PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS AND THE LEGACY OF SIR SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR Society for Advancement of Chemical Sciences and Education Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam February 21, 2013 DR. S. SIVARAM, CSIR BHATNAGAR FELLOW A 201, Polymers & Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune-411 008, INDIA Tel : 0091 20 2589 2614 Fax : 0091 20 2589 2615 Email : [email protected] SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR: A BRIDGE BETWEEN CULTURE AND ERAS Confluence of excellence in science, arts, languages, poetry and literature Bridge between colonialism and nationalism Bridge between scientists,

scientific peers and political leadership LIFE AND TIMES OF SIR SS BHATNAGAR 1894 :Born in Lahore on 21 February to Parameshwari Sahai; father dies when the child is eight months old; raised by maternal grandfather, Munshi Pyarelal 1911 : Publishes the first scientific work as a letters to the editor of The Leader on how to make carbon electrodes for batteries using molasses and carbonaceous matter under heat and pressure. 1913: Joins Forman Christian College 1915: Fails in chemistry because he wrote that X Rays can be reflected, refracted and polarized just as ordinary light , something the text book of the day did not mention ! 1915 : Marries Lajwanti, his wife for 31 years 1916: Graduates with B.Sc in Physics ! 1919: Obtains a M.Sc in Chemistry as a private student while working as a demonstrator in Dyal Singh College LIFE AND TIMES OF SIR SS BHATNAGAR 1921: D.Sc from the University of London working with Professor Donnan, FRS on a scholarship awarded by Dyal Singh Trust and

DSIR, UK; the title of his thesis is solubility of bi- and trivalent salts of higher fatty acids in oils and their effect on surface tension of oils Thesis defense committee chaired by Sir William Bragg His contemporaries in the department : J. C. Ghosh, J. N. Mukherjee and Megnad Saha 1921 : joins Benaras Hindu University as a Professor at the invitation of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya ; pens the University Song for BHU 1924: Moves to University Chemical Laboratory, Lahore as Director 1940: Director, Scientific and Industrial Research, Calcutta 1941: Knighted by the British Crown LIFE AND TIMES OF SIR SS BHATNAGAR

1942: Director, The Autonomous Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), New Delhi 1943 : Elected Fellow of the Royal Society 1946: Sets up the Atomic Research Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr Homi Bhabha 1946-47 : Lays the foundation for the first of the five National Laboratories, namely, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Calcutta, Central Fuel Research Station, Dhanbad, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, National Physical Laboratory, Delhi and National Chemical Laboratory, Poona 1948 : Secretary, Ministry of Education 1951 : Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources 1952: Secretary, Atomic Energy Commission LIFE AND TIMES OF SIR SS BHATNAGAR

1952 : Chairman , University Grants Commission 1953-55 : Establishes National Research and Development Corporation and Indian Rare Earths Limited as public sector companies; creation of co-operative research institutions ( Indian Jute Manufacturers Research Association, Calcutta, Indian Rubber Manufacturers Research Association, Bombay and Textile Research Association, Bombay); negotiated with global oil companies to set up petroleum refineries in India 1954 : Conferred Padma Vibhushan 1955 : January 1 passes away in harness I have always been associated with many prominent figures eminent in other ways, but Dr. Bhatnagar was a special combination of many things, added to which was a tremendous energy with an enthusiasm to achieve things. The result was he left a record of achievement which was truly remarkable. I can truly say that but for Dr. Bhatnagar you could not have seen today the chain of national laboratories. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, 3 January 1955 PERSONAL EVOLUTION OF SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR University Professor and

