Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf Background Background Information 30,000 lines

Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf Background Background Information  30,000 lines

Anglo-Saxon and Beowulf Background Background Information 30,000 lines of Anglo-Saxon poetry survive today 3, 182 (10%) of the lines are from Beowulf

Setting - Denmark and Sweden Author - Unknown, probably a monk Composed in the 7th or 8th century Oldest surviving English poem Anglo-Saxon Culture

Belief in fate (Wyrd) Accumulated treasures amount to success Fame and fortune zealously sought after Loyalty to ones leader crucial Importance of pagan, Germanic, and Christian ideals to people whose lives were

often hard and uncertain Anglo-Saxon Culture Fierce, hardy life of warrior and seamen Strength, courage, leadership abilities appreciated Boisterous yet elaborately ritualized customs of the

mead-hall Expected the hero to boast Anglo-Saxon Ideals Codes of Conduct Good defeats evil Wergild--restitution for murder or expect revenge from victims relatives Boasts must be backed with actions.

Fate is in control Fair fights are the only honorable fights Epic Poem Long narrative poem that recounts the adventures of a hero. Elevated language Does not sermonize Invokes a muse

Begins in media res Mysterious origin, super powers, vulnerability, rite of passage The Epic Hero Actions consist of responses to catastrophic situations in which the supernatural often intervenes. Code of conduct forces him to challenge any threat

to society Destiny discovered through a series of episodes punctuated by violent incidents interspersed with idyllic descriptions. Elements of Anglo-Saxon Poetry Chant-like effect of the four-beat line Alliteration (Then the grim man in green gathers his strength)

Caesura-pause or break in a line of poetry ( Oft to the wanderer weary of exile) Kenning-metaphorical phrase used instead of a name (battle-blade and ring-giver) Epithet-description name to characterize something (keen-edge sword) Hyperbole-exaggeration

Title of Epic Poem Anglo-Saxon word Beo means bright or noble Anglo-Saxon word wulf means wolf Beowulf means bright or noble wolf

Other sources say Beo means bear How we date Beowulf Some Important Dates: 521 A.D. death of Hygelac, who is mentioned in the poem 680 A.D. appearance of alliterative verse 835 A.D. the Danish started raiding other

areas; after this, few poets would consider them heroes SO: This version was likely composed between 680 and 835, though it may be set earlier The Poetry in Beowulf 1. Alliterative verse a. Repetition of initial sounds of words (occurs in every line)

b. Generally, four feet/beats per line c. A caesura, or pause, between beats two and four d. No rhyme The Poetry in Beowulf 2. Kennings a. Compound metaphor (usually two words) b. Most were probably used over and over

For instance: hronade literally means whaleroad, but can be translated as sea More Kennings Other kennings from Beowulf: bone-house = body gold-friend of men = generous prince ring-giver = lord

flashing light = sword Setting: Beowulfs time and place Europe today Insert: Time of Beowulf Some terms youll want to

know scop A bard or story-teller. The scop was responsible for praising deeds of past heroes, for recording history, and for providing entertainment

Terms: Thane and Mead-Hall thane A warrior mead-hall The large hall where the lord and his warriors slept, ate, held ceremonies, etc.

Term: Wyrd wyrd Fate. This idea crops up a lot in the poem, while at the same time there are Christian references to Gods will.

Main Characters Beowulf Epic hero Geat (from southern Sweden) Nephew of Higlac (King at storys start) Sails to Denmark to

help Hrothgar Hrothgar Danish king Builds Herot (banquet hall) for men Tormented by Grendel for 12 years Loses many men to

Grendel Joyless before Beowulf s arrival Grendel Referred to as demon and fiend Haunts the moors (swampy land)

Descendant of Cain Feasts on 30 men the night of 1st attack Grendels Mother Referred to as shewolf Lives under a lake Challenges Hrothgar when she kills one of

his best men Fire Dragon Lives in Beowulfs kingdom Wakes up when thief steals cup Guards countless treasures

Works Cited Intro to Beowulf

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