RSCH 6109: Assessment & Evaluation Methods Introduction & Overview Hot Topics in Testing Some Basic Terminology Types of Measures Introduction. Assessment is an integral part of the work of counselors. Effective counselors use assessment methods to help clients: understand themselves develop and realize their potential
make decisions solve problems Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Introduction. Information from tests should not be used in isolation. Effective counselors integrate information from testing with information about clients from other sources: Key informants Interviews Reflective journals and homework Behavioral anecdotes and observations
Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Introduction. Assessment is a useful tool for counselors because it can: help clarify the clients presenting problem / concerns / goals help identify treatment options help evaluate services provide an objective perspective help build rapport Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Introduction.
Assessment is a useful tool for counselors because it can: help clients recognize / accept ownership for a problem or issue screen clients for referral to other professionals facilitate communication with the client / help resistant clients engage in the process Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Introduction. Good assessment practices require both the
art and the science of psychology. The science is involved in the development, validation, and scoring of tests. The art is involved in the interpretation and debriefing processes. Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Some Current Testing Controversies. Testing is an invasion of privacy. Tests are gender-biased and use inappropriate language, examples and illustrations.
Tests are culturally biased; they are unfair and discriminate against minority groups. Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Some Current Testing Controversies. Criterion-referenced tests should be used rather than norm-referenced tests. Coaching will help performance of clients on scholastic aptitude tests. Counselors should not be testing clients.
Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Some Current Testing Controversies. Counselors should replace standardized tests with qualitative assessment measures. Intelligence tests are not measuring the right constructs. We cannot rely on grades and diplomas; we must have demonstration of competencies on objective tests. Source: Modified from Drummond (2003)
Some Current Testing Controversies. Every school scores above the median on achievement tests. The norms are not valid: The lake Woebegone effect is rampant. Multiple choice tests need to be replaced by performance assessments. There is too much emphasis on testing and teachers teach for the tests. Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Some Current Testing Controversies.
There is too much pressure on students, teachers, and parents because of high stakes testing: Its now the in approach in schools. Psychological testing of students is intrusive meddling. Source: Modified from Drummond (2003) Terminology Measurement is limiting the data of any phenomenon so that those data may be interpreted and, ultimately, compared to an acceptable qualitative or quantitative standard. -P. Leedy (2001)
Some Common Measurement Terminology: 1. Measurement 2. Assessment 3. Evaluation 4. Test or Measure 5. Psychometrics 6. Reliability 7. Validity 8. Formative vs. Summative Measures Terminology Assessment: A process that integrates test information
with information from other sources in decision making Evaluation: The process of placing judgment on a behavior, product, or process in order to determine the significance, worth or condition of, by careful appraisal and study. Test or Measure: An evaluative device or procedure in which a sample of behavior is obtained, evaluated, and scored using a standardized process. Terminology (cont.) Psychometrics The psychological techniques of mental measurement. Literally means to measure the mind.
Measurement Reliability & Validity Good measures yield reliable scores from which we can draw valid conclusions. Measurement Reliability refers to the amount of error in a score. Error refers to the extraneous factors that effect students performance on a test. If we were to test the same student with the same test multiple times, how much would the scores differ? Measurement Validity refers to the accuracy
Terminology (cont.) Evaluation: Formative vs. Summative Measures Formative measures are used to monitor students or clients progress during instruction or therapy. Summative measures are designed to evaluate students or clients performance at the end of instruction or therapy. Referencing: Criterion- vs. NormReferenced Measures Criterion-referenced measures compare outcomes to a standard.
Types of Measures Common Types: Measures of Optimal Performance Examples include intelligence, aptitude, and achievement. Intelligence tests (or tests of intellectual ability) typically measure performance on various verbal and non-verbal tasks. These measures must be administered by a qualified professional in the field of
psychology. Examples: WPPSI-R: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (ages 3-7) ; WISC-III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Types of Measures (cont.) Common Types: Measures of Optimal Performance Examples include intelligence, aptitude, and achievement. An aptitude is an ability that is necessary or facilitative for a particular purpose.
Aptitude tests are typically used to predict performance in a particular area. Provides some information about students aptitude at a particular time. No measure of aptitude is a perfect predictor for future performance: Intelligence and aptitude are NOT fixed! Examples: SAT, ACT, GRE, MCAT, LSAT, Differential Aptitude Test, Academic Aptitude Tests, Allied Types of Measures (cont.) Common Types: Measures of Optimal Performance
Examples include intelligence, aptitude, achievement. Achievement tests measure what students have learned in relation to a relatively defined educational experience. The majority of achievement tests are locally constructed and administered, but many standardized tests are available. Types of Measures (cont.) Common Types: Measures of Optimal Performance
Examples include intelligence, aptitude, achievement. Special forms of achievement tests include diagnostic tests and performance assessments. Diagnostic tests are used to identify strengths and weaknesses in relation to a particular subject. Typically include more narrow range of concepts and are criterion referenced. Performance assessments are used to directly assess performance on tasks that have intrinsic value. These tasks are designed to reflect authentic, complex, intrinsic activities.
Examples: NC EOG/EOC Tests, California Achievement Test, Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Metropolitan Types of Measures (cont.) Common Types: Measures of Typical Performance Typical performance measures include those designed to assess personality traits such as attitudes, interests, and dispositions. These measures are also classified as affective measures. These measures typically include self-report types of instruments and do not require individuals to perform. Instead they ask
individuals to report their thoughts, attitudes, feelings, behaviors, and traits. Examples include: MMPI, MBTI, SDS, SII, Index of Learning Styles, Study Habits Inventory, Belief in Just World Scale, Locus of Control, Vocational Interest Inventory, Quality of School Life Scale, Parent Perception Sample Web Resources 1) NC EOG and EOC Tests http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing 2) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality InventoryAdolescent http://www.pearsonassessments.com/tests/mmpia.htm 3) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/intelligenceWAISWISC.html
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