Teacher : 1921- 35 Practitioner of Applied Industrial Chemistry: 1936-45 Science Administrator and Institution Builder: 1945-55 BHATNAGARS CONTRIBUTIONS TO FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE Physical chemistry of emulsions: The first to define the effect of electrolytes on the stability of colloidal solutions; enunciated simple rules govening colloid stability. His hypothesis that all emulsifying agent with an excess of negative ions will yield water in oil emulsions and emulsifying agents with an excess of positive ions will result in water in oil emulsions is widely used even today ! Magneto chemistry : Used magnetic suceptability measurements to explore properties of organic compounds, solutions, films and colloids. Established the structure of oxide film on the surface of copper produced by oxidation. He proved the existence of ionic miscelles by the study of

magnetic rotations of solutions of salts of higher fatty acids in water and alcohols. Wrote a definitive text which was widely acclaimed titledPhysical Principles and Applications of Magneto Chemistry published by MacMillan and Co Ltd in 1935 Access to Dr Bhatnagars list of scientific papers : Repository of Publications of Fellows, The Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore and Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, UK by T.R.Seshadri On turning over the pages of Nature my eyes chanced upon an advertisement of Macmillans in which I find your book at last advertised. That the book is of a high standard is indicated by the most excellent review in Current Science by Professor Stoner, who is competent to judge. As far as I know Meghnads is the only text book in physical sciences which has been adopted by foreign universities; and it gladdens my heart that another work in physical science is likely to occupy a similar place. My days are practically numbered; and my great consolation is that you, in chemistry, are raising the reputation, abroad,

of Indian workers". Acharya P.C.Ray, on Bhatnagars book Physical Principles and Applications of Magneto Chemistry, 1935 FORAYS INTO INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH It was in 1933 that Dr Bhatnagar demonstrated that the very first requirement of an industrial chemist is a very thorough grasp of the fundamentals. The Attock Oil Company of Lahore was faced with a problem, of the coagulation of muds in their drilling operations when they encountered salt deposits. Upon discussion with the Companys chemists, Dr Bhatnagar insisted that it was a simple problem in colloid chemistry. He suggested that a method for protecting the colloid that made up the drilling mud so that salt could not coagulate the clay. P. Carter Speers, J. Scientific and Industrial Research, April 1943 As a compensation for his services, the company ( Steel Brothers, UK) offered Dr Bhatnagar a sum of Rs 1,50,000 for research work on any subject related to petroleum. Dr Bhatnagar, In turn, turned the money over to the University for the establishment of six research scholarships. This sum was later enhanced to Rs Four Lakhs

You have hereby raised the status of the university teachers in the estimation of public, not to speak of the benefit conferred on your Alma Mater. India does not lack in men earning in millions; but if a few of these millionaires were guided by the fine example of a comparatively poor teacher like yourself her scientific and social progress would have been more rapid. Professor Megnad Saha, 1934 AN EYE FOR THE DETAIL : THE IP CLAUSE The patents issued will be jointly in the name of Steel Brothers and Company Limited and Professor Bhatnagar and, or his chemists and any profits would be shared equally between the company on the one hand and the partied concerned on the other Agreement between Steel Brothers, Dr Bhatnagar and the

University Twenty nine patents issued to Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar and assigned to CSIR between 1941 and 1959 EXAMPLES OF APPLIED SCIENCE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF DR BHATNAGAR

A varnish to make gas masks impervious to gases A special lubricating oil for bronze bearings A petroleum derived preservative for wood A method for purifying sulfur Making fuels and lubricating oil from vegetable oils Jute and Shellac derived containers for storng hydrocarbons Resins from bagasse and jute Enamels and lacquers from Bhilawan nut A stove, the size of a matchbox which gives off intense heat using a solid fuel Cotton cloth with a heat insulating property of wool Rendering textile fabrics non flammable and water resistant Our troops have greatly been aided by the invention of unbreakable containers in which even liquids can be dropped from airplanes on hard ground without being shattered. These inventions are the work of Professor S.S.Bhatnagar of BSIR. New Republic of USA, 18 September 1943 14 PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE Rigorous research in pure science is the only

possible basis for applied science in the cause of industry. Any attempt to avoid pure chemistry and begin with applied chemistry is like erecting a fortress on a foundation of sand. Lecture, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Indian Chemical Society, Calcutta, 1941 PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY Since my association with industry and some of the rapidly advancing departments of Industrial Chemistry in India, I have come in contact with large number of non descript men of our profession for whom I have acquired a great admiration and respect. I remember the days when we used to consider greasy, fatty, oily, cement, leather, textile, coal tar, paint and varnish chemists as something far removed from the realm of real chemistry, to be looked down upon by Pundits of Chemistry, who arrogated to themselves the self styled title of pure chemists, almost implying that all others not of this kind are impure. In this age even the pure chemist must soil his hands, although the spoils of academic reputation may be the privilege of the pure scientist Lecture at Indian Chemical Society, Calcutta,1941

THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH Scientific and industrial research thrives best when it is applied to material benefits of human kind and to existing industries and agricultural enterprises A VISION FOR THE FUTURE There are hardly any new lands which Indian can hope to exploit. The only new lands on which we may have our eyes must lie in the domain of mind and have to be created in the research laboratory. It is on these sources which will emerge from the national laboratories that we may have to depend now and in the future for the means to maintain and raise our standard of living and to keep abreast amongst the best nations of the world. S.S. Bhatnagar 6th April 1947 THE BIRTH OF AN IDEA

It was as early as September 1941 that I submitted my proposals to the Government of India regarding the desirability of establishing in India a National Chemical Laboratory. The proposal was finally accepted by the Government of India and the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research under the Chairmanship of Sir A. Ramaswamy Mudaliar in their tenth meeting held in July 1943 and proceeded to appoint a Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar planning committee for the National Chemical Laboratory It is science alone. that can solve the problem of hunger and poverty.. of vast resources running to waste, of a rich country inhabited by starving people Jawaharlal Nehru

There is talent in our country. But the question is how to tap that talent and give opportunities to the young men and women of India, who had the requisite ability. I hope that so far as these laboratories are concerned they would help to some extent at least in opening the doors to a large numbers of young men and women and give them opportunity to do good work for the country in the cause of science and in application of science for the public good Jawaharlal Nehru, January 3, 1950 20 A DREAM FOR INDIA When in 1941 I was asked by the Viceroy to take up the Directorship of the Board, I was convinced that I must leave the university for a larger field to help in building Indias scientific research, training her young scientists and inspiring her young men to take up research as a career. In that hour when I decided to take up the office, I dreamt of a chain of National Laboratories, of large teams of scientists working on the development of India and the creation of scientific outlook on

life amongst Indias masses. S.S. Bhatnagar, 1950 21 ORGANIZED SCIENCE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Summer of 1920 and 1921 : Visited leading laboratories in France and Germany; Influenced by the visit to Kaiser Wilhelm Institute ( laboratories of Fritz Haber ) and Walter Nernst at Berlin 1944-45 : Visited UK, US and Canada to study post war development of science and technology; Observed first hand events associated with the discovery of Penicillin, DDT, developments in metallurgy, aviation and communication technologies; visited great industrial laboratories of ICI, Shell, Vickers ( in UK) and Bell Labs, General Electric, DuPont, American Cyanamid, Eastman Kodak, and several Petroleum Companies (In US) in addition to visitng MIT, Caltech, Carnegie

Mellon University The tale of Tennessee Valley is the romance of a wandering and inconstant river tamed by human ingenuity, creating electrical energy which has been Americas Alladins Lamp. I dream of the Tennessee Valley that may happen to any river valley in India, from Damodar, to Ganges, to Sutlej and Narmada, if the people and the Government just give science a chance CSIR : TIME LINES IN HISTORY 1938 - At the behest of Dr Meghnad Saha, Subash Chandra Bose, the then President of the Indian National Congress creates a National Planning Committee for Scientific Research under the Chairmanship of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 1939 - Bureau of Scientific Research set up 1940 - Creation of the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) with a budgetary allocation of Rs 5.00 lakhs 1941- Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India invites Sir Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar to become the first Director of the Board 14 November 1941- A Resolution for the creation of CSIR prepared by the Commerce department and moved by Sir Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar passed in the Legislative Assembly 21 March 1942- BSIR reconstituted as the Council of Scientific and

