laminated diatom mats from: Kemp et al., (1999), Nature, 398, 57-61 Sapropel formation hypothesis after Kemp et al., (1999), Nature, 398, 57-61. (see Sancetta (1999), Nature 398, 27-29 for discussion)
Greater freshwater runoff to eastern Mediterranean (heavy rainfall in Nile headwaters and in Med. Basin); leads to: Enhanced stratification of surface waters, produces nutricline across surface halocline; leads to: Massive bloom of diatoms adapted to stratified waters
(chiefly Rhizosolenia spp. and Hemiaulus hauckii). Winter mixing of water column causes mass sinking of diatom mats. Mixing brings nutrients to surface, promoting Freshwater sources in the Mediterranean
base map from: Kallel et al., (2000), Palaeo3, 157, 45-5 Sapropels and climate of the Nile basin Eastern Mediterranean sedimentary record* sapropelic S1a
11 10 arid 9 8 wet
S1b 7 6 5
4 3 2 arid Eastern Saharan sedimentary
and archaeological record** * Geraga et al., (2000), Palaeo3, 156, 1-17 ** Malville et al., (1998), Nature 392, 488-491 1 0 ka BP Location
of core 74 KL in the Arabian Sea 74 KL: 18O, dust deposition and CaCo3 production
Dust accumulation and palaeoproductivity (core Meteor 12392: on continental rise offshore of Spanish Sahara) Japan Sea dust record Dust source: Mongolia/N. China
from: Boyd et al., (2000), Nature 407, 695-702. Iron fertilization experiment: polar Southern Ocean (I) days Iron fertilization experiment:
polar Southern Ocean (II) Mechanisms of CO2 drawdown CO2 drawdown (Vostok) Iron fertilization experiment: polar Southern Ocean (III)
DMS makes clouds brighter than white from: Charlson et al., (1987) Nature 326, 655-661 Points to consider Ocean/atmosphere temperature - CO2 - sea ice
feedbacks. Continental climates and oceanic responses: dust exports and palaeoproductivity; monsoonal rains and sapropels; glacial surging and THC switching. Palaeoproductivity patterns: consider effects of currents, RSL and marine food chains.
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