in mystery. 01/27/20 190 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem The homochirality problem is enormous: Origin-of-life theories often ignore the homochirality problem, even though the question is critical to the origin of life, the

article states. All known physical processes lead to mixed-handed (racemic) collections. Since the two forms behave the same chemically and thermodynamically, how can they be separated? Only life seems capable of producing pure one-handed sets. 01/27/20 191 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem Previous attempts have tried to discover physical factors that might lead to a preference for one hand over the other (enantiomeric excess), but they have only achieved differences of a few

percent. PhysOrg explained the leading multi-step hypothesis for separating the hands: (1) Find stellar sources of circularly polarized light that might preferentially destroy one hand or convert it to the other; (2) Have the amino acids delivered to Earth via meteorites; (3) Purify the one hand further in shallow basins undergoing cyclic periods of wetting and drying. 01/27/20 192 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem Now, astronomers at the National Observatory of Japan have detected the highest ever circular polarization excess from a star: 22%. Their paper

was published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. This has implications for the origin of homochirality, the PhysOrg headline reads NASAs Astrobiology Magazine reproduced the press release verbatim, categorizing it as a Hot topic, headlining it, Star and Planet-Forming Regions May Hold Key to Lifes Chirality. If so, the implications are pretty weak, and the key hard to find, since polarization only addresses half of the first step in the chain. It is not known how effective circularly 01/27/20 polarized light is in causing changes to amino acids.193 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem

The finding also requires that most of lifes amino acids were sent to Earth on meteorites a controversial claim. Even then, the enantiomeric excess would likely be small, and exist only in tiny locales (shallow pools) that reduce the lab space for lifes origin. But unless a growing protein chain is 100% pure with one hand, it wont work. A generous scenario with 22% excess (assuming the amino acid population trends with the polarized light excess) is far too small to help, even if origin-of-life researchers could figure out a way for the amino acids to link up naturally (they prefer to separate in water). Homochirality is not the only mystery. The history of star and planet formation and the origin of life are still a mystery, too, the article confessed. 01/27/20 194 Latest Attempt to Explain Homochirality Underscores the Problem

Could the pure one-handedness in life be bona fide evidence for intelligent design? Louis Pasteur, the man who discovered homochirality, thought so. For more than a century this problem has baffled materialists. Theyve been trying to relegate this to a god-of-the-gaps argument for too long. One cant keep using that excuse forever. If the gap keeps getting wider, or if the evidence creates a positive argument for design, there comes a time to turn that excuse around and accuse materialists of materialism-of-the-gaps, the faith that somehow, sometime, a solution will emerge. But why must materialism be the default position? Scientists cannot live in the land of mystery for decades and still call it science. If the evidence points to design, so be195 it. 01/27/20

Gloria Deo 01/27/20 196 How to Use Your Brain The fact that you can ponder how to use your brain implies it is a physical tool your soul uses. New findings support the idea that we can improve our brain function through effort, like we can learn to become better computer users. Clear the cache: Just as browser performance can bog down with too many cached resources,

we can clean our machine for better prediction, according to a story on Medical Xpress: 01/27/20 197 How to Use Your Brain In normal situations, the brain selects a limited number of memories to use as evidence to guide decisions. As real-world events do not always have the most likely outcome, retrieved memories can provide misleading information at the time of a decision. Now, researchers at UCL and the University of Montreal have found a way to train the brain to accurately predict the outcome of an event, for example a baseball game, by giving subjects idealised scenarios that always conform to statistical

probability. Dr Bradley Love (UCL Department of Cognition, Perception and Brain Sciences), lead author of study, said: Providing people with idealized situations, as opposed to actual outcomes, cleans their memory and provides a stock of good quality evidence for the brain 01/27/20 198 to use. How to Use Your Brain Google a search: The brain stores a lot of memory. Accessing pertinent details when you have lost your keys is part automatic, but can be enhanced through targeted effort. Another article on Medical Xpress quotes a neuroscientist saying, Our results show that our brains are much more dynamic than previously thought, rapidly reallocating resources based on behavioral demands, and optimizing our performance by increasing the

precision with which we can perform relevant tasks. That sounds automatic, but the article speaks of concentrating on a task, like a search a choice. For instance, when looking for a cat, your brain becomes your tool: As you plan your day at work, for example, more of the brain is devoted to processing time, tasks, goals and rewards, and as you search for your cat, more of the brain becomes involved in recognition of animals. The brain cannot plan a day at work by itself, or choose to search for a cat, unless the mind makes those choices. 01/27/20 199 How to Use Your Brain Remember to make a fist: Science Daily posted a story that clenching your right fist helps you remember an event or action. It sounds dubious, and might be, but it presupposes people can