Industrial research (CSIR); Registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act XXI, 1860 26 September 1942- CSIR is born as an Autonomous Body 23 CHARTER OF CSIR RESOLUTION DATED 14 NOVEMBER 1941 The promotion, guidance and coordination of scientific and industrial research in India including the institution and financing of specific researches; The establishment and award of research studentships and fellowships; The utilization of the results of the researches conducted under the auspices of the Council towards the development of industries and the payment of a share of royalties arising out of the development of the results of researchers to those who are considered as having contributed towards the pursuit of such researches; The establishment, maintenance and management of Laboratories to further scientific and industrial research and to utilize and exploit for purposes of experiment or otherwise any discovery or invention likely to be of use; The collection and dissemination of information in regard not only to

research but to industrial matters generally; Publication of scientific papers and a journal of industrial research and development 24 FUNCTIONS AND OBJECTIVES (From the address of Sir S.S. Bhatnagar) One of the most important functions of this Laboratory will be to bridge the serious gulf between scientific research and its industrial applications It will work out ways and means for the application of scientific knowledge to practical problems of human welfare NCL will stand or fall according to the quality of its scientific staff. It must achieve national and ultimately international

recognition The Laboratory will try to improve old processes in the light of new scientific knowledge and discover new processes In short, the National Chemical Laboratory will be a living and vital link with the universities, scientific institutes and industry Contd.. FUNCTIONS AND OBJECTIVES Another principal objectives of this Laboratory will be to undertake fundamental research to extend the frontiers of knowledge. Fundamental research has always had a stimulating influence upon research workers and has attracted to the laboratory men who worked for ideals and whose motto is it is better to have wisdom than gold

Sir S.S. Bhatnagar January 3, 1950 PURPOSE OF NCL (1945) Embrace all applications of chemistry with due attention to the advancement of the fundamental science To serve as a link between university, the state, the scientific institutions and industry To undertake fundamental research directed towards the acquisition of knowledge which is likely to help overall industrial development Applied and development work will be concerned with improvement of existing processes, efficient utilization of raw material resources and the discovery of new processes and products UNIVERSITIES AND NATIONAL LABORATORIES I would like to take this opportunity of dispelling any misconceptions and of reemphasizing that universities and national laboratories have complementary functions to perform. National Laboratories are not intended to supplant, but, to supplement the work of individual or collective

industrial concerns and universities in respect of research; generally speaking universities are concerned mainly with fundamental research while the activities of national laboratories lie essentially in the domain of applied research, though these laboratories are not precluded from taking up investigations of a fundamental character Convocation Address, M.S University of Baroda, 10 October 1953 A PRESCIENT CALL FOR PRESERVING THE AUTONOMY OF UNIVERSITIES I take this opportunity of drawing attention of those who love their country to see that our universities are kept as free as possible from narrow communalism and politics. Since politics has begun to play a part in the selection of Vice Chancellors, the university standards have tended to deteriorate. If these evils are not looked into, these institutions will cease to be real seats of learning and will turn into areas of political ambitions Presidential Address, Indian Science Congress, 1945

THE ANGUISH OF A HUMANIST These are the days of decision for India and if she is to take, as she must, her rightful and honoured place amongst nations of the world she will have to grow strong and great industrially.vast are the fields to conquer, plenty the harvest to reap. It is only the divisions among our people that are holding us back from a leaping march. Here science can intercede with its message of concordance in truth and unity in endevour. The realm of science is bound finally to establish itself. Convinced of the inevitable, we must sink our differences and march ahead in unity Speech at the Foundation Stone Laying Ceremony of NPL, New Delhi, 4 January 1947 ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF INDIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Global S&T leadership

IP generation and global competition Individual excellence 1930-50 Self reliance 1950-70 Technology denial 1970-90 1990-2010 2010-30

PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS : ARE THEY STILL RELEVANT ? Publicly funded R&D organizations have existed for over seventy years in India Many of them serve the strategic sectors of the economy, such as , defense, space, atomic energy, food and agriculture, public health etc where public funding of S&T is essential ( Public Goods and Services ) CSIR was originally created for the purpose of serving the non strategic sectors of the economy, namely, industry, consumers, making Indian products global competitive (Private Goods and Services) PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS : ARE THEY STILL RELEVANT ? industrial research in India is slowly, but steadily maturing. This is bound to alter the relationship of CSIR with industry. Drugs and Pharma as well as automotive industry are two examples where industry is well on its way to maturity in terms of new product development and R&D efficiency.

