BIOMOLECU LES WHAT ARE BIOMOLECULES? Biomolecules is any molecule that is present in living organisms, including

large macro molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Biology and its subsets of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. Most biomolecules are organic compounds and just four elements (oxygen, carbon,

hydrogen, and nitrogen. CARBOHYDRATE There are some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4 . Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as

polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Is a biological molecule consisting of carbon , Hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen-oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n).

Why do we need Carbs? Carbohydrate is a nutrient that our body needs. It is an organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are the main energy source for our body they are the energy that gets used first (before protein,

fat and alcohol). It is recommended by most sources (including the Guideline Daily Amounts) that about 45-60% of our energy intake should come from carbohydrates. Important roles An energy source that gives us most the

energy that our body needs; Part of many proteins and fats (lipids) that our body needs for many bodily processes; Providing nutrients for the good bacteria in our intestines that helps us digest our food; and Protecting our muscles because carbohydrates are the first source of energy for our body, without it, protein from our muscles will be used meaning that our body will effectively eat its own muscles! Examples

Glucose Fructose Sucrose Maltose Starch

Cellulose Protein Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding

to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones.


Lipid Are group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), moniglycerides, diglycerides, trglycerides, phopholipids, and others. EXAMPLES


OUR BODIES? Your body uses fats as a supply and store of energy: a gram of fat contains more than double the amount of energy present in a gram of carbohydrate. The steroids inyour body include some hormones. Other lipids make up the outer layer of all yourcells, and the fatty sheaths that insulate nerve fibres.

BIOMOLECULAR FUNCTIONS Carbohydrates provide the body with source of fuel and energy, it aids in proper functioning of our brain, heart and nervous, digestive and immune system. Deficiency of carbohydrates in the diet causes fatigue, poor mental function.

*Each protein in the body has specific functions, some proteins provide structural support, help in body movement, and also defense against germs and infections. Proteins can be antibodies, hormonal, enzymes and contractile proteins. *Lipids, the primary purpose of lipids in body is energy storage. Structural

membranes are composed of lipids which forms a barrier and controls flow of material and out of the cell. Lipid hormones, like sterols, help on mediating communication between cells. Nucleic Acids are the DNA and RNA, they carry genetic information in the cell. They also help in synthesis of proteins,

through the process of translation and transcription. Structure of biomolecules Structure of biomolecule is intricate folded, three-dimensional structure that formed by protein, RNA, and DNA. The structure of these molecules are in different, forms, primary, secondary, tertiary and

quaternary structure. The scaffold for this is provided by the hydrogen bonds within the molecule.

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