choose to improve operation of their brain tool, if they can remember to make the fist. Other bodily actions may have the same result, the study suggested: The findings suggest that some simple body movements by temporarily changing the way the brain functions can improve memory, perhaps by associating the movement with the event. 01/27/20 200 How to Use Your Brain Built-in antivirus security: If a computer might not function when security is breached, a brain can become inoperable if it doesnt constantly guard against external attacks. Science Daily discussed the role of microglia cells in the brain as the first line

of defense against brain disease. Like constantlyrunning background processes on a computer, these cells move quickly to the affected area and release an arsenal of molecules that protect the nerve cells and clear away damaged tissue. This implies that prevention is not the only automatic safeguard. Microglia are also trained in hardware 01/27/20 201 repair. How to Use Your Brain A tool for every occasion: Live Science discussed asymmetries in primate brains, such as between the left and right lobes, as structural features that evolved for plasticity, a flexibility that allows the brain to adapt to the conditions of its

environment according to reporter Tracy Lewis. But if she thinks human cognition evolved by an undirected process, she falls into the self-refuting trap: the possible truth of that proposition undermines its own credibility. 01/27/20 202 How to Use Your Brain Intelligence test: As physicists are wont to do, one decided to reduce intelligence to an equation. Live Science reporter Chris Gorsky allowed Harvard physicist Alexander Wissner-Gross to wax on about how intelligence is like entropy. The Harvard professor even wrote a computer program to describe how many intelligent or cognitive behaviors, such as upright

walking and tool use, can be described as mathematical relationships, producing spontaneously induce remarkably sophisticated behaviors. It seems to have been lost on Wissner-Gross and his trusting reporter that if that were the case, then his own theory is just a remarkably sophisticated behavior that emerged from a mathematical relationship. How, then, could it be true? 203 01/27/20 How to Use Your Brain That problem is exacerbated by the fact that his provocative and very ambitious notion is the exact opposite of thinking by others whose ideas also presumably emerged from mathematical relationships. Wissner-Gross described his paper as an attempt to describe intelligence as a fundamentally

thermodynamic process. If that were the case, he could take no credit for thinking up the idea himself. It was just physics at work. Maybe his thinking is a mere dissipative system, 01/27/20 204 like a tornado in a junkyard. How to Use Your Brain The mentalists: Over at Current Biology, Michael Gross is worried that the new edition of the psychiatrists bible has gone mental. The summary states, The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), to be published in May, will include highly controversial changes. Some diagnoses have been broadened to include a range of behaviours hitherto considered normal. As the

coverage of mental disorder diagnoses increases, is there any space left for normal biological variability in human behaviour? Quiz: By gone mental, Gross implies that (1) the manual is treating mental illnesses in abstract terms, implying non-physical causes; (2) the 01/27/20 205 manual is crazy. How to Use Your Brain Hardwired crime? Science Daily reported a U of Chicago study that says psychopaths lack the wiring to feel empathy. New research finds that prisoners who are psychopaths lack the basic neurophysiological hardwiring that enables them to care for others, it says. Such claims imply that some people are born criminals, but fail to take into

account the possibility that their personal choices over a long time deactivated or damaged those brain circuits. For an examination of the long history of defining crime as a disease rather than a moral choice, see the book Darwin Day in America by John West. 01/27/20 206 How to Use Your Brain No rest for his soul: A new collection of Darwins correspondence has been published on the Darwin Correspondence Project. Kate Hoyland for the BBC News thinks it expresses the emotional side of the bearded buddha of evolutionary theory. The correspondence includes the famous line to Joseph Hooker that his new idea of transmutation of species is like confessing a murder. Darwin is

largely credited with having naturalized the human soul into the product of a long series of unguided variation and selection by unguided processes. Thats why many of his contemporaries, including Adam Sedgwick and Alfred Russell Wallace, opposed its application to the human mind. It is clear that Darwin was aware of the revolutionary nature of his ideas, and Hooker was to argue strongly in support of his friend in the religious debate that followed, Hoyland wrote. But is it a mere religious debate to ask whether the mind can be reduced to its physical resource, the brain? It would seem a logical debate whether awareness, emotion, ideas, argument, support, and debate have any coherent meaning in such a reduction. 01/27/20 207 How to Use Your Brain Every time you use your brain to ponder the truth or falsity of propositions, you undermine Darwinism,

materialism, and determinism. This becomes so clear when you watch some of the researchers above using their minds to say the mind is a product of natural causes. They shoot themselves in the foot. Their readers can justifiably deny them any credibility. For understanding the power of the argument from reason that C. S. Lewis and others employed, the new book The Magicians Twin: C. S. Lewis on Science, Scientism and Society (2012) from the Discovery Institute is a great read. The argument is explicated with great clarity, considering all the objections. 01/27/20 208 How to Use Your Brain For the rest of us who accept the brain as a gift from our Maker, each new finding should increase our awe at what a wonderful gift it is. Its like

having received a powerful computer, but taking years to find out all the features and capabilities that came with it. Give thanks by thinking clearly and using it to connect with the Giver. 01/27/20 209 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 210 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary

A rationalist, Darwinist, rabid anti-creationist has surprising things to say about the Bible. Steve Jones, former head geneticist at University College London, is a Darwinists Darwinist. Not only does he relegate everything in life to gradual natural selection (including the Cambrian Explosion, 12/19/08), he celebrated Londons Darwin Centre (9/24/02), and has been a model of making disparaging remarks about creationists, considering them annoying, depressing, and irrational (11/27/06). One of his best-known podcasts was entitled, Why Creationism Is Wrong and Evolution Is Right (4/21/06). Now he has a new book out, The Serpents Promise: The Bible Retold As Science. It was reviewed by Tim Radford for Nature. 01/27/20 211

Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary One might expect Jones to tear the holy book to shreds. On the contrary, Radford found it a masterly take on science invoked by the Bible. Jones apparently finds a lot to like in the stories of Adam and Eve, Noah, Job, Joseph, Moses and Solomon. He even called it the Good Book, with capitals. He called Genesis the worlds first biology textbook. Radford has a hunch why Jones was accommodating to those he 01/27/20 212 considers irrational: Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary

The Serpents Promise is a believers book. It expresses belief in the power of language, imagination, scholarship, high art, enduring myth, tribal tradition, unforgettable poetry, irrational vision and inspired insight. If you wanted to find all of these things between just one set of covers, you might pick up the Authorized Version of the Bible; but this is a not a book by somebody who believes in God. It is a book by the distinguished geneticist, broadcaster, lecturer, writer and Welshman Steve Jones, who has a sharp awareness of moral imperative and a warm feeling for those Joneses before him who invoked the bread of heaven and yearned to be safe on Canaans side. It is the ambivalence at the heart of this book which makes it so 01/27/20 213 hugely enjoyable and, perhaps, so important.

Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary Could there be in his soul a wistful longing for the faith of his fathers? If so, its probably shallow. Jones looks at the Bible as a collection of tribal myths that, for all their inspired insights and poetry, have been superseded by science. His book is not of the science of the Bible, but of the science invoked by the Bible, as if Biblical texts become springboards for a rationalist sermon on a biblical theme, showing the power of science to illuminate myth. 01/27/20 214

Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary Consequently, Jones chose Biblical texts based on their potential to launch him into high dives of scientific rationalism. The giants of Genesis 6:4 become an opportunity to discuss the pituitary gland and acromegaly. The genealogies evolve into discussions of the genetic inheritance of Ashkenazy Jews, the Arya and Britons from recent forebears. The Serpents Promise cannot advance divine revelation, but it offers a new context for old myths, Radford explains. He found Joness book remarkably accommodating to the religious: 01/27/20 215 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary

This book is not an overt condemnation of religious belief: skilfully, it selects stories that have informed Western culture for 2,000 years to illuminate modern research, and Jones ends with an envoi on behalf of a future enriched by an objective and unambiguous culture whose logic, language and practices are permanent and universal. It is called science. 01/27/20 216 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary

To Bible believers, this is condemnation with faint praise. It may not be overt, but it is surely covert: old myths are out. Now that weve had our 2,000 year entertainment, its time to be objective with logic and universal cultural practices based on science. Its not clear if Jones has been told that logical positivism died in the 1960s. 01/27/20 217 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary Radford appears to have caught Jones standing

on a slippery rug. He does not waste much energy on the three great mysteries resolved with such confidence in Genesis he said; science may never be able to explain why the Universe happened at all, precisely how life began or what exactly turned an omnivorous foraging African bipedal primate into a creature with a taste for abstract speculation. Radford used Jones as an example of the problem of humans. They can intellectually endorse one thing and stubbornly love another. 01/27/20 218 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary Jones has made a certifiable fool of himself. Remember when he attributed the Cambrian explosion to gradual

Darwinian processes? (12/19/08). Remember when he was asked for his best evidence for evolution, and it was HIV? (5/30/06). But those are freshman flaws in the school of irrationality. His Ph.D. level (Post hoc Dottiness) is attributing his own rationality to an unguided material process that, somehow, turned an omnivorous foraging African bipedal primate into a creature with a taste for abstract speculation (see yesterdays commentary). From whence did Jones get his moral imperative? Radford (a freelance journalist and author) at least has a grasp of the big questions resolved with such confidence in Genesis and unexplained by science. 01/27/20 219 Darwinist Writes Bible Commentary Jones has given up on talking to creationists