So where does CSIR position itself in the coming years? What aspects of research and development will be still relevant for CSIR ? A deep introspection is called for if CSIR has to remain within the folds of public funding PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS : ARE THEY STILL RELEVANT ? Several options are available to us CSIR can become a simple contract research organization for industry or a hand maiden for the strategic sector R&D, especially defence, space and atomic energy. There is no rationale for public funding to the former ; if we pursue the latter option CSIR will stand the risk of losing its identity The imperative for CSIR is to therefore search for a unique space for itself, based on its core strength, namely, outstanding human capital, innovation potentials, as a center for advanced education in S&T and outstanding infrastructure for research ( land, buildings and facilities) PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS : SOME QUESTIONS

What are our metrics for measurement of effectiveness ? Have we established a brand for ourselves ? Should CSIR be a sub-contractor for the strategic sector ? What component of our research should be market facing? How do we create wealth in the society through innovation ? BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCE Metaphor: Buckets of paint vs painting There is science and the applications of science : Louis Pasteur Fundamental Research Pasteur's Quadrant Bohr Pasteur Average Academic

and Industrial R&D Use Inspired Research Edison SCIENCE IN THE 21st CENTURY Blue skies vs Directed or Organized Science Small vs Big Science Individual vs Team Science Curiosity driven vs Grand Challenges or Utilitarian Science Open access vs Intellectual Property RESEARCH ENTERPRISE : COMPLEXITIES

Individual or solo research Collaborative research Mission driven research Research leading to IP Research leading to products and prototypes Research aimed at societal needs Teaching , mentoring and communication STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE Money University Government

(Liebig Model: Professor/Student/Problem/Thesis) Laws, Regulation Industry (Development, Manufacturing, Distribution/Sales) Students: Employment Professor : Consultant Knowledge, People Products/Solutions for Problems LIEBIGS MODEL Professors + Money + Knowledge + Scientists University +

Students Engineers Industry Money Industry + Government LEIBIG MODEL OF RESEARCH TRAINING Professor assigns a problem to a student The student solves the problem , gets his Ph D; the professor becomes famous The student goes on to become a professor and repeats the process all over again EXAMINE THE MODELS Is the Liebig Model obsolete? Is the current model of the university (a collection of

semi-isolated experts) still workable? Can curiosity-driven basic research survive? Should research be driven by large missions ? Should translational research be funded by the state or should be left to industry ? THE GREAT AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES J. R. COLE, PUBLIC AFFAIRS, NY 2009 Academia and industry : Fundamentally different goals and value systems Academic values: Universalism, organized skepticism, creation of new knowledge, free and open communication of ideas, disinterestedness, free inquiry and academic freedom, international communities, peer review systems, loose

governance, vitality to the community Basic leading to applied leading to development leading to production and markets : A linear model attributed to Vannevar Bush, Science - The Endless Frontier The Bayh Dole Act of 1980 changed the paradigm. University ownership of Intellectual property changed the rules of the game THE NON LINEAR PROCESS : SEAMLESS INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION Research : ideas, concepts, principles, techniques, theories (Discover) Translation : proof of concept, connecting solutions with needs, validation (Develop) Defining the customer and his needs (met or unmet) and cost performance targets, prototype or pilot plant development, customer acceptance, business plan, investment and economics (Demonstrate) Marketable Product (Deploy) CSIR-STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS : TOWARDS

EVOLUTION OF NEW MODELS The transactional model : Little or no stakeholder focus The relationship model : stakeholder satisfaction The partnership model : stakeholder success MODELS OF CO-OPERATION University R&D/Public R&D Institute/Private R&D Thesis dissertation Specific Research work Research support Technology Project report

