1st Step: Stars form from nebulas Regions of concentrated dust and gas Gas and dust begin to collide, contract and heat up All due to gravity 2nd Step:
As nebula contracts, a small star is formed Called a protostar Eventually, the protostar will begin nuclear fusion Hydrogen protons attract to each other Strong nuclear force Fusion begins
Necessary for stars to survive 3rd Step: Star joins the main sequence 90% of stars spend life here Nuclear fusion = Hydrogen into Helium Mass of star determines location on main sequence
Beginning of the End: Stars begin to die when they run out of hydrogen Gravity begins to take over Star begins to shrink; outer core of hydrogen begins to fuse
Star gets bigger Beginning of the End: When star gets bigger, it cools down Red giant Eventually, star can fuse helium into other elements
Carbon, oxygen, and other heavier elements Beginning of the End: Once star runs out of fuel, star shrinks under its own gravity Turn into a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole
Death of Stars: What stars end up as depend on mass Low and Medium mass stars Planetary nebula --------- white dwarf High mass stars Supernova --------- neutron star or black hole
Death of Stars: Low and Medium Mass Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Death of Stars: High Mass
Main Sequence Star Red Super Giant Supernova Neutron Star Black Hole
What is a Black Hole??? An object Black Holes Info Sheetthat not even so massive and dense light can escape its gravity
The end result from a supernova of a star that has a mass greater than 3x the sun High Mass Stars: Mass greater than 8x our sun Create high mass elements such as iron Neutron Star Formed if remaining star < 3x suns mass
Black Holes Formed if remaining star > 3x suns mass As fusion begins to slow down, the core of the sun will contract Temperature in the core will rise
The outer layers of the sun will expand, consuming in the inner planets Sun will become a Red Giant Core of the sun will begin to fuse helium into larger elements such as carbon and oxygen Continuing over the next 100 million years Core will become entirely carbon and oxygen
Core will contract Outer layers will expand Outer layers will form a planetary nebula Core of sun will become a white dwarf
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