(5/30/06). One can only hope he will open the Good Book more often and find more inspiration other than the Serpents promise that he would be as gods, knowing good and evil. Some deprogramming out of logical positivism might be a prerequisite. Even so, the ambivalence in his soul was sensed by Radford. With God all things are possible, even directing a modern Saul to safety on Canaans side, where the Joneses before him would yearn to see him 01/27/20 220 come. Gloria Deo 01/27/20

221 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Left-leaning scientists have never given up on the 19th century notion that criminals are born, not made. Other evidence suggests innate tendencies can be overcome. PhysOrg says, Evil gene would make punishment a tricky business. But is there really a gene for evil? Someone is making that case again. Are there evil genes or is it only people who can be evil? A recent story in The Age (Deep Divide of

Evil Genes) raised the question of whether criminals might evade responsibility for their crimes by blaming their genes. 01/27/20 222 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Acknowledging this is a troubling notion because it might excuse the Nazis, PhysOrg nevertheless gave author Julia Llewelyn Smith space to propagate an old view that criminals have genetic tendencies that make them more likely to turn to crime than others. In this case, the gene in question has a name: An example of a so-called evil gene might be the

low activity MAOA gene. MAOA is a neurotransmitter in the brain and some research has suggested that those males who have low levels of the substance are particularly vulnerable to the effects of being maltreated when young. 01/27/20 223 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? The article wallowed in notions of criminal law and free will, but made it seem like society has no right to punish those who have genes that incline them toward crime. Science Daily, similarly, claimed that psychopaths are not neurally equipped to have concern for others.

That may be, but if its due to a physical cause in the neurons, it is not mental illness. 01/27/20 224 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? PhysOrg then posted another article by two evolutionists, Jason Roach and Ken Pease, who wrote a book titled Evolution and Crime that tries to use evolutionary theory to explain criminal behavior. An understanding of the evolutionary process who we are as a species and where we have

evolved from can also explain how and why legal systems have developed, as a means of regulating competition between individuals. Dr Roach has also explored empathy and altruism unique to human beings and how they function as protective factors to mitigate anti-social behaviour. 01/27/20 225 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Another article posted the same day on PhysOrg, however, called into question the models evolutionary behaviorists use to evaluate altruism. Experiments with human subjects playing games often ignore other factors that bias the results,

thus casting doubt on Roachs confidence about understanding of the evolutionary process. Notions that criminals are born, or that they evolved according to social game theory, fail to acknowledge the power to change. Science Daily wrote, Faith in God Positively Influences Treatment for Individuals With Psychiatric Illness. If psychiatric illness is innate like the evil gene, why would faith in God help? But it does: Belief was associated with not only improved psychological wellbeing, but decreases in depression and intention to 01/27/20 self-harm, a psychiatrist at Harvard Medical School said.226 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Evolutionists need to get out of their ivory towers in academia and visit a church. If they really want to see the power of God to change lives,

they should look into some of the dynamic prison ministries conducted by Bible-believing churches. The vibrant prison ministry at Grace Baptist of Santa Clarita, California is just one example. The results of their bringing the gospel of Jesus Christ into minimum and maximumsecurity prisons are so astonishing, city officials welcome them into the jails and want their efforts to expand all around Los Angeles. 01/27/20 227 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Guards watch in amazement as former riotous, dangerous inmates turn meek as lambs, truly repentant for their crimes, hungry for the word of God, eagerly listening to the preachers and inviting their fellow inmates to come. When they

get out, most of them stay out, without the high recidivism rates that plague secular programs. Lives are being transformed by the gospel every day. Even today, April 26, Grace Baptist church is helping reconcile inmate fathers with their children, bring tears of joy to broken families. 01/27/20 228 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? The late Chuck Colson with his Prison Fellowship ministry saw similar results around the world, in some of the worst prisons. One particular prison in South America, known as a hopeless death trap, turned into a cathedral of light when the gospel came. These stories

were told by Colson and Nancy Pearcey in How Now Shall We Live? Need proof of Gods existence? Watch His power to make saints out of sinners through His gift of salvation and the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit. 01/27/20 229 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? What does evolution offer, by contrast? Tough Luck. They cant help themselves. Theyre genetically conditioned to do what they do, so dont hold them responsible. Theyre pawns in evolutionary games. Its all just a big game anyway. Turn em all loose. Failed evolutionary theories have left a long trail of suffering that

blames society, leaves the victims heartbroken and angry, and offers no hope for the perpetrators. You can read about the history of these useless, harmful, ugly theories and their bitter consequences in Darwin Day in America by John West. 01/27/20 230 How Can You Punish an Evolved Criminal? Scientists can test physical laws in the lab, but they cannot fathom the human heart. While evolutionists continue to write useless, speculative books about what they dont understand, doing no good to anyone, Christian ministers are bringing

the power of God into prison and are seeing miraculous results. It makes sense that the Maker knows what man needs. Darwin or Christ: choose you this day whom you will serve. 01/27/20 231 Gloria Deo 01/27/20 232 Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory

If evolutionists and reporters stuck to the essence of neo-Darwinism, many of their claims would never reach the press. Darwin attempted to describe a natural mechanism (natural selection) that would generate the entire tree of life, with all its diversity. Neo-Darwinism identifies the source of variation as mutations. The essence of Darwinian theory is that the process is unguided, with no goals or purposes. Many evolutionists and their press agents seem to 01/27/20 233 forget this. Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory

Artificial selection is not evolution. A common fallacy is to assume artificial selection is the same as natural selection. Artificial selection, though, comes from goals, purposes and plans of people; its a form of intelligent design. One form of this fallacy is computer evolution programming a computer to simulate the evolutionary process. Science Daily reported on attempts to do this at Cornells Creative Machines Lab (a tipoff that this is not about Darwinism). The reader is told, A research team led by Cornell Universitys Creative Machines Lab has created a computer algorithm that can be used to witness virtual creatures evolving their squishy, muscle-like features in order to teach themselves to walk. All the bold words in that sentence violate Darwinian principles, yet the article claims that the experiment demonstrates the power of evolution to create counterintuitive designs.

01/27/20 234 Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory Change within species is not evolution. Medical Xpress tells readers this profound observation: Evolving genes lead to evolving genes. Other than being a tautology, the headline leads into a story with no evidence for the origin of species. The Wellcome Trust and Sanger Institute went looking for evidence of positive selection in a single gene named FOXP2, implicated in human speech: Have these evolutionary changes in FOXP2 function or expression exposed its target genes to novel selective pressures? The

variations they found, however, only exist in human populations that are all members of Homo sapiens, one interfertile species. Even the strictest creationists allow 01/27/20 235 for that kind of change. Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory Microevolutionary change is not evolution. John Thompson of UC Santa Cruz has a new book out, Relentless Evolution, that alleges species evolve relentlessly and that evolutionary changes occur at a surprisingly rapid pace. Yet apparently, the changes he speaks of are occurring within species, not from one species to another. According to PhysOrg, he describes the Darwinian mechanism correctly as aimless. He states that Much of adaptive evolution does not lead anywhere, yet the article speaks

only of continual microevolutionary changes within species that would make a creationist yawn. These continual microevolutionary changes keep populations in the evolutionary game as they interact with other species that are themselves constantly evolving, Thompson says. These seemingly aimless meanderings are the essential dynamics of evolution, with directional change and speciation as occasional outcomes. Yet nowhere does he describe the origin of species or any kind of directional change leading to a new organ or function. 01/27/20 236 Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory Behavior within species is not evolution. New Scientist turns classical Darwinism on its head with

this headline: Survival of the shyest: Timiditys surprising benefits. Reporter Leslie Evans Ogden does her best to show that some humans, salamanders and birds appear more successful without being assertive, but nowhere does she describe a species becoming another species. Ogden claims that evolution favors both boldness and shyness, but nowhere escapes the tautology of defining fitness in terms of survival. Even if she makes a case that shyness has its advantages, nothing in the proposition supports neo-Darwinism. 237 01/27/20 Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory Evolvability is not evolution. The ability to evolve does not, ipso facto, mean that bacteria evolved into humans. But thats not the

only puzzle in Science Dailys headline: Computer Scientists Suggest New Spin On Origins of Evolvability: Competition to Survive Not Necessary? Heres two more: the reference to computer science, and the denial of classical Darwinian competition as a necessary condition for the origin of species. Anything dependent on a computer algorithm is suspect from the starting line as a model for how an aimless, purposeless process could originate new organs and functions. A researcher from the University of Central Florida stated, An important implication of this result is that traditional selective and adaptive explanations for phenomena such as increasing evolvability deserve more scrutiny and may turn out unnecessary in some cases. Maybe he should come back when he knows something. In the meantime, nothing in the article 01/27/20 238 demonstrated the origin of species by unguided processes. Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory

Purpose is not evolution. The oxymoronic phrase Evolutionary Purpose appears in a headline on Live Science that gets even more bizarre. Reporter Charles Choi writes, Birds can hold their wings high because of the strange way they crouch, and now scientists say the origins of this folded posture may provide insight into the evolution of their flight. A cartoon of a perching T. rex in a tree adds to the fantasy. It doesnt matter that some dinosaurs crouching posture is similar to that of birds; the burden of proof Choi set for himself is to show that an aimless process led to avian flight. Humans and kangaroos can crouch in a similar way but are not evolving hollow bones, avian lungs or wings. Choi commits the fallacy that evolution has an aim when he says birds evolved to crouch. Those two words should never go together. An aimless, purposeless process cannot evolve to do anything. Besides, Choi is not sure if it happened gradually or suddenly, indicative of an absence of scientific explanation.