Knowledge transfer Collaborative research Education programs Funds Contract research model Internship Equipment for labs Industry Technology

Technology transfer Royalty Fully Fullyowned owned subsidiary subsidiaryof of company or company or Division Divisionof of company company Co-Owned Industry-Academia Innovation

Commercial rent, ownership Centers Arms length Arms length relationship relationshipwith with the institution the institution Shorter-term Shorter-term arrangement arrangement JV JVbetween between companycompanyinstitution institution Section Section25

25 company company Governed by a Governed by a Board Boardof of Directors, Directors, Management Management Team Teamand and Scientific ScientificAdvisory Advisory Board Board Longer term Longer term

arrangement arrangement Entirely funded compan y of building on end of lease, Contracts Innovation Centre Land, Contractual deliverables Know-how Seed funding, project mode funding

compan y Reserves Know-how with first right of refusal & first right to invest in spin-outs Institutio n Concessional rent, greater involvement of institution, Contracts Innovation Centre Institutio

n Land, Contractual deliverables Project mode funding Other govt. agencies TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE A new term increasingly used in biology and medical science Develop, design, engineer and produce/ commercialize: This was the prerogative of industry With industry stepping back , Government through public funding is increasingly stepping in to fill the vacuum, especially in high risk R&D Success of translational efforts using public funds still not proven Government picking technology winners is best with great dangers and risks

MIND SET CHANGE : FROM RELAY RACE TO TANGO Technology Innovation: A simplistic model Problem/ Need Technology idea Key proofs of concept and do-ability Prototype/ demonstration stage Rights/ trials/ approvals Commercial production

Product in use Solutions toolkit Invention 80% of work, time, investment All the inventions that are remembered have successfully navigated this process! Innovation is 80 % perspiration, 20 % inspiration ! Technology Innovation: A simplistic model Problem/ Need Technology idea Key proofs of

concept and do-ability Prototype/ demonstration stage Rights/ trials/ approvals Commercial production Product in use Solutions toolkit Invention 80% of work, time, investment

Note: All the inventions that are remembered have successfully navigated this process! In reality, innovation is never so linear. But this is good enough construct for thinking through the process. TECH COMMERCIALIZATION THE JOURNEY Problem/ Need Technology idea/ opportunity Key proofs of concept and do-ability Prototype/ demonstration stage Rights/ trials/ approvals

Commercial production Product in use Solutions space Knowhow and patents taking shape Capability building Raising and managing finances/resources Ideation. Identifying/ defining the business opportunity Questioning, checking the value proposition, refining

Prototypes/ pilots - A step closer to the real thing Manufacturing Confirming the value proposition, testing with customers Marketing, sales, operations Testing business model Certifications, regulatory approvals R&D institutions Large companies Start-ups/ PPPs

TECH COMMERCIALIZATION THE ECOSYSTEM Problem/ Need Technology idea/ opportunity Key proofs of concept and do-ability Prototype/ demonstration stage Rights/ trials/ approvals Commercial production

Product in use Solutions space Research infrastructure Knowledge workers People who understand problems/ market needs Research funding CS, CA, legal, prof Complementing services technology Regulatory, Engineering/

People who can certification prototyping/ scale-up/ map knowledge to experts optimization experts problems/ needs Inventors Patent professionals Proof of concept funding Entrepreneurs and mentors Grant support for technology risk Risk finance and venture investors Incubator facilities Scale-up/ validation/

tech de-risking seed funding Suppliers Bus Dev/ applications dev experts Quality control, QA experts Managers Larger space to grow into Market entry/ business model de-risking/ early stage venture funding Growth/ expansion funding INNOVATION ECOSYSTEM

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT & TRANSFER: NEW EQUATIONS Problem/ Need Technology idea Key proofs of concept and do-ability Prototype/ demonstration stage Rights/ trials/ approvals Commercial production Product in use

Solutions toolkit CSIR : Then and Now Before Now First Solutions/toolkit, then Problems/Need Increasing focus on Problem/Need We built competencies; Others came with problems Build competencies + Seek problems in parallel Processes Processes + Products Small but important parts of large, multi-faceted

technology Stand-alone technologies; Less need for complementary technologies / investments INDUSTRY ACADEMIA LINKAGE: INDIAN SCENE Weak and rare Socio cultural as well as economic reason The competitive advantage of companies in India not dependent on technological innovations but on process innovations Few large companies with traditions of research The western world moved from agrarian to industrial and then on to service based enterprises over two hundred years. The work force had the time to accept and manage the change through skill upgradation and education The industrial revolution laid the foundation of industrial R&D; Large corporate research facilities became the visible symbols of successful enterprises. They hired large number of highly educated professionals and provided them an ambience to create and innovate.

WILL INDIA MISS A FULL BLOWN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? Agrarian Industrial Knowledge Revolution Revolution Revolution Industry Academia Relationship

The Fall of Berlin Wall : Cataclysmic Event; several things changed The demise of Corporate R&D; Corporate R&D were large and diverse with a balance of curiosity and market driven programmes . Industry had great execution and process skills .It attracted the best of talent ; Flory, Rochow, Carrothers, Langmuir, Hay. Post nineties, R&D restructured as part of SBU, funded by business; leadership transitioned from professional R&D managers who had cut their teeth in S&T to professional managers; decline in discretionary corporate funding Other reasons for the demise of Corporate R&D: Rapid technology diffusion, difficulties in maintaining the proprietary status, patent muddles, cost inefficiency, long lead time in development, bureuacratic decision making, greater shareholder activism and impatience for results, Corporate leadership under pressure to perform, time needed to recover investments in R&D became short. Increasing input cost, product liability issues, sustainability issues Breakup of large corporations: M&A, disappeartence of companies: ICI, Hoechst, Monsanto Research expenses became a cost ; cost reduction led to outsourcing with respectable names, C&D, Reverse Innovation,

Open Innovation : G. Chesborough Academic Labs as Innovation hubs University-Industry CoE University Start ups : High science leading to industry; Nocera, Whitesides, Grubbs, Coates, Graetzel, Friend INDUSTRY ACADEMIA LINKAGE: INDIAN SCENE However, in India we missed the beneficial aspects of the manufacturing revolution. India began to industrialize in the early fifties, but before this process reached maturity, India migrated to a service economy R&D in industrial enterprises never became institutionalized. There was no established innovation processes in majority of the Indian companies, barring a few honorable exceptions. Service industry does not require process or product innovations, but only innovations in delivery and cost management. INDUSTRY ACADEMIA LINKAGE: INDIAN SCENE

In India, even R&D began to assume a service model, largely due to the cost arbitrage. A large proportion of R&D that is conducted in India by companies are for customers outside India, both by global MNCs and by Indian companies, especially in the pharma sector. The outsourced R&D model never gave Indian organizations an opportunity to take a concept to the market, completing the full innovation chain. Instead they were only deployed to do those things where they had some competence NATURE OF RESEARCH Universities PI driven fundamental research Problems tend to be narrowly defined Education is the primary goal Teaching and

mentoring is a core activity of faculty Public funded Research Industry Team driven multidisciplinary research Team driven multidisciplinary research Problems need to be Objectives business large and difficult driven Larger degree of Focus short and application focus medium term Long term needs of industry and society Education is an associate goal

Purpose of a University Teach to educate Perform research to train Exploit Knowledge for public good - License IP - Create new enterprises (spin off companies) Universities are good at discovery and creation of new knowledge; they have poor skills in exploitation Science : Is it for - Pleasure ? - Profit ?, or - Pleasure and Profit ? Does it benefit anybody ? Is it worth the money spent on it ?