01/27/20 239 Evolutionists Dont Understand Their Own Theory Lets hold evolutionists feet to the fire. Insist on these rules: No teleology. No aim. No intelligence. No purpose. No assuming evolution is a fact. No microevolution. No computers. No intelligent design, such as with artificial selection. Show new species or kinds, not just variation within a species: it needs to surpass the kinds of changes creationists already accept. Show innovation toward new function, not just horizontal change. With those rules, the Darwin industry would dry up, because few (if any) are the papers that try to deal honestly with the facts of nature, relying only on the principles of Darwinian evolutionary theory. But, of course, if they are principles, they undermine

evolutionary assumptions in the first place, because principles rely for their existence on the immaterial realm of conceptsideaspropositions. Maybe if evolutionists grunted 01/27/20 240 like chimps they would make more sense. Gloria Deo 01/27/20 241 Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered

Some basic ideas about physics and astronomy remain so mysterious, and their explanations so flexible, they may lead some to question whether they should be called hard sciences. Its about time: Most of us take time for granted and wish we had more of it. Why, then, is it controversial for a physicist to claim that time is real? Live Science describes the ideas of Lee Smolin, who controversially claims that time is not an illusion, but a fundamental aspect of the universe. The question opens up a meta-law dilemma about whether laws of nature are inside or outside of time. If outside, Smolin argues, they have no meaning. The question also bears heavily on the nature of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and why it presents an asymmetrical arrow of time. In his article for New Scientist, Smolin said, It might be a funny thing to say, but the idea that time is real requires a radical departure from the standard paradigm of physics. Nature reviewed Smolins new book, Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the

01/27/20 242 Universe. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Theory of massive star formation encounters surprise: Science Daily reported that astrophysicists were surprised when a massive star disobeyed theory. Standard candle isnt: PhysOrg reported the possibility that gravitational lenses could make Type 1a supernovae, the leading cosmic distance indicators, much brighter than they are. The implications of this realization for estimating the size and age of 01/27/20 243

the universe were not explored. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered The antimatter puzzle: The BBC News, Live Science and Science Daily all reported that the Large Hadron Collider may have found a case of matter-antimatter asymmetry for a particular form of matter (the Bs meson) and its antiparticle. Its not enough to explain the predominance of matter in our universe though. Jason Palmer at the BBC writes, but puzzle abides. Science Daily quoted the physicists saying that the observed asymmetry is too small to account for the matter01/27/20 244

dominated Universe. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Grand finale came first: Another observation supports the surprising finding that the universe underwent extraordinary periods of star formation in its infancy (01/08/2002, 09/21/2005,04/02/2009, 12/17/2010). Big bang theory posits that the universe began in a highly smooth state, but Science Daily wrote, Astronomers using a worldwide collection of telescopes have discovered the most prolific star factory in the Universe, surprisingly in a galaxy so distant that they see as it was when the Universe was only six percent of its current age. Another example, a dust-obscured massive maximum-starburst galaxy at a redshift of 6.34, was reported by Nature: it seems that environments mature enough to form the

most massive, intense starbursts existed at least as early 01/27/20 245 as 880 million years after the Big Bang. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Dark matter moment of truth: Science Magazine stated that the dark matter mystery is nearing its moment of truth. Dark matter is supposed to be much more plentiful than visible matter, according to leading theory, but has eluded all detection. One team thinking it has a potential detection of WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles, a theoretical kind of dark matter) is not ready to announce it. Others are urging

caution because of other falsified claims in the 01/27/20 246 past. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Higgs vs inflation: Nature reported that the properties of the newly-discovered Higgs boson could spell trouble for leading Big Bang theory. Astronomer Paul Steinhart believes data from the Planck telescope introduce new, serious difficulties for the popular hypothesis that the universe underwent exponential expansion in the first fraction of a second

after the big bang. 01/27/20 247 Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered A simple, ignored question: Back in January, in Live Science, Joel Shurkin asked, Where did the universes magnetism come from? That question is rarely addressed. The big bang would have begun with no magnetism, he says: In the beginning there was no magnetism. Today, though, it is one of the most powerful forces in stars and galaxies. Any incipient fields after the big bang should have cancelled each other out.