Is it directed at the right objectives ? Is there too much or too little? Is it too pure or applied ? What are the rewards of research ? As the world attains prosperity, science is taken for granted and is increasingly being questioned Issues in exploitation of academic research Public pays twice for the same invention; taxes support university research that yields the invention and the high monopoly prices charged by the provider when the invention reaches the market Bayh- Dole Act in USA led to more IP licensing than spin offs Academic departments must avoid redirecting research purely for

commercial outcomes; commercial opportunities should be considered as welcome by products One extreme view is that academic research and commercial considerations of results do not mix Commercial considerations of research do create conflict in academia between the need to disseminate knowledge and limit access to knowledge PARTNERSHIP IS ESSENTIAL FOR S&T TO REACH THE STAKEHOLDERS Industry or organized enterprise (public private partnership S&T derived knowledge Publicly funded R&D

Governmental or non governmental Organizations (public public Partnerships) Society The S Curve and Innovation Opportunity : Low Market threat : High Innovation threat : Low Technology growth Opportunity : High Market threat : Low Innovation threat : High Time

Health, nutrition and well being Environment Safety and Security Information and communication Transport and Mobility Built Habitats Energy and water PUBLICLY FUNDED RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS FOR EXCELLENCE (JANELIA FARM) Put world class researchers in an environment that makes it easy to interact across disciplines Cultivation of a collaborative culture; Individual vs team science Pursue big science : High risk and high payoff, long term research, grand scientific challenges All institutions must eventually pass the deletion test;

removing an institution from the future scientific landscape should reveal its vital importance Attributes for excellence : Small research groups facilitates communication and mentoring ( max six persons); Group leaders are active scientists, not administrators or fund raisers; research funded from within, no need to chase grants; part of a community focused on a small group of problems Janelia Farm : Biologiocal Imaging, Neural Circuits LINKING KNOWLEDGE TO MARKETS KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE EARLY EARLYSTATE STATE EXPLORATORY/ EXPLORATORY/ DISCOVERY DISCOVERY




focus: Strategic lead selection Science Knowledge Gain focus: Knowledge supply chain Innovation Technology Money Gain Focus: Ability to create wealth from knowledge with business sense CSIR FOR S&T SYSTEM OF INDIA Crossing Intellectual Barriers

This needs to be based on best global bench marks Serving National Agenda This needs to be related to the National Agenda for a period Innovating for Industrial Competitiveness This is a need of the time in global knowledge economies Redressing National Shortfalls This makes an organization socially relevant 1 2 ke t bo ut

m ar e ol v ev N o cl ue a m ay ar ke t 3

4 Potato chips Knowledge exists, Technology exists A Knowledge exists, Technology needs to be developed B Knowledge exists, No clue about Technology C

RI S D Pure water Low Cost at 50p/lit Solar cell Problem exists, Knowledge needs to be developed M M Ex ark i st e t s de m an d

M ar ke t Ex ist s PRE COMPETITIVE POSITIONING OF CSIR'S KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE Pringles Chips CSIR needs to operate increasingly in the lower half of this knowledge market matrix

Development of Predictive Medicine K Designed microbes as Industrial worker Eg .Creating H2 Fuel eg. CO2 + H2O > Glucose& Sucrose THANK THANK YOU YOU Has the ideas machine broken down? The idea that innovation and new technology have stopped driving growth is getting increasing attention. But it is not well founded BOOM times are back in Silicon Valley. Office parks along Highway 101 are once again adorned with the insignia of hopeful start-ups. Rents are soaring, as is the demand for fancy vacation homes in resort towns like Lake Tahoe, a sign of fortunes being amassed. The Bay Area was the birthplace of the semiconductor industry and the computer and internet

companies that have grown up in its wake. Its wizards provided many of the marvels that make the world feel futuristic, from touch-screen phones to the instantaneous searching of great libraries to the power to pilot a drone thousands of miles away. The revival in its business activity since 2010 suggests progress is motoring on. R&D INSTITUTIONS AND NATIONAL INVESTMENT ON R&D ACTIVITIES (DSIR, 2007) R&D Institutes Number of institutions Percentage of national investment on R&D (2003-04) Central government R&D institutions 707

62.6 Public sector institutions 115 4.5 State government institutions 834 8.5 Universities and institutions of National importance 284

4.1 Private sector institutions 2020 20.3 Total 3960 100

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