Shurkin entertained a theory by one German physicist, Reinhard Schlickeiser, who thinks it began very weak until iron evolved in stars, then current flows magnified it. You have to have something to start from, his partner said, but that begs the question of where the something came from. 01/27/20 248 Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Inconstant speed of light: Its not just creationists who put forth the idea that the speed of light is not constant. Live Science entertained ideas from two physicist teams who propose it, even

though their estimates of the amount of change are slight. Still, it shows that fundamental ideas unquestioned since Einstein can still be questioned. 01/27/20 249 Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Hubris nonetheless: Given the amount of mystery remaining in physics and cosmology about the most basic questions, it seems blatantly hubristic for Stephen Hawking to continue claiming that the big bang didnt need God, as reported. Hes assuming there even

was a big bang. On April 16, long lines waited to hear him at Caltech mock God and religion. He even fancies himself a prophet. He said, I dont think we will survive another thousand years without escaping our fragile planet. Fortunately for him, he wont have to face accusers in the year 01/27/20 250 4013. Major Cosmic Questions Remain Unanswered Never confuse the observable, repeatable, testable science that gives us cell phones with the unverifiable speculation emerging from the mouths and keyboards of secular

scientists who dont know what theyre talking about, who keep making theoretical claims that get falsified by new observations, and who intrude into metaphysical questions they are not philosophically prepared to approach. Their only qualification lies in the 01/27/20 251 sophistication of their ignorance. Gloria Deo 01/27/20 252 Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled

Here are accounts of three very different animals whose behaviors have baffled scientists till now. Scientists are beginning to get at least partial answers for scientific mysteries by carefully observing and testing to see how things work. Waving corals. Some soft corals pulsate regularly. Why is that? Why would they perform motion that is energetically costly? PhysOrg reported that scientists at Hebrew University of Jerusalem wanted to solve 01/27/20 253 this old scientific mystery. Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled

One of the most fascinating and spectacular sights in the coral reef of Eilat is the perpetual motion of the tentacles of a coral called Heteroxenia (Heteroxenia fuscescens). Heteroxenia is a soft coral from the family Xeniidae, which looks like a small bunch of flowers, settled in the reef walls and on rocky areas on the bottom of the reef. Each flower is actually a living polyp, the basic unit which comprises a coral colony. Apparently, the motion of these polyps, resembling flowers that are elegantly spreading out and closing up their petals, is unique in the animal kingdom. 01/27/20 254

Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled Researchers found that the corals take a siesta for a half hour every day. They will also stop pulsing for a few minutes after being touched. By measuring the water flow around the corals, the researchers found that the pulsations effectively stir the water around these filter feeders to enable new nutrientrich water to flow in. It also removes excess oxygen and brings in carbon dioxide, raising the rate of photosynthesis for symbiotic algae. The findings of this study indicate that pulsation motions are a highly efficient means for sweeping away water from the pulsating body, and for an increased mixing of dissolved matter between the body and the surrounding medium, the report said. The answer to this biological mystery was not just for curiosity: These two processes (expulsion of medium and mixing of solutes) may lead to future applications in engineering and medicine.

01/27/20 255 Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled Baby turtles: Surely everyone who has watched TV footage of baby sea turtles scurrying across the sand toward the water thinks its cute. Scientists agree, but ask questions beyond: how do the turtles travel so effectively, several body lengths per second, across soft sand? Science Daily tells how researchers at Georgia Tech tried to mimic the action with Flipper-Bot, a robot with paddle-like limbs (see video of the turtles and the robot on YouTube). A

Georgia Tech biologist first filmed the hatchlings traveling toward a light at night. Their clumsy-looking limbs are actually quite effective at scurrying over sand without moving it much. 01/27/20 256 Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled They can control their wrists depending on the medium. On hard ground, their wrists locked in place, and they pivoted about a fixed arm, the scientist explained. On soft sand, they put their flippers into the sand and the wrist would bend as

they moved forward. A robot model proved this is a good way to travel; it gives a high angle of attack, and reduces drag. The article suggested that the new information could ultimately provide clues to how turtles evolved to walk on land with appendages designed for swimming, but one of the researchers quickly admitted, We dont have solid results on the evolutionary questions yet. 01/27/20 257 Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled Homing pigeons: A mystery of bird navigation is closer to being solved. PhysOrg reported that Viennese and Australian scientists have added some important pieces to the puzzle of

how birds navigate, a skill that allows some species to span the globe on the wing. It turns out every bird (but not humans) has little iron balls in sensory neurons. Remarkably, each cell has a single iron ball, and its in the same place in every cell, they noted. Even ostriches have them. Perhaps these are the elusive magnetoreceptors that respond to the earths magnetic field. A previous theory has been discredited. It turns out that iron-rich clusters thought to exist in pigeon beaks were just blood cells. If the iron in the sensory neurons is involved in birds magnetic sense, scientists still do not know how they work: were a long way off understanding how magnetic sensing works, one of the scientists said; we still dont know 01/27/20 258 what these mysterious iron balls are doing. Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled

The classical scientific method of observation, hypothesis, and testing can answer questions about how things work if they are amenable to repeated observation, as in these cases. Stories about how they got that way by evolution are far less useful. When scientists approach things as if they work for a purpose, whether coral pulsations or turtle flippers, they usually get two rewards: satisfying explanations that can bear repeated testing, and applications that can improve human life. Liberate these scientists from the ball and chain of having to add a Darwinian just-so story to their work. 01/27/20 259 Secrets of Three Amazing Animals Unveiled

Speaking of birds, a great new film on bird flight is coming from Illustra Media. Watch for the news here. It contains a truly stunning story of migration, as well as other cutting-edge findings that were obtained by good observational scientific methods. The film will illustrate a common experience in scientific research: when scientists look more closely at natural phenomena, they usually find answers that are far more dynamic and wonderful than previously thought: answers that transcend language and 01/27/20 260 cause us to stand in awe. Gloria Deo

01/27/20 261 Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids Cassini has observed clouds of dust from meteoroids hitting the rings. The data will impact theories of the rings origin and age. New observations have shown dust clouds from four impacts on Saturns rings (see JPL press release). One impact was observed

twice, about 25 hours apart. The impacts were found in all three major rings: A, B, and C. The ejecta clouds are thought to have been observed between 1 and 50 hours after the impacts. According to National Geographic, streams of meteors must be hitting the rings more often than thought. A paper by Cassini scientists was published in Science Magazine. National Geographic waxed philosophical, saying, The hope in the science community is that insights into these ring impacts may also shed light on the rings puzzling origins. That sentence cloaks the real problem: impacts are destructive, not constructive. Jeff Cuzzi, long time ringmaster and co-author of the 01/27/20 262 paper, expressed concerns in the press release: Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids Saturns rings are unusually bright and clean,

leading some to suggest that the rings are actually much younger than Saturn, said Jeff Cuzzi, a co-author of the paper and a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist specializing in planetary rings and dust at NASAs Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. To assess this dramatic claim, we must know more about the rate at which outside material is bombarding the rings. This latest analysis helps fill in that story with detection of impactors of a size that we werent previously able to detect directly. 01/27/20 263 Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids The impactors are estimated to be between a centimeter and several meters in

diameter. If a rain of dusty debris like this has been going on for billions of years, the rings should appear darker than they are. Furthermore, since they carry away more mass than they add, they have been eroding the rings for a long time according to current beliefs about Saturns age. Pollution and erosion are not helping keep Saturns rings 01/27/20 264 old. Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids Another clue for a high impact rate is the ring rain that descends onto Saturns equatorial

bands. Science Daily said that more charged particles fall than thought from water ions originating in the rings. Are the charged particles coming from impacts hitting the rings? What other process could be sending material from the rings onto Saturn? The article didnt say. In any case, this is another erosive process, it appears. The paper in Science said that the estimated impact rate, though significantly higher at face value than before, is too uncertain to know for 01/27/20 265 sure: Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids Our results are higher than the extrapolation by one or two orders of magnitude (Fig. 4); at face

value, especially if this increase is also reflected in submillimeter-to-millimeter-size particles, then pollution and erosion rates due to interplanetary meteoroids might be higher than have been thought. However, gravitational focusing enhances the flux at Saturns rings by a factor of 4 to 40, and the sensitivity of rings to a two-directional flux yields another factor of 2, so our results may corroborate the previous extrapolation after all. 01/27/20 266 Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids (By extrapolation, the authors refer to the prior habit of estimating impact rates for the outer solar system to be similar to

rates in the inner solar system.) Better observations to constrain the impact rate will be possible when the Cassini spacecraft approaches its end of mission (2017), when it is slated to make series of high dives over the rings and into the gap between the D ring and Saturn. 01/27/20 267 Saturns Rings Impacted by Meteoroids If this were the only problem in the Saturn system facing the moyboys (believers in millions of years, billions of years), it would be worrisome for them. But then you have

Titans atmosphere, the Titan ethane problem, the Enceladus geysers, delicate rings, and other matters that, taken together, could title a book, Billions of years: a theory in crisis. Prediction: future measurements of impact rates on Saturns rings will prove 01/27/20 268 higher than expected. Gloria Deo 01/27/20